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Hispanic and Latino Americans From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding reliable references. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (February 2009) Hispanic and Latino Americans Estadounidenses hispanos y latinos César Chávez • Zoe Saldana • Gloria Estefan • Franklin Chang-Diaz • Robert Rodriguez • Cameron Diaz Total population Hispanic and Latino Americans 45,427,437 15.1% of the U.S. population (2007) Regions with significant populations Predominantly Southwestern United States • Florida • Chicago • New York City • Washington, D.C. Languages Predominantly American English and Spanish Religion Predominantly Roman Catholicism; significantly Protestantism, other small minority religions Related ethnic groups Latin Americans, Spaniards, Afro-Latin American, Latin Europeans and others Hispanic and Latino Americans are Americans of origins in Hispanic countries of Latin America or in Spain, except in the state of New York, where only people of Latin American origin are included. The group encompasses distinct sub–groups by national origin and race, with ancestries from all continents represented. Hispanics and Latinos constitute 15.1% of the total 227's YouTube "Chili"-Jordan! United States population, or 45.4 million people, forming the second largest ethnic group (which includes Afro-Latin American Latino's of African descent), after non–Hispanic White Americans (which is also composed of dozens of sub–groups). Again, Hispanic and Latino Americans are the largest ethnic minority in the United States; African Americans, in turn, are the largest racial minority, after White Americans in general (non–Hispanic and Hispanic). Mexican Americans, Cuban Americans, Colombian Americans, Dominican Americans, Puerto Rican Americans, Spanish Americans, and Salvadoran Americans are some of the Hispanic and Latino American sub–groups. People of Hispanic or Latino heritage have lived continuously in the territory of the present–day United States since the 1565 founding of St. Augustine, Florida by the Spanish, the longest among European American ethnic groups and second–longest of all U.S. ethnic groups, after American Indians. Hispanics have also lived continuously in the Southwest since near the end of the 16th century, with settlements in New Mexico that began in 1598, and which were transferred to the area of El Paso, Texas in 1680. Spanish settlement of New Mexico resumed in 1692, and new ones were established in Arizona and California in the 18th century. The Hispanic presence can even be said to date from half a century earlier than St. Augustine, if San Juan, Puerto Rico is considered to be the oldest Spanish settlement, and the oldest city, in the U.S. For the U.S. government and others, Hispanic or Latino identity is voluntary, as in the United States Census, and in some market research. Contents [hide] 1 Terminology 2 History 3 Demographics 3.1 Race 3.2 Ethnicity 4 Notable personalities and contributions 4.1 Business 4.2 Fashion design 4.3 Government 4.4 Literature 4.5 Military 4.6 Performing arts 4.7 Science and technology 4.8 Sports 5 Socioeconomic circumstances 5.1 Education 5.2 Workforce and average income 5.3 Poverty 5.4 Hispanophobia 6 Political trends 6.1 2008 election 7 Culture 7.1 Media 7.2 Language 8 See also 9 Footnotes 10 External links  Terminology Part of a series of articles on Hispanic and Latino Americans Groups Argentine Americans Bolivian Americans Chilean Americans Colombian Americans Costa Rican Americans Cuban Americans Dominican Americans Ecuadorian Americans Guatemalan Americans Haitian Americans Honduran Americans Mexican Americans Nicaraguan Americans Panamanian Americans Paraguayan Americans Peruvian Americans Puerto Ricans (stateside) Salvadoran Americans Spanish Americans Uruguayan Americans Venezuelan Americans History History of Hispanic and Latino Americans History of Mexican-Americans Religions Christian Latinos · Santeria Latino Jews · Latino Muslims Political movements Hispanic and Latino American politics Chicano Movement Organizations National Hispanic Institute NALEO Congressional Hispanic Caucus LULAC · NALFO · SHPE National Council of La Raza Association of Hispanic Arts · MEChA · UFW Culture Hispanic culture Literature · Studies · Music Languages English · Spanish in the United States Spanish · Spanglish Lists Communities with Hispanic majority Puerto Rico-related topics Notable Hispanics Related topics Portals Latino and Hispanic Portal -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- This box: view • talk • edit Romance languages in the Americas: Green-Portuguese; Red-French; Blue-SpanishThe term Hispanic was first adopted in the United States by the administration of Richard Nixon, and has since been used in local and federal employment, mass media, academia, and business market research. It has been used in the U.S. Census since 1980. Due to the popular use of "Latino" in the western portion of the United States, the government adopted this term as well in 1997, and it was used in the 2000 census. The terms "Hispanic" and "Spanish" are not to be confused. The Spanish (or Spaniards) are the people who are native to or who have origins in Spain, located in mainland Europe. Previously, Hispanics were categorized as "Spanish-Americans," "Spanish-speaking Americans," and "Spanish-surnamed Americans". These terms, however, proved misleading or inaccurate, since: Although almost all Hispanics have Spanish ancestry, most Hispanics are not of direct (non-Latin American) Spanish descent; many are not primarily of Spanish descent; and some Hispanics are not of Spanish descent at all. For example, there are Hispanics of other European ancestries (e.g. Italian, German, Polish), as well as Middle Eastern (e.g. Lebanese), Black, Amerindian/Native American, Asian, and mixed race ancestries — of the latter, Mestizo (White and Indigenous/Native American) and Mulatto (White and Black) are the most common. On the other hand, descendants of Spaniards such as Hispanos and Islenos, both of whose American history extends back for centuries, identify solely with the United States rather than with Spain; Most U.S. Hispanics can speak Spanish, not all; and most Spanish-speaking people are Hispanic, not all (e.g., many U.S. Hispanics by the fourth generation no longer speak Spanish, while there are some non-Hispanics who are fluent in the language); Most Hispanics have a Spanish surname, not all (a notable example of someone who does not is New Mexico governor Bill Richardson), and most Spanish-surnamed people are Hispanic, not all. For example, there are many Filipino Americans, Chamorros (Guamanians and Northern Mariana Islanders), Palauans, Micronesians (FSM), and Marshallese with Spanish surnames in the United States who, however, have their own, non-Hispanic ethnic identities. Likewise, while a number of Louisiana Creole people have Spanish surnames, they identify with the mixed Francophone and Spanish culture of the region. The terms Hispanic and Latino are held to be mutually distinct by some authorities of American English, as seen in the following quotation: "Though often used interchangeably in American English, Hispanic and Latino are not identical terms, and in certain contexts the choice between them can be significant. Hispanic, from the Latin word for "Spain," has the broader reference, potentially encompassing all Spanish-speaking peoples in both hemispheres and emphasizing the common denominator of language among communities that sometimes have little else in common. Latino—which in Spanish means "Latin" but which as an English word is probably a shortening of the Spanish word latinoamericano—refers more exclusively to persons or communities of Latin American origin. Of the two, only Hispanic can be used in referring to Spain and its history and