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Jacksonville, Florida From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search "Jacksonville" redirects here. For other uses, see Jacksonville (disambiguation). Downtown statue of Andrew JacksonCity of Jacksonville Downtown Jacksonville as seen from Friendship Fountain. Flag Seal Nickname(s): The River City, Jax, J-ville Motto: Where Florida Begins Location in Duval County and the state of Florida Coordinates: 30°19′10″N 81°39′36″W / 30.31944, -81.66 Country United States State Florida County Duval Founded 1791 Incorporated 1832 Government - Type Mayor-Council - Mayor John Peyton (R) - Governing body Jacksonville City Council Area - City 885 sq mi (2,264.5 km²) - Land 767 sq mi (1,962.4 km²) - Water 116.6 sq mi (302.1 km²) Elevation 16 ft (5 m) Population (2006) - City 794,555 (12th) - Density 1,061.6/sq mi (409.89/km²) - Urban 913,125 - Metro 1,447,823 Time zone EST (UTC-5) - Summer (DST) EDT (UTC-4) ZIP code 32099, 32201-32212, 32214-32241, 32244-32247, 32250, 32254-32260, 32266-32267, 32277, 32290 Area code(s) 904 FIPS code 12-35000 GNIS feature ID 0295003 Website: http://www.coj.net Jacksonville (pronounced /ˈdʒæksənvɪl/) is the largest city in the U.S. state of Florida—in terms of both area and population—and is the county seat of Duval County. Since 1968, as a result of the consolidation of the city and county government (and a corresponding expansion of the city limits to include almost the entire county), Jacksonville has been the largest city in land area in the contiguous United States. In 2006, Jacksonville ranked as the United States' twelfth most populous city, with 794,555 residents. It is the principal city in the Greater Jacksonville Metropolitan Area, a region with a population of 1,447,823, and the fourth largest metropolitan area in the state, as of the 2006 Census Bureau estimates. Jacksonville is the third most populous city on the East Coast, after New York City and Philadelphia. About 25 miles (40 km) south of the Georgia border, Jacksonville is in the First Coast region of northeast Florida and is centered on the banks of the St. Johns River. The settlement that became Jacksonville was founded in 1791 as Cowford because of its location at a narrow point in the river where cattle once crossed. In 1822, a year after the United States acquired Florida from Spain, the city was renamed for the first military governor of the Florida Territory, General Andrew Jackson, who would later be elected President of the United States. Contents [hide] 1 History 2 Geography 2.1 Topography 2.2 Climate 3 Cityscape 3.1 Architecture 3.2 Neighborhoods 3.3 Parks and gardens 4 Culture 4.1 Entertainment and performing arts 4.2 Annual Events 4.3 Tourism 4.4 Retail 4.5 Sports 4.6 Media 5 Demographics 5.1 Languages 5.2 Religion 6 Law and government 6.1 Administrative structure 6.1.1 Exceptions 6.2 Executive 6.2.1 Mayor 6.2.2 Law enforcement 6.2.3 Crime 6.2.4 Firefighting and Rescue 6.2.5 Autonomous agencies 6.3 Legislative 6.3.1 City Council 6.3.2 Regional Representatives 6.4 Judiciary 6.4.1 Federal Court 6.4.2 State Court 6.4.3 County Court 6.5 Politics 7 Education 7.1 Higher education 7.2 Primary & secondary education 7.3 Libraries 8 Economy 8.1 Business Climate 8.2 Companies 8.3 Military 8.4 Port 9 Infrastructure 9.1 Health systems 9.2 Housing 9.3 Non-profit/Service organizations 9.4 Utilities 10 Transportation 10.1 Highways 10.2 Mass transit 10.3 Railroads 10.4 Airports 10.5 Seaports 10.6 Bridges 11 Sister cities 12 See also 13 References 14 Further reading 15 External links  History Main article: History of Jacksonville, Florida The history of Jacksonville spans hundreds of years. Ossachite, the name given by anthropologists to the first settlement in the area, was made
over 6,000 years ago by the Timucua Indians in the vicinity of modern-day downtown Jacksonville. European explorers first arrived in 1562, when French Huguenot explorer Jean Ribault charted the St. Johns River. René Goulaine de Laudonnière established the first European settlement at Fort Caroline two years later. On September 20, 1565, a Spanish force from the nearby Spanish settlement of St. Augustine attacked Fort Caroline, and killed nearly all the French soldiers defending it. The Spanish renamed it Fort San Mateo. With the destruction of the French forces at Fort Caroline, St. Augustineˈs position as the most important settlement in Florida was solidified. Spain ceded Florida to the British in 1763, who then gave control back to Spain in 1783. The first permanent settlement in modern Jacksonville was settled as "Cowford" in 1791, ostensibly named for a narrow point in the St. Johns River where cattlemen could ford their livestock across. The Florida Territory was ceded to the United States in 1821, and in 1822, Jacksonville's current name had come into use. U.S. settlers led by Isaiah D. Hart authored a charter for a town government, which was approved by the Florida Legislative Council on February 9, 1832. Jacksonville in 1864During the American Civil War, Jacksonville was a key supply point for hogs and cattle leaving Florida and aiding the Confederate cause. The city was blockaded by the Union, changing hands several times. Though no battles were fought in Jacksonville, the city was left in a considerable state of disarray after the war. During Reconstruction and the Gilded Age, Jacksonville and nearby St. Augustine became popular winter resorts for the rich and famous. Visitors arrived by steamboat and later by railroad. The city's tourism, however, was dealt major blows in the late 1800s by yellow fever outbreaks and the extension of the Florida East Coast Railway to south Florida. Aerial view in 1893On May 3, 1901, downtown Jacksonville was ravaged by a fire that was started at a fiber factory. Known as the "Great Fire of 1901", it was one of the worst disasters in Florida history and the largest ever urban fire in the Southeast; it destroyed the business district and rendered 10,000 residents homeless in the course of eight hours. It is said the glow from the flames could be seen in Savannah, Georgia and the smoke plumes in Raleigh, North Carolina. Famed New York architect Henry John Klutho was a primary figure in the reconstruction of the city. More than 13,000 buildings were constructed between 1901 and 1912. A view of Jacksonville in 1909In the 1910s, New York-based moviemakers were attracted to Jacksonville's warm climate, exotic locations, excellent rail access, and cheap labor. Over the course of the decade, more than 30 silent film studios were established, earning Jacksonville the title "Winter Film Capital of the World". However, the city's conservative political climate and the emergence of Hollywood as a major film production center ended the city's film industry. One converted movie studio site (Norman Studios) remains in Arlington; It has been converted to the Jacksonville Silent Film Museum at Norman Studios. Motion picture scene at Gaumont Studios, 1910During this
time, Jacksonville also became a banking and insurance center, with companies such as Barnett Bank, Atlantic National Bank, Florida National Bank, Prudential, Gulf Life, Afro-American Insurance, Independent Life and American Heritage Life thriving in the business district. The U.S. Navy also became a major employer and economic force during the 1940s, with the construction of three naval bases in the city. Jacksonville, like most large cities in the United States, suffered from negative effects of rapid urban sprawl after World War II. After World War II, the government of the City of Jacksonville began to increase spending to fund new building projects in the boom that occurred after the war. Mayor W. Haydon Burns' Jacksonville Story resulted in the construction of a new city hall, civic auditorium, public library and other projects that created a dynamic sense of civic pride. However, the development of suburbs and a subsequent wave of "white flight" left Jacksonville with a much poorer population than before. Much of the city's tax base dissipated, leading to problems with funding education, sanitation, and traffic control within the city limits. In addition, residents in unincorporated suburbs had difficulty obtaining municipal services such as sewage and building code enforcement. In 1958, a study recommended that the City of Jacksonville begin annexing outlying communities in order to create the needed tax base to improve services throughout the county. Voters outside the city limits rejected annexation plans in six referendums between 1960 and 1965. In the mid 1960s, corruption scandals began to arise