culture; a native of Spain residing in the United States is a Hispanic, not a Latino, and one cannot substitute Latino in the phrase the Hispanic influence on native Mexican cultures without garbling the meaning. In practice, however, this distinction is of little significance when referring to residents of the United States, most of whom are of Latin American origin and can theoretically be called by either word." Neither term refers to race, as a person of Latino or Hispanic descent can be of any race. As officially defined in the United States, Latino does not include Brazilian Americans, and specifically refers to "Spanish culture or origin," although some dictionary definitions may include them or Brazilians in general. Furthermore, Hispanic or Latino origin is, like race, a matter of self-identification in the U.S., and government and non-government questionnaires, including the census form, usually contain a blank entry space wherein respondents can indicate a Spanish/Hispanic/Latino origin other than the few (Mexican, Puerto Rican, and Cuban) which are specified; presumably, any Brazilian American wishing to do so can thus self-identify as being of Latino origin (as can anyone with no Latin American background). However, the government's population reports do not include Brazilian Americans with Hispanics and Latinos. Listed here are the 28 Hispanic or Latino categories displayed in Census 2000 tabulations: Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban, Dominican Republic; Central American: Costa Rican, Guatemalan, Honduran, Nicaraguan, Panamanian, Salvadoran, Other Central American; South American: Argentinian, Bolivian, Chilean, Colombian, Ecuadorian, Paraguayan, Peruvian, Uruguayan, Venezuelan, Other South American; Other Hispanic or Latino: Spaniard, Spanish, Spanish American, All other Hispanic.  History Main article: History of Hispanic and Latino Americans See also: Hispanic Heritage Sites (U.S. National Park Service) Flag of HispanicityA continuous Hispanic/Latino presence in the territory of the United States has existed since the 16th century, earlier than any other group after the Native Americans. Spaniards pioneered the present–day United States. The first confirmed European landing in the continental U.S. was by Juan Ponce de León, who landed in 1513 at a lush shore he christened La Florida. Within three decades of Ponce de León's landing, the Spanish became the first Europeans to reach the Appalachian Mountains, the Mississippi River, the Grand Canyon and the Great Plains. Spanish ships sailed along the East Coast, penetrating to present-day Bangor, Maine, and up the Pacific Coast as far as Oregon. From 1528 to 1536, four castaways from a Spanish expedition, including a "Moor", journeyed all the way from Florida to the Gulf of California, 267 years before the Lewis and Clark Expedition. In 1540 Hernando de Soto undertook an extensive exploration of the present U.S., and in the same year Francisco Vásquez de Coronado led 2,000 Spaniards and Mexican Indians across today's Arizona–Mexico border and traveled as far as central Kansas, close to the exact geographic center of what is now the continental United States. Other Spanish explorers of the US make up a long list that includes, among others: Lucas Vázquez de Ayllón, Pánfilo de Narváez, Sebastián Vizcaíno, Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo, Gaspar de Portolà, Pedro Menéndez de Avilés, Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca, Tristán de Luna y Arellano and Juan de Oñate. In all, Spaniards probed half of today's lower 48 states before the first English colonization attempt at Roanoke Island in 1585. Hispanics as a percentage of the US population (2000 Census Data)The Spanish created the first permanent European settlement in the continental United States, at St. Augustine, Florida, in 1565. Santa Fe, New Mexico also predates Jamestown, Virginia (founded in 1607) and Plymouth Colony (of Mayflower and Pilgrims fame; founded in 1620). Later came Spanish settlements in San Antonio, Texas, Tucson, Arizona, San Diego, California, Los Angeles, California and San Francisco, California, to name just a few. The Spanish even established a Jesuit mission in Virginia's Chesapeake Bay 37 years before the founding of Jamestown. Two iconic American stories have Spanish antecedents, too. Almost 80 years before John Smith's alleged rescue by Pocahontas, a man by the name of Juan Ortiz told of his remarkably similar rescue from execution by an Indian girl. Spaniards also held a thanksgiving — 56 years before the famous Pilgrims festival — when they feasted near St. Augustine with Florida Indians, probably on stewed pork and garbanzo beans. As late as 1783, at the end of the American Revolutionary War, Spain held claim to roughly half of today's continental United States; in 1775, Spanish ships even reached Alaska. From 1819 to 1848, the United States (through treaties, purchase, diplomacy, and the Mexican-American War) increased its area by roughly a third at Spanish and Mexican expense, acquiring three of today's four most populous states — California, Texas and Florida — and several smaller ones. Hispanics became the first American citizens in these new territories, and remained a majority in several Southwestern states until the 20th century. (See also Viceroyalty of New Spain.) Hispanic soldiers have fought in all the wars of the United States. See also List of Hispanic Medal of Honor recipients  Demographics See also: Demographics of the United States and Racial and ethnic demographics of the United States Population by state (2006) State Population Percentage of state population New Mexico 860,687 44.0 California 13,074,155 35.9 Texas 8,385,118 35.7 Arizona 1,803,377 29.2 Nevada 610,051 24.4 Florida 3,642,989 20.1 Colorado 934,410 19.7 New York 3,139,590 16.3 New Jersey 1,364,699 15.6 Illinois 1,888,439 14.7 As of July 1, 2007, Hispanics accounted for 15.1% of the national population, or around 45.4 million people. The Hispanic growth rate over the April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2007 period was 28.7% — about four times the rate of the nation's total population (at 7.2%). The growth rate from July 1, 2005 to July 1, 2006 alone was 3.4% — about three and a half times the rate of the nation's total population (at 1.0%). The projected Hispanic population of the United States for July 1, 2050 is 102.6 million people, or 24.4% of the nation’s total projected population on that date. Of the nation's total Hispanic or Latino population, 49% (21.5 million) lives in California or Texas. Not counting Puerto Rico — which is a territorial possession of the United States — New Mexico is the state with the highest ratio of Hispanics, where 44.7% is of Hispanic origin. Next are California and Texas, with 35.9% and 35.6%, respectively. The Hispanic population of Los Angeles County, California, numbering 4.7 million, is the largest of any county in the nation. It comprises 47 percent of Los Angeles County's ten million residents. As of 2000, the ten most populous places with Hispanic majorities were East Los Angeles (97% Hispanic), Laredo, Texas (94%), Brownsville, Texas (91%) Hialeah, Florida (90%), McAllen, Texas (80%), El Paso, Texas (77%), Santa Ana, California (76%), El Monte, California (72%) Oxnard, California (66%), and Miami (66%). Some 64% of the nation's Hispanic population are of Mexican origin (see table). Another 9% are of Puerto Rican origin, with about 3% each of Cuban, Salvadoran and Dominican origins. The remainder are of other Central American or South American origin, or of origin directly from Spain. About 7% are of unspecified national origins. Hispanics are almost uniformly Christian, with Catholicism dominating and an increasing Protestant community. Population by national origin (2007) Hispanic Group Population Percentage Mexican 