among many of the city's officials, who were mainly elected through the traditional good ol' boy network. After a grand jury was convened to investigate, 11 officials were indicted and more were forced to resign. Consolidation, led by J.J. Daniel and Claude Yates, began to win more support during this period, from both inner city blacks (who wanted more involvement in government) and whites in the suburbs (who wanted more services and more control over the central city). The simultaneous disaccredation of all fifteen of Duval County's public high schools in 1964 added momentum to the proposals for government reform. Lower taxes, increased economic development, unification of the community, better public spending and effective administration by a more central authority were all cited as reasons for a new consolidated government. News of Jacksonville's consolidation from The Florida Times-Union.A consolidation referendum was held in 1967, and voters approved the plan. On October 1, 1968, the governments merged to create the Consolidated City of Jacksonville. Fire, police, health & welfare, recreation, public works, and housing & urban development were all combined under the new government. The Better Jacksonville Plan, promoted as a blueprint for Jacksonville's future and approved by Jacksonville voters in 2000, authorized a half-penny sales tax to generate most of the revenue required for the $2.25 billion package of projects that included road & infrastructure improvements, environmental preservation, targeted economic development and new or improved public facilities.  Geography  Topography A simulated-color satellite image of Jacksonville, taken on NASA's Landsat 7 satellite.According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 874.3 square miles (2,264.5 km²), making Jacksonville the largest city in land area in the contiguous United States; of this, 757.7 square miles (1,962.4 km²; 86.66%) is land and 116.7 square miles (302.1 km²; 13.34%) is water. Jacksonville completely encircles the city of Baldwin. Nassau County lies to the north, Baker County lies to the west, and Clay and St. Johns County lie to the south; the Atlantic Ocean lies to the east, along with the Jacksonville Beaches. The St. Johns River divides the city. The Trout River, a major tributary of the St. Johns River, is located entirely within Jacksonville.  Climate Picture of a very rare Jacksonville snowfall, December 23, 1989Jacksonville has a humid subtropical climate (Koppen Cfa), with mild weather
during winters and hot weather during summers. High temperatures average 64 to 91 °F (18-33 °C) throughout the year. High heat indices are not uncommon for the summer months in the Jacksonville area. High temperatures can reach mid to high 90s with heat index ranges of 105-115 °F. The highest temperature ever recorded in Jacksonville was 105 °F (43 °C) on July 21, 1942. It is common for daily thunderstorms to erupt during a standard summer afternoon. These are caused by the heating of the land and water, combined with extremely high humidity. During winter, the area can experience hard freezes during the night. Such cold weather is usually short lived, as the city averages only 15 nights below freezing. The coldest temperature recorded in Jacksonville was 7 °F (-14 °C) on January 21, 1985, a day that still holds the record cold for many locations in the eastern half of the US. Even rarer in Jacksonville than freezing temperatures is snow. When snow does fall, it usually melts before touching the ground, or upon making contact with the ground. Most residents of Jacksonville can remember accumulated snow on only one occasion—-a thin ground cover that occurred December 23 of 1989. Jacksonville has suffered less damage from hurricanes than most other east coast cities. The city has only received one direct hit from a hurricane since 1871, although Jacksonville has experienced hurricane or near-hurricane conditions more than a dozen times due to storms passing through the state from the Gulf of Mexico to the Atlantic Ocean, or passing to the north or south in the Atlantic and brushing the area. The strongest effect on Jacksonville was from Hurricane Dora in 1964, the only recorded storm to hit the First Coast with sustained hurricane force winds. The eye crossed St. Augustine, with winds that