29,189,334 64.3 Puerto Rican 4,114,701 9.1 Cuban 1,608,835 3.5 Salvadoran 1,473,482 3.2 Dominican 1,198,849 2.6 Guatemalan 859,815 1.9 Colombian 797,195 1.8 Honduran 527,154 1.2 Ecuadorian 523,108 1.2 Peruvian 470,519 1.0 Spaniard 353,008 0.8 Nicaraguan 306,438 0.7 Argentine 194,511 0.4 Venezuelan 174,976 0.4 Panamanian 138,203 0.3 Costa Rican 115,960 0.3 Chilean 111,461 0.2 Bolivian 82,434 0.2 Uruguayan 48,234 0.1 Paraguayan 20,432 0.03 Other Central American 111,513 0.2 Other South American 77,898 0.2 "Spanish"/"Hispanic"/"Latino" 2,880,536 6.3 Total 45,378,596 100 The overwhelming majority of Mexican Americans are concentrated in the Southwest, primarily in California, Texas, Arizona, Nevada, and New Mexico. The majority of the Hispanic population in the Southeast, concentrated in Florida, are of Cuban origin. The Hispanic population in the Northeast, concentrated in New York and New Jersey, is composed mostly of Puerto Ricans; however, the Dominican population has risen considerably since the mid–1990s. The remainder of Hispanics and Latinos, composed of various Central American and South American origins, may be found throughout the country, though South Americans tend to concentrate on the East Coast (joining Puerto Ricans, Dominicans, and Cubans) and Central Americans on the West Coast (joining Mexicans). There are few recent immigrants directly from Spain. In the 2000 Census, 299,948 Americans, of whom 83% were native–born, specifically reported their ancestry as Spaniard. In northern New Mexico and southern Colorado live peoples who trace their ancestry to Spanish settlers of the late 16th century through the 17th century. People from this background often self-identify as "Hispano", "Spanish", or "Hispanic". Many of these settlers also intermarried with local Amerindians, creating a mestizo population. Likewise, southern Louisiana is home to communities of people of Canary Islands descent, known as Isleños, in addition to other people of Spanish ancestry.  Race Hispanic or Latino origin is independent of race and is termed "ethnicity" by the United States Census Bureau. The racial categories are: American Indian and Alaska Native, White, Black or African American, Asian, Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander, Some other race, and Two or more races. The distinction made by government agencies for those within the population of each race category is between those with Hispanic or Latino origin, and all others of Non-Hispanic or Latino origin. A majority of Hispanic and Latino Americans are white, per both sets of government estimates: 54% are white per the American Community Survey, while the ratio rises to 92% in the Population Estimates Program, which are the official estimates. The much larger official figure is due to the absence of the Some other race category from these estimates, which instead reallocate that category among the five standard, minimum, single-race categories, mostly the white category. The complete 2007 Hispanic or Latino racial breakdown is as follows: White 92% (official) or 54% (ACS); Black or African American 3.8% (official) or 1.5% (ACS); American Indian and Alaska Native 1.4% (official) or 0.8% (ACS); Asian 0.6% (official) or 0.3% (ACS); Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander 0.3% (official) or 0.07% (ACS); Some other race 40% (ACS only; not an official race); Two or more races 0.6% (official) or 3.8% (ACS).  Ethnicity Hispanic or Latino origin is independent of race and is termed "ethnicity" by the United States Census Bureau. But, in fact Hispanics and Latinos are not all of the same Ethnic group. An ethnic group is a group of human beings whose members identify with each other, usually on a presumed or real common heritage. As stated above Hispanics and Latinos are not of the same races. Therefore for example a black Cuban, black Dominican or black Puerto Rican and a white Cuban, white Dominican or a white Puerto Rican are not of the same ethnic group. As a white Mexican and Amerindian Mexican are not of the same ethnic group. White Hispanic and Latino Americans are culturally different from Amerindian Hispanic and Latino Americans and Black Hispanic and Latino Americans. This is the same as in Anglo American countries where black or African Americans are not the same ethnicity as white Americans or in South Africa where black Africans are not the same ethnicity as white European Africans. This even though many people in these non-Spanish and non-Portuguese speaking countries share some of the same American or South African cultural characteristic as following the same religion, speaking the same language as a first language, eating the same foods and enjoying the same types of music. The only common heritage of Hispanics or Latinos are the following: having origins from non-English and non-French colonial America, speaking Spanish or Portuguese in some cases as a first language and having Spanish or Portuguese names. All Latin American countries do not share the same foods, music or religious backgrounds. As some have more African origin populations then others, more white populations than others, more Amerindian populations than others or more mixed raced populations than others. Mexica Movement is very clear to express the ethnic issue that have been caused by the US Census terming Hispanic and Latino an ethnic group. http://www.mexica-movement.org Race by Hispanic Origin (2000) Country of Origin White Black Some Other Race Mexican 47.3% 0.7 45.5 Puerto Rican 47.2% 5.9 37.9 Cuban 85.0% 3.6 7.1 Dominican 16.0% 11.0% 72%  Central American 40.4% 3.3 47.6 South American 59.6% 0.9 30.8 Other Hispanic 44.1% 2.0 42.2 Though comprising very small percentages of the overall Hispanic or Latino population, and even more so in comparison to the overall U.S. population, some of the preceding racial subgroups represent fairly large minorities among the respective racial groups. For instance, Hispanics or Latinos who are American Indian or Alaska Native compose 15% of all American Indians and Alaska Natives (per the ACS estimates). Meanwhile, the 120,000 Hispanics or Latinos who are of Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander race compose 22% of this entire race nationally (per the Population Estimates). Again, nearly a third of the overall 'Two or more race' population is Hispanic or Latino (ACS).  Notable personalities and contributions Hispanic and Latino Americans have made many distinguished contributions to the United States in all major fields, such as politics, the military, music, literature, sports, business and economy, and science. On September 17, 1968, President Lyndon B. Johnson designated a week in mid–September as National Hispanic Heritage Week. In 1988, President Ronald Reagan extended that week to a month–long observance. The National Hispanic Heritage Month is a time for Americans to educate themselves about the influence Hispanic culture has had on society.  Business See also: Hispanic 500 Hispanic and Latino standouts in business include Cuban immigrant Roberto Goizueta, who rose to head of The Coca-Cola Company. Arte Moreno became the first Hispanic to own a major sports team in the United States when he purchased the Anaheim Angels baseball club. The largest Hispanic-owned food company in the U.S. is Goya Foods, which position it attained under World War II hero Joseph A. Unanue, the son of the company's founders. Angel Ramos was the founder of Telemundo, Puerto Rico's first television station and now the second largest Spanish language television network in the United States. Samuel A. Ramirez, Sr. made Wall Street history by becoming the first Hispanic to launch a successful investment banking firm. This section requires expansion.  Fashion design Marisol DelunaIn the world of fashion, notable contributions have been made by many Hispanic and Latino designers including Oscar de la Renta, Marisol Deluna, Carolina Herrera, and Narciso Rodriguez among others. This section requires expansion.  Government Main article: List of Hispanic Americans in the United States Congress 80th Attorney General of the United States Alberto GonzalezHispanic Americans have held important positions at all levels of US government. Hispanics and Latinos in the Federal Cabinet include Ken Salazar, current Secretary of the Interior; Hilda Solis, current United States Secretary of Labor; Alberto Gonzales, former United States Attorney General; Carlos Gutierrez, Secretary of Commerce; Federico Peña, former Secretary of Energy; Lauro Cavazos, former Secretary of Education; Manuel Lujan, Jr., former Secretary of the Interior; and Bill Richardson, former Secretary of Energy and Ambassador to the United Nations. Governors include former governors Romualdo Pacheco, Bob Martinez, and current New Mexico governor Bill Richardson. Former senators are Octaviano Ambrosio Larrazolo, Dennis Chavez, Joseph Montoya, and Ken Salazar. Current senators are Mel Martinez and Bob Menendez. In the House of Representatives, Hispanic and Latino representatives have included Ladislas Lazaro, Antonio M. Fernández, Henry B. Gonzalez, Kika de la Garza, Herman Badillo, Romualdo Pacheco, and Manuel Lujan, Jr., out of almost two dozen former Representatives. Current Representatives include Ileana Ros-Lehtinen, Nydia Velázquez, Joe Baca, Silvestre Reyes, Rubén Hinojosa, Linda Sánchez, and John Salazar – in all, they number twenty-three. Numerous Hispanic or Latino mayors and local executives, and state and local legislators have held and currently hold office throughout the United States. The Congressional Hispanic Caucus (CHC), founded in December 1976, and the Congressional Hispanic Conference (CHC), founded on March 19, 2003, are two organizations that promote policy of importance to Americans of Hispanic descent. They are divided into the two major American political parties: The Congressional Hispanic Caucus is composed entirely of Democratic representatives, whereas the Congressional Hispanic Conference is composed entirely of Republican representatives.  Literature See also: Category:Hispanic American writers Among the distinguished Hispanic and Latino authors and their works may be noted Isabel Allende (The House of the Spirits and City of the Beasts), Sandra Cisneros (The House on Mango Street and Woman Hollering Creek and Other Stories), Junot Díaz (The Brief Wondrous Life of Oscar Wao), Alisa Valdes-Rodriguez (Haters), Tomas Rivera (...And the Earth did Not Devour Him), Oscar Hijuelos (The Mambo Kings Play Songs of Love), Richard Rodriguez (Hunger of Memory), Rudolfo Anaya (Bless Me, Ultima), Victor Villaseñor (Rain of Gold), and Ruben Salazar, journalist.  Military See also: List of Hispanic Medal of Honor recipients and Hispanic Americans in World War II Ret. U.S. Army Lieutenant General Ricardo SanchezHispanics and Latinos have participated in the military of the United States and in every major military conflict from the American Revolution onward. In some cases they have been the first to die, and as of date 43 have been awarded the nation's highest military distinction, the Medal of Honor, also known as the Congressional Medal of Honor. Hispanics and Latinos have not only distinguished themselves in the battlefields, but are also reaching the high echelons of the military, serving their country in sensitive leadership positions on domestic and foreign shores. Military recruitment is quite active in the nation's Hispanic communities. Tens of thousands of Latinos are deployed in the Iraq War, the Afghanistan War, and US military missions and bases elsewhere. The following is a list of notable Hispanics/Latinos in the military: Lieutenant Jorge Farragut Mesquida (1755 – 1817) participated in the American Revolution as a lieutenant in the South Carolina Navy. David Glasgow Farragut (1801 – 1870) of Spanish descent, American Civil War hero and the first person with the rank of Admiral in the United States Navy. Colonel Miguel E. Pino helped defeat the attempted invasion of New Mexico by the Confederate Army. Lieutenant General Pedro del Valle, the first Hispanic to reach the rank of Lieutenant General. He played an instrumental role in the seizure of Guadalcanal and Okinawa as Commanding General of the U.S. 1st Marine Division during World War II. PFC Guy Gabaldon, USMC captured over a thousand prisoners during the World War II Battle of Saipan. Captain Marion Frederic Ramirez de Arellano (1913–1980), the first Hispanic submarine commanding officer during World War II. Sergeant First Class Agustin Ramos Calero, the most decorated soldier in the European Theatre of World War II. First Lieutenant Oscar Francis Perdomo, of the 464th Fighter Squadron, 507th Fighter Group was the last "Ace in a Day" for the United States in World War II. Lieutenant General Elwood R. Quesada, (1904–1993) commanding general of the 9th Fighter Command, where he established advanced headquarters on the Normandy beachhead on D-Day plus one, and directed his planes in aerial cover and air support for the Allied invasion of the European continent during World War II. He was the foremost proponent of "the inherent flexibility of air power", a principle he helped prove during the war. Major General Terry de la Mesa Allen, Sr. (1888-1969) was the commanding general of the 1st Infantry Division in North Africa and Sicily during World War II, and was made commander of the 104th Infantry Division. He was the son of Colonel Samuel Edward Allen and Conchita Alvarez de la Mesa. First Lieutenant Baldomero Lopez is the only Hispanic graduate of the United States Naval Academy ("Annapolis") to be awarded the Medal of Honor. Admiral Horacio Rivero, Jr., second Hispanic four–star Admiral, was the commander of the American fleet sent by President John F. Kennedy to set up a quarantine (blockade) of the Soviet ships during the Cuban Missile Crisis. Brigadier General Angela Salinas made history when she became the first Hispanic female to obtain a general rank in the Marines. Brigadier General Joseph V. Medina, USMC made history by becoming the first Marine Corps officer to take command of a Naval flotilla. Vice Admiral Richard Carmona, M.D., Public Health Service Commissioned Corps. Carmona served as the 17th Surgeon General of the United States, under President George W. Bush. Captain Linda Garcia Cubero, United States Air Force became in 1990 the first Hispanic woman graduate of the United States Air Force, and of any military academy for that matter. Lieutenant General Ricardo Sanchez, Commanding General of Operation Iraqi Freedom (the Iraq War) in 2003. Major General Luis R. Esteves, U.S. Army. In 1915, Esteves became the first Hispanic to graduate from the United States Military Academy ("West Point"). Esteves also organized the Puerto Rican National Guard. Major General Salvador E. Felices, U.S. Air Force. In 1953, Felices flew in 19 combat missions over North Korea, during the Korean War. In 1957, he participated in "Operation Power-Flite", a historic project that was given to the Fifteenth Air Force by the Strategic Air Command headquarters. Operation Power-Flite was the first around the world flight by an all–jet aircraft.  Performing arts Hispanic American Music Jennifer Lopez and Marc AntonyThere are many Hispanic American musicians that have achieved international fame, such as Christina Aguilera, Jennifer Lopez, Joan Baez, Selena, Ricky Martin, Carlos Santana, Zack de la Rocha, Fergie, Gloria Estefan, Marc Anthony, Linda Ronstadt, Ritchie Valens, and Robert Trujillo. Hispanics and Latinos have also contributed prominent actors and others in the television and film industries, past and present, a few of whom includes director, producer, and cinematographer Robert Rodriguez and actors Anthony Quinn, Jessica Alba, Cameron Diaz, Martin Sheen, Salma Hayek, Rita Hayworth, Benicio Del Toro, Eva Mendes, Desi Arnaz, Zoe Saldana, George Lopez, Alexis Bledel, Edward James Olmos, Maria Montez, Erik Estrada, Eva Longoria Parker, Rosie Perez, Ricardo Montalban, Jimmy Smits, Raquel Welch, Marquita Rivera, Charlie Sheen, Rita Moreno, Frankie J, and Andy Garcia. Created in 1995, the American Latino Media Arts Award, or ALMA Award is a distinction given to Latino performers (actors, film and television directors, and musicians) by the National Council of La Raza. The most prestigious Latin music awards are the Latin Grammy Awards, launched in 2000. Billboard Magazine also honors these artists, with the Billboard Latin Music Awards. The latter's nominees and winners are a result of performance on Billboard's sales and radio charts, while the Latin Grammy Awards nominees and winners are selected by the Latin Academy of Recording Arts & Sciences (LARAS). In addition, the Latin Grammy Awards airs on Univision, while the Billboard Latin Music Awards airs on Telemundo; these are the two major Spanish–language television networks in the United States.  Science and technology Dr. Juan R. CruzAmong Hispanic Americans that have excelled in science we find Luis Walter Alvarez, Nobel Prize–winning physicist; his son Walter Alvarez, the geologist who first proposed the asteroid collision theory of dinosaur extinction; and Ellen Ochoa, pioneer of spacecraft technology and astronaut. Several other Latinos have made a name for themselves in aerospace: Juan R. Cruz, NASA aerospace engineer; France A. Córdova, former NASA chief scientist; Franklin Chang-Diaz holds two records for being the first Latin American (for NASA) and for most flights into space, and is the leading researcher on the plasma engine for rockets; Lieutenant Carlos I. Noriega is NASA mission specialist and computer scientist; Michael Lopez-Alegria, Sidney Gutierrez, George Zamka, Joseph Acaba, John Olivas, Jose Hernández, and Fernando Caldeiro are all current or former astronauts. See also: Society of Hispanic Professional Engineers  Sports Oscar de la HoyaMany Hispanic Americans have excelled in sports. The large number of Hispanic and Latino American stars in Major League Baseball includes players Manny Ramirez, Lefty Gomez, Ivan Rodriguez, Juan Marichal, Alex Rodriguez, Orlando Hernandez, David Ortiz, Roberto Clemente, and Rod Carew, and manager Al Lopez. Boxing champion Oscar De La Hoya; National Football League (NFL) player Anthony Muñoz; soccer player Tab Ramos; tennis legend Pancho Gonzales; golfers Chi Chi Rodríguez, Nancy Lopez, and Lee Trevino; and softball player Lisa Fernandez are all Hispanic or Latino Americans who have distinguished themselves in their respective fields of sport. In 1999 Scott Gomez became the first Hispanic player in the National Hockey League and won the NHL Rookie of the Year Award. In sports entertainment we find professional wrestler Rey Mysterio Jr.  Socioeconomic circumstances  Education The high school graduation rate is highest among Cuban Americans (68.7 percent) and lowest among Mexican Americans (48.7 percent). The Puerto Rican rate is 63.2 percent, Central and South American Americans' is 60.4 percent, and the Dominican American is 51.7 percent. According to the 2000 census, Cuban Americans and Central and South Americans had the highest college graduation rates, with 19.4 percent of Cuban Americans and 16 percent of Central and South Americans 25 years and older possessing a 4–year college degree. On the other hand, only 6.2 percent of Mexican Americans, 9.9 of Puerto Ricans and 10.9 of Dominican Americans had achieved a 4–year degree. In comparison non–Hispanic Asian Americans (43.3 percent) and non–Hispanic White Americans (26.1 percent) had higher rates than any Hispanic American group. Non–Hispanic Black Americans (14.4 percent) had a lower graduation rate than Cuban Americans and Central and South Americans, but had a higher rate than Mexican Americans, Puerto Ricans, and Dominican Americans. Cuban Americans have the highest attainment of graduate degrees among all Hispanic or Latino groups, with 6.7 percent. The Central and South American ratio is 4.2 percent. Both are lower than those of non–Hispanic Asian Americans (15.6 percent) and non–Hispanic White Americans (8.7 percent). Non–Hispanic Black Americans (4.1 percent) have a lower percentage of graduate–level degrees than most Hispanic or Latino groups. Of Hispanics and Latinos 25 years and older, only 3.1 percent of Puerto Ricans, 1.8 percent of Dominican Americans and 1.4 percent of Mexican Americans have attained a graduate–level degree.  Workforce and average income Personal and household income (US Census 2005) Percent of households with six figure incomes and individuals with incomes in the top 10%, exceeding $77,500.In 2002, the average individual income among Hispanic and Latino Americans was highest for Cuban Americans ($38,733), and lowest for Dominican Americans ($28,467) and Mexican Americans ($27,877). For Puerto Ricans it was $33,927, and $30,444 for Central and South Americans. In comparison, the income of the average Hispanic American is lower than the national average. Among Hispanics, Cuban Americans (28.5 percent) had the highest percentage in professional–managerial occupations. The percentage for Puerto Ricans was 20.7, Central and South Americans' was 16.8 percent, and Mexican Americans' was 13.2 percent. All these are lower than the average for non–Hispanics (36.2 percent).  Poverty According to the ACS, among Hispanic groups the poverty rate is highest among Dominican Americans (28.1 percent), Honduran Americans and Puerto Ricans (23.7 percent both), and Mexican Americans (23.6 percent). It is lowest among South Americans, such as Colombian Americans (10.6 percent) and Peruvian Americans (13.6 percent), and relatively low poverty rates are also found among Salvadoran Americans (15.0 percent) and Cuban Americans (15.2 percent). In comparison, the average poverty rates for non-Hispanic White Americans (8.8 percent) and Asian Americans (7.1 percent) were lower than those of any Hispanic group. African Americans (21.3 percent) have a higher poverty rate than most Hispanic or Latino groups.  Hispanophobia Main articles: Hispanophobia and Anti-Mexican sentiment Hispanophobia has existed in various degrees throughout U.S. history, based largely on ethnicity, race, culture, Anti-Catholicism, and use of the Spanish language. In 2006, Time Magazine reported that the number of hate groups in the United States increased by 33 percent since 2000, primarily due to anti-illegal immigrant and anti-Mexican sentiment. According to Federal Bureau of Investigation statistics, the number of anti–Latino hate crimes increased by 35 percent since 2003. In California, the state with the largest Latino population, the number of hate crimes against Latinos almost doubled.  Political trends Main article: Hispanic and Latino American politics Bill Richardson (center), as the chairman of the Congressional Hispanic Caucus, circa 1984.Hispanics and Latinos differ on their political views depending on their location and background, but the majority (57%) either identify themselves as or support the Democrats, and 23% identify themselves as Republicans. This 34 point gap as of December, 2007 was an increase from the gap of 21 points 16 months earlier. Cuban Americans and Colombian Americans tend to favor conservative political ideologies and support the Republicans, while Mexican Americans, Puerto Ricans, and Dominican Americans tend to favor liberal views and support the Democrats. However, because the latter groups are far more numerous – as, again, Mexican Americans alone are 64% of Hispanics and Latinos – the Democratic Party is considered to be in a far stronger position with the group overall. The Presidency of George W. Bush had a significant impact on the political leanings of Hispanics and Latinos. As a former Governor of Texas, Bush regarded this growing community as a potential source of growth for the conservative movement and the Republican Party, and he made some gains for the Republicans among the group. President Bill Clinton's Latino appointees in 1998In the 1996 presidential election, 72% of Hispanics and Latinos backed President Bill Clinton, but in 2000 the Democratic total fell to 62%, and went down again in 2004, with Democrat John Kerry winning Hispanics 58–40 against Bush. Hispanics in the West, especially in California, were much stronger for the Democratic Party than in Texas and Florida. California Latinos voted 63–32 for Kerry in 2004, and both Arizona and New Mexico Latinos by a smaller 56–43 margin; but Texas Latinos were split nearly evenly (50–49 for Kerry), and Florida Latinos (mostly being Cuban American) backed Bush, by a 54–45 margin. In the 2006 midterm election, however, due to the unpopularity of the Iraq War, the heated debate concerning illegal immigration, and Republican–related Congressional scandals, Hispanics and Latinos went as strongly Democratic as they have since the Clinton years. Exit polls showed the group voting for Democrats by a lopsided 69–30 margin, with Florida Latinos for the first time split evenly. The runoff election in Texas' 23rd congressional district was seen as a bellwether of Latino politics, and Democrat Ciro Rodriguez's unexpected (and unexpectedly decisive) defeat of Republican incumbent Henry Bonilla was seen as proof of a leftward lurch among Latino voters, as heavily Latino counties overwhelmingly backed Rodriguez, and heavily Anglo counties overwhelmingly backed Bonilla. Although during 2008 the economy and employment were top concerns for Hispanics and Latinos, immigration was "never far from their minds": almost 90% of Latinos rated immigration as "somewhat important" or "very important" in a poll taken after the election. Views on illegal immigration are not uniform among Hispanics and Latinos; for example, the "You Don't Speak for Me" group advocates greater border security and expulsion of all 12 million illegal immigrants. Nevertheless, there is "abundant evidence" that the heated Republican opposition to the Comprehensive Immigration Reform Act of 2007 has done significant damage to the party's appeal to Hispanics and Latinos in the years to come, especially in the swing states such as Florida, Nevada, and New Mexico. In a Gallup poll of 4,604 registered Hispanic voters taken in the final days of June 2008, only 18% of participants identified themselves as Republicans.  2008 election In the 2008 U.S. Presidential election, Hispanics and Latinos participated in larger numbers than before in the Democratic primary, with Hillary Clinton receiving most of the group's support. Pundits discussed whether a large percentage of Hispanics and Latinos would vote for an African American candidate, in this case Barack Obama, Clinton's opponent.. Hispanics/Latinos voted 2 to 1 for Hillary,in some cases as in Texas 66% for Hillary Clinton and 32% for Obama, even among the younger demographic traditionally leaning toward Obama. . Among Hispanics, 28% said race was involved in their decision, as opposed to 13% for whites . Obama defeated Clinton. In the matchup between Obama and Republican candidate John McCain for the presidency, Hispanics and Latinos supported Obama with 59% to McCain's 29% in the Gallup tracking poll as of June 30, 2008. This surprised some analysts, since a higher than expected percentage of Latinos and Hispanics favored Obama over McCain, who had supported the comprehensive immigration reform. However, McCain had retracted during the Republican primary, stating that he would not support the bill if it came up again. Some analysts believed that this move hurt his chances among Hispanics and Latinos. Obama took advantage of the situation by running ads aimed at the ethnic group, in Spanish, in which he mentioned McCain's about–face. In the general election, 67% of Hispanics and Latinos voted for Obama and 32% voted for McCain,[dead link] with a relatively stronger turnout than in previous elections in states such as Colorado, New Mexico, Nevada, and Virginia helping Obama carry those formerly Republican states. Obama won 70% of non–Cuban Hispanics and 35% of the traditionally Republican Cuban Americans that have a strong presence in Florida, while the changing state demographics towards a more non–Cuban Hispanic community also contributed to his carrying Florida's Latinos with 57% of the vote. Some political organizations associated with Hispanic and Latino Americans are LULAC, the United Farm Workers, the Cuban American National Foundation, and the National Institute for Latino Policy.  Culture Main articles: American culture and Hispanic culture See also: National Association of Latino Fraternal Organizations Las Damas Panamericanas, a Hispanic women's club in Los Angeles, 1948The geographic, political, social, economic, and racial other diversity of Hispanic and Latino Americans extends to culture, as well. Yet several features tend to unite Hispanics and Latinos from these diverse backgrounds.  Media Univision, The USA's largest Spanish–language television network Telemundo, The USA's second largest Spanish–language television networkThe United States is home to thousands of Spanish language media outlets, which range in size from giant commercial broadcasting networks and major magazines with circulations numbering in the millions, to low-power AM radio stations with listeners numbering in the hundreds. There are hundreds of Internet media outlets targeting U.S. Hispanic consumers, some of which are online versions of their printed counterparts and some online exclusively. Among the noteworthy Spanish–language media outlets are: Univision, the largest Spanish–language television network in the United States, with affiliates in nearly every major U.S. market, and numerous affiliates internationally; Telemundo, the second–largest Spanish-language television network in the United States, with affiliates in nearly every major U.S. market, and numerous affiliates internationally; La Opinión, a Spanish–language daily newspaper published in Los Angeles, California and distributed throughout the six counties of Southern California. It is the largest Spanish–language newspaper in the United States; El Nuevo Herald and Diario Las Americas, both Spanish–language daily newspapers serving the greater Miami, Florida market; HispanicBusiness, an English–language business magazine about Hispanics; Vida Latina, a Spanish–language entertainment magazine distributed throughout the Southern United States; ConSentido TV, a TV, radio, and newspaper network in North Texas. With respect to public television, otherwise known as non–commercial television, there are organizations that advocate a greater degree of programming from a Hispanic or Latino perspective. The National Hispanic Media Coalition (NHMC) has been a leader since its founding in 1986 in advocating for Latino inclusion in television, radio, and film. In 1999, together with numerous Latino civil rights organizations, the NHMC led a "brownout" of the national television networks after discovering that there were no Latinos in any of their new prime time shows that year. This resulted in the signing of historic diversity agreements with ABC, CBS, Fox, and NBC that have since increased the hiring of Hispanic and Latino talent and other staff in all of the networks. Also prominent in this area is Latino Public Broadcasting, which funds programs of educational and cultural significance to Hispanic Americans. These LPB–funded projects are distributed to various public television stations throughout the United States.  Language See also: Languages of the United States and Spanish in the United States With 40% of Hispanic and Latino Americans being immigrants, and with many of the 60% who are U.S.–born being the children or grandchildren of immigrants, bilingualism is the norm in the community at large: at least 69% of all Hispanic and Latino Americans over age five are bilingual in English and Spanish, whereas up to 22% are monolingual English–speakers, and 9% are monolingual Spanish–speakers; another 0.4% speak a language other than English and Spanish at home. In all, a full 90% of all Hispanic and Latino Americans speak English, and at least 78% of all Hispanic and Latino Americans speak Spanish. Spanish is the oldest European language in the United States, spoken uninterruptedly for four and a half centuries, since the foundation of St. Augustine. The usual pattern is monolingual Spanish use among new migrants or older foreign–born Hispanics, complete bilingualism among long–settled immigrants and the children of immigrants, and the sole use of English, or both English and either Spanglish or colloquial Spanish by the third generation and beyond.  See also Demographics of the United States Hispanidad Hispanic Australian Latin American Canadian Latin Americans in the United Kingdom  Footnotes ^ a b "B03002. Hispanic or Latino Origin by Race". 2007 American Community Survey. United States Census Bureau. http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/DTTable?_bm=y&-ds_name=ACS_2007_1YR_G00_&-CONTEXT=dt&-mt_name=ACS_2007_1YR_G2000_B03002&-redoLog=true&-geo_id=01000US&-format=&-_lang=en&-SubjectID=15233308. Retrieved on 2008-09-25. ^ "American FactFinder Help: Hispanic or Latino origin". United States Census Bureau. http://factfinder.census.gov/home/en/epss/glossary_h.html#hispanic_or_latino_origin. Retrieved on 2008-10-05. "For Census 2000, American Community Survey: People who identify with the terms "Hispanic" or "Latino" are those who classify themselves in one of the specific Hispanic or Latino categories listed on the Census 2000 or ACS questionnaire - "Mexican," "Puerto Rican," or "Cuban" - as well as those who indicate that they are "other Spanish, Hispanic, or Latino." Origin can be viewed as the heritage, nationality group, lineage, or country of birth of the person or the person's parents or ancestors before their arrival in the United States. People who identify their origin as Spanish, Hispanic, or Latino may be of any race. 1990 Census of Population and Housing: A self-designated classification for people whose origins are from Spain, the Spanish-speaking countries of Central or South America, the Caribbean, or those identifying themselves generally as Spanish, Spanish-American, etc. Origin can be viewed as ancestry, nationality, or country of birth of the person or person's parents or ancestors prior to their arrival in the United States." ^ "American FactFinder Help: Ethnic groups". United States Census Bureau. http://factfinder.census.gov/home/en/epss/glossary_e.html. Retrieved on 2008-04-27. ^ a b c Office of Management and Budget. "Revisions to the Standards for the Classification of Federal Data on Race and Ethnicity. Federal Register Notice October 30, 1997". http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/fedreg/1997standards.html. Retrieved on 2008-01-11. ^ a b c d e f g Grieco, Elizabeth M.; Rachel C. Cassidy. "Overview of Race and Hispanic Origin: 2000" (PDF). United States Census Bureau. http://www.census.gov/prod/2001pubs/cenbr01-1.pdf. Retrieved on 2008-04-27. ^ "438 F.3d 195; JANA-ROCK CONSTRUCTION, INC. and Rocco Luiere, Jr., Plaintiffs-Appellants, v. NEW YORK STATE DEPARTMENT OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT, Division of Minority & Women's Business Development, and Jorge I. Vidro, as Director of the Division of Minority & Women's Business Development, Defendants-Appellees". http://bulk.resource.org/courts.gov/c/F3/438/438.F3d.195.04-6328.html. Retrieved on 2009-04-14. "New York Executive Law Article 15-A, New York's "affirmative action" statute for minority-owned businesses ... does not include in its definition of "Hispanic" people of Spanish or Portuguese descent unless they also come from Latin America." ^ http://www.bookrags.com/highbeam/spanish-mans-lawsuit-rejected-judge-20041030-hb/ ^ a b c d "T4-2007. Hispanic or Latino By Race ". 2007 Population Estimates. United States Census Bureau. http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/DTTable?_bm=y&-ds_name=PEP_2007_EST&-mt_name=PEP_2007_EST_G2007_T004_2007&-CONTEXT=dt&-redoLog=true&-currentselections=PEP_2006_EST_G2006_T004_2006&-geo_id=01000US&-format=&-_lang=en. Retrieved on 2009-01-19. ^ a b c d "B03002. HISPANIC OR LATINO ORIGIN BY RACE". 2007 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates. United States Census Bureau. http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/DTTable?_bm=y&-ds_name=ACS_2007_1YR_G00_&-mt_name=ACS_2007_1YR_G2000_B03002&-CONTEXT=dt&-redoLog=true&-currentselections=PEP_2006_EST_G2006_T004_2006&-geo_id=01000US&-format=&-_lang=en. Retrieved on 2009-01-19. ^ a b "Hispanics and Latinos: A Culture - Not a Race!". The Writing of F. Lennox Campello. Tripod.com. http://members.tripod.com/~Campello/hispanic.html. Retrieved on 01-06-2009. ^ a b Tafoya, Sonya (2004-12-06). "Shades of Belonging" (PDF). Pew Hispanic Center. http://pewhispanic.org/files/reports/35.pdf. Retrieved on 2008-05-07. ^ United States - QT-P4. Race, Combinations of Two Races, and Not Hispanic or Latino: 2000 ^ a b c Small, Lawrence M (2002-08-01). "Latino Legacies". Smithsonian Magazine. Smithsonian Institution. http://www.smithsonianmag.com/people-places/10009021.html. Retrieved on 2008-04-28. "There was a Hispanic presence on the continent for more than 200 years before 13 colonies on the eastern coast declared their independence from England ... By 1607, when the British established their first successful settlement, at Jamestown, Virginia, writes historian Bernard Bailyn, "Spain’s American dominion extended nearly 8,000 miles, from Southern California to the Straits of Magellan..." ^ a b c "A Brief History of St. Augustine". City of St. Augustine. http://www.ci.st-augustine.fl.us/visitors/history_fullprint.html. Retrieved on 2008-04-28. "Founded in 1565, St. Augustine is the oldest continuously occupied settlement of European origin in the United States. Forty-two years before the English colonized Jamestown and fifty-five years before the Pilgrims landed at Plymouth Rock, the Spanish established at St. Augustine this nation's first enduring settlement." ^ a b c "A Spanish Expedition Established St. Augustine in Florida". America's Library. Library of Congress. http://www.americaslibrary.gov/cgi-bin/jb_date.cgi?day=08&month=09. Retrieved on 2008-04-28. "On September 8, 1565, Pedro Menéndez de Avilés landed on the shore of what is now called Matanzas Bay and began the founding of the Presidio of San Agustin. Later the settlement would be called St. Augustine, Florida. Built on the site of an ancient Native American village, and near the place where Ponce de Leon, the European discoverer of Florida, landed in 1513 in search of the legendary Fountain of Youth, it has been continually inhabited since its founding." ^ a b c Francisco Lopez de Mendoza Grajales. "The Founding of St. Augustine, 1565". Modern History Sourcebook. Fordham University. http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/1565staugustine.html. Retrieved on 2008-04-28. ^ The Encyclopedia Americana. Encyclopedia Americana Corp. 1919. pp. 151. http://books.google.com/books?id=B_kUAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA151&dq=%22San+Gabriel%22+%22El+Paso%22+%22New+Mexico%22+Texas+1598+1680&output=html. ^ "Documents in Mexican American History". University of Houston. http://www.digitalhistory.uh.edu/modules/mex_am/chronology.html. Retrieved on 2008-06-11. ^ "Cuartocentennial of Colonization of New Mexico". New Mexico State University. http://web.nmsu.edu/~publhist/ccintro.htm. Retrieved on 2008-06-11. ^ "Oldest U.S. City — Infoplease.com". http://www.infoplease.com/askeds/oldest-us-city.html. Retrieved on 2008-11-21. ^ "Who are they?". Hispanic Research Inc.. http://hispanic-research.com/home/who_are_they.htm. Retrieved on 2008-04-28. ^ "A Cultural Identity". 1997-06-18. http://www.pbs.org/newshour/essays/june97/rodriguez_6-18.html. Retrieved on 2006-12-27. ^ Gibson, Campbell (09 2002). "Historical Census Statistics on Population Totals By Race, 1790 to 1990, and By Hispanic Origin, 1970 to 1990, For The United States, Regions, Divisions, and States". Working Paper Series No. 56. http://www.census.gov/population/www/documentation/twps0056/twps0056.html. Retrieved on 2006-12-07. ^ "Revisions to the Standards for the Classification of Federal Data on Race and Ethnicity; Federal Register Notice October 30, 1997". Office of Management and Budget. http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/fedreg/1997standards.html. Retrieved on 2008-04-27. ^ "American Heritage Dictionary". http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/Hispanic. Retrieved on 2007-03-18. ^ United States Census Bureau. "U.S. Census Bureau Guidance on the Presentation and Comparison of Race and Hispanic Origin Data". http://www.census.gov/population/www/socdemo/compraceho.html. Retrieved on 2007-03-18. "Race and Hispanic origin are two separate concepts in the federal statistical system. People who are Hispanic may be of any race. People in each race group may be either Hispanic or Not Hispanic. Each person has two attributes, their race (or races) and whether or not they are Hispanic." ^ "U.S. Census form" (PDF). United States Census Bureau. http://www.census.gov/dmd/www/pdf/d61a.pdf. Retrieved on 2008-05-30. (See question 7) ^ "B03001. Hispanic or Latino Origin by Specific Origin". 2006 American Community Survey. United States Census Bureau. http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/DTTable?_bm=y&-geo_id=01000US&-ds_name=ACS_2006_EST_G00_&-mt_name=ACS_2006_EST_G2000_B03001. Retrieved on 2008-01-20. ^ "American FactFinder Help; Spanish/Hispanic/Latino". http://factfinder.census.gov/home/en/epss/glossary_s.html#spanish_hispanic_latino. Retrieved on 2008-12-29. ^ , ,  ^ "Fact Sheet 2006 American Community Survey". 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Retrieved on 12-22-08. ^ a b "AFP: Obama dominates McCain among Hispanics: poll". http://afp.google.com/article/ALeqM5gJyH1GO3NGTeG0KIQjK8-P98ktwg. Retrieved on 2009-04-09. ^ Daniel Dombey; Andrew Ward (2008-03-22). "Obama gets another ally - Politics - United States - United Kingdom - International - Obama running for the White House - Africa". http://en.afrik.com/article12914.html. Retrieved on 2008-06-08. ^ http://www.nytimes.com/2008/01/15/us/politics/15hispanic.html?n=Top/Reference/Times%20Topics/People/R/Richardson,%20Bill ^ http://pewhispanic.org/files/reports/86.pdf ^ http://pewhispanic.org/files/reports/86.pdf ^ http://www.hispanictips.com/2008/11/06/mccain-lost-ground-with-hispanics-despite-immigration-stance/ ^ http://www.alternet.org/immigration/106749/why_john_mccain_lost_the_latino_vote/?page=2 ^ http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ry9LnAazwMg ^ a b Lawrence, Jill (2008-11-06). "Hispanic vote grows, shifts to Democrats - USATODAY.com". http://www.usatoday.com/news/politics/election2008/2008-11-06-hispanics_N.htm. Retrieved on 2009-04-11. ^ http://www.miamiherald.com/news/politics/campaign-2008/story/759005.html ^ Carroll, Susan (2008-11-06). "In record turnout, Latino voters flip red states to blue". http://www.chron.com/disp/story.mpl/politics/6099797.html. Retrieved on 2009-04-11. ^ "National Hispanic Media Coalition: About Us". http://www.nhmc.org/about/. Retrieved on 2008-06-12. ^ Noriega, Chon. "Politics and Culture: Making a Difference". Connecticut College. http://aspen.conncoll.edu/politicsandculture/page.cfm?key=145. Retrieved on 2008-06-12. ^ "United States - Selected Population Profile in the United States (Hispanic or Latino (of any race))". 2006 American Community Survey. United States Census Bureau. http://www.factfinder.census.gov/servlet/IPTable?_bm=y&-geo_id=01000US&-qr_name=ACS_2006_EST_G00_S0201&-qr_name=ACS_2006_EST_G00_S0201PR&-qr_name=ACS_2006_EST_G00_S0201T&-qr_name=ACS_2006_EST_G00_S0201TPR&-reg=ACS_2006_EST_G00_S0201:400;ACS_2006_EST_G00_S0201PR:400;ACS_2006_EST_G00_S0201T:400;ACS_2006_EST_G00_S0201TPR:400&-ds_name=ACS_2006_EST_G00_&-_lang=en&-format=. Retrieved on 2008-06-11. ^ a b "B16006. LANGUAGE SPOKEN AT HOME BY ABILITY TO SPEAK ENGLISH FOR THE POPULATION 5 YEARS AND OVER (HISPANIC OR LATINO)". 2006 American Community Survey. United States Census Bureau. http://www.factfinder.census.gov/servlet/DTTable?_bm=y&-ds_name=ACS_2006_EST_G00_&-CONTEXT=dt&-mt_name=ACS_2006_EST_G2000_B16006&-redoLog=false&-geo_id=01000US&-format=&-_lang=en&-SubjectID=14829562. Retrieved on 2008-06-12. [There were 39.5 million Hispanic and Latino Americans aged 5 or more in 2006. 8.5 million of them, or 22%, spoke only English at home, and another 156,000, or 0.4%, spoke neither English nor Spanish at home. The other 30.8 million, or 78%, spoke Spanish at home. Of these, 3.7 million spoke no English, while the overwhelming majority, 27.2 million, did, at these levels: 15.5 million "very well", 5.8 million "well", and 5.9 million "not well". These 27.2 million bilingual speakers represented 69% of all (39.5 million) Hispanic and Latino Americans aged five or over in 2006, while the 3.7 million monolingual Spanish–speakers represented 9%.]  External links Hispanic Americans in Congress Library of Congress Hispanic Americans in the U.S. Army http://www.census.gov/prod/2001pubs/p20-535.pdf [show]v • d • eHispanic and Latino American groups Central American / Caribbean Costa Rican · Cuban · Dominican · Guatemalan · Honduran · Nicaraguan · Panamanian · Puerto Rican · Salvadoran North American Californio · Hispano · Mexican (Chicano · Punjabi) · Tejano South American Argentine · Bolivian · Colombian · Chilean · Ecuadorian · Paraguayan · Peruvian · Uruguayan · Venezuelan Western European Spanish (Basque • Catalan • Hispano • Isleño) Racial groups Asian · Black · Native American · White [show]v • d • eDemographics of the United States Demographic history Economic and social Affluence · Educational attainment · Homeownership · Household income · Immigration · Income inequality · Language · Middle classes · Personal income · Poverty · Social class · Unemployment by state · Wealth Religion Prominent examples: Buddhist Americans · Christian Americans (Catholic Americans, Mormon Americans, Protestant Americans, plus others) · Hindu Americans · Jewish Americans · Muslim Americans · Neopagan Americans · Non-religious Americans · Sikh Americans Race, ethnicity, and ancestry Ethnic groups in the United States · American people by ethnic or national origin · History of the United States by ethnic group · American culture by ethnicity · Race and ethnicity in the United States Census · Ethnic groups in the United States · Maps of American ancestries · 2000 Census · Race/ethnicity by EEOC · Racism Major examples: Arab and Middle Eastern Americans · Black Americans (African Americans, African immigrants, Afro-Caribbeans, etc) · Asian Americans (Chinese Americans, Filipino Americans, Indian Americans, Japanese Americans, Pacific Islander Americans, etc.) · European Americans ("White Americans") · Hispanic and Latino Americans (Mexican Americans, Puerto Ricans in the United States, Cuban Americans, etc.) · Jewish Americans (by ethnic origin) · Multiracial Americans · Native Americans (Alaska Natives, Native Hawaiians, etc.) Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hispanic_and_Latino_Americans" Categories: Hispanic American history | Hispanic American | Ethnic groups in the United States