had just barely diminished to 110 mph (180 km/h), making it a strong Category 2 on the Saffir-Simpson Scale. Jacksonville also suffered damage from 2008's Tropical Storm Fay which crisscrossed the state, bringing Jacksonville under darkness for four days. Similarly, four years previous to this, Jacksonville was inundated by Hurricane Frances and Hurricane Jeanne, which landfalled south of the area. These tropical cyclones were the costliest indirect hits to Jacksonville. Hurricane Floyd in 1999 caused damage mainly to Jacksonville Beach. During Floyd, former mayor John Delaney evacuated his Jacksonville Beach home, and the Jacksonville Beach pier was completely destroyed. The newer Jacksonville Beach pier was later heavily damaged by Fay, but not destroyed. Rainfall averages around 52 inches (1.3 m) a year, with the wettest months being June through September. [hide] Weather averages for Jacksonville, Florida Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Average high °F 64 67 73 79 84 89 91 89 86 79 73 66 78 Average low °F 42 44 50 55 63 69 72 72 69 60 51 44 58 Precipitation inches 3.7 3.2 3.9 3.1 3.5 5.4 6.0 6.9 7.9 3.9 2.3 2.6 52.4 Average high °C 18 19 23 26 29 32 33 32 30 26 23 19 26 Average low °C 6 7 10 13 17 21 22 22 21 16 11 7 14 Precipitation mm 94 81 99 79 89 137 152 175 201 99 58 66 1,330 Source: USTravelWeather.com 2007-07-19  Cityscape Jacksonville skyline panorama.  Architecture See also: List of tallest buildings in Jacksonville Downtown Jacksonville has a memorable skyline with the tallest building being the Bank of America Tower, constructed in 1990 as the Barnett Bank Center. It has a height of 617 ft (188 m) and includes 42 floors. Other notable structures include the 37-story Modis Building (once, with its distinctive flared base, the defining building in the Jacksonville skyline), originally built in 1972-74 by the Independent Life and Accident Insurance Company, and the 28 floor Riverplace Tower which, when completed in 1967, was the tallest precast, post-tensioned concrete structure in the world.   Rank Name Street Address Height feet / meters Floors Year 1 Bank of America Tower 50 North Laura Street 617 / 188 42 1990 2 Modis Tower 1 Independent Drive 535 / 163 37 1974 3 AT&T Tower 424 North Pearl Street 447 / 136 32 1983 4 The Peninsula at St. Johns Center 1401 Riverplace Boulevard 437 / 133 36 2006 5 Riverplace Tower 1301 Riverplace Boulevard 432 / 132 28 1967  Neighborhoods Main article: Neighborhoods of Jacksonville, Florida As the largest city in land area in the contiguous
United States, Jacksonville’s official website divides the city into six major sections: Sections of JacksonvilleGreater Arlington (Arlington) is situated east and south of the St. Johns River and north of Beach Blvd. North Jacksonville, (Northside) officially considered to be everything north of the St. Johns & Trout Rivers and east of US 1. Northwest Jacksonville is located north of Interstate 10, south of the Trout River and surrounds the downtown section. Southeast Jacksonville (Southside, Mandarin), referring to everything east of the St. Johns River and south of Beach Blvd. Southwest Jacksonville (Westside) consists of everything west of the St. Johns River and south of Interstate 10. Urban Core (Downtown) includes the south & north banks of the narrowest part of the St. Johns River east from the Fuller Warren Bridge and extending roughly 4 miles north and east. With the rapid growth in the eastern part of Duval County, the Intracoastal/Beaches/Ponte Vedra area is viewed by many as a major section as well, but is not generally included in a Jacksonville list since they lie outside of the Jacksonville city limits. There is also a distinct part of the city known as "Eastside" which those unfamiliar with Jacksonville's overall geography sometimes mistakenly regard as one of the major divisions of town, rather than the localized neighborhood which it is. Today, what distinguishes a "section" of Jacksonville from a "neighborhood" is primarily a matter of size and divisibility. However, definitions are imprecise, and sometimes not universally agreed upon. Each of these sections not only encompasses a large area, but also, each is divided into many neighborhoods. Each of these neighborhoods, in turn, has its own identity. Some, such as Mandarin, LaVilla and Bayard had existed previously as independent towns or villages, prior to consolidation, and have their own histories.  Parks and gardens See also: List of parks in Jacksonville Jacksonville operates the largest urban park system in the United States, providing facilities and services at more than 337 locations on more than 80,000 acres (320 km²) located throughout the city. Jacksonville gathers significant natural beauty from the St. Johns River and Atlantic Ocean and many parks provide access for people to boat, swim, fish, sail, jetski, surf and waterski. Several parks around the city have received international recognition. Kids Kampus, in particular, is a unique facility for families with young children. The Jacksonville Arboretum and Gardens broke ground on a new center in April, 2007 and held their grand opening on November 15, 2008. The Veterans Memorial Wall is a tribute to local servicemen and women killed while serving in US armed forces. A ceremony is held each Memorial Day recognizing any service woman or man from Jacksonville who died in the previous year. The Treaty Oak is a massive, 200 year-old tree at Jesse Ball Dupont Park in downtown. Office workers from nearby buildings sit on benches to eat lunch or read a book in the shade of its canopy.  Culture Jacksonville, Florida, ca. 1910 See also: List of people from Jacksonville, Florida  Entertainment and performing arts The Florida TheatreThe Florida Theatre, opened in 1927, is located in downtown Jacksonville and is one of only four remaining high-style movie palaces built in Florida during the Mediterranean Revival architectural boom of the 1920s. Theatre Jacksonville was organized in 1919 as the Little Theatre and is one of the oldest continually producing community theatres in the United States. The Ritz Theatre, opened in 1929, is located in the LaVilla neighborhood of the northern part of Jacksonville's downtown. Rebuilt and opened in October, 1999. The Times-Union Center for the Performing Arts consists of three distinct halls: the Jim & Jan Moran Theater, a venue for touring Broadway shows; the Jacoby Symphony Hall, home of the Jacksonville Symphony Orchestra; and the Terry Theater, intended for small shows and recitals. The building was originally erected as the Civic Auditorium in 1962 and underwent a major renovation and construction in 1996. The Jacksonville Veterans Memorial Arena, which opened in 2003, is a 16,000-seat performance venue that attracts national entertainment, sporting events and also houses the Jacksonville Sports Hall of Fame. It replaced the outdated Jacksonville Memorial Coliseum that was built in 1960 and demolished on
June 26, 2003. The Alhambra Dinner Theatre, located on the Southside near the University of North Florida, has offered professional productions that frequently starred well-known actors for over forty years. Smaller, independent theaters are also available, such as Players by the Sea at Jacksonville Beach. In 1999, Stage Aurora Theatrical Company, Inc. was established in collaboration at Florida Community College at Jacksonville North Campus as. Currently, Stage Aurora Theatrical Company, whose goal is to produce theatre that enlightens, is the leading theatre of Northside Jacksonville and is located at Gateway Town Center.  Jacksonville is also home to The Teal Sound Drum and Bugle Corps, a junior team that competes in Drum Corps International Division II competition. In the early 1900s, New York-based moviemakers were attracted to Jacksonville's warm climate, exotic locations, excellent rail access, and cheaper labor, earning the city the title of "The Winter Film Capital of the World". Over 30 movie studios were opened and thousands of silent films produced between 1908 and the 1920s, when most studios relocated to Hollywood, California. Since that time, Jacksonville has been chosen by a number of film and television studios for on-location shooting. Notable motion pictures that have been partially or completely shot in Jacksonville since the silent film era include Creature from the Black Lagoon (1954), The New Adventures of Pippi Longstocking (1988), Brenda Starr (1989), G.I. Jane (1997), The Devil's Advocate (1997), Ride (1998), Why Do Fools Fall In Love (1998), Forces of Nature (1999), Tigerland (2000), Sunshine State (2002), Basic (2003), The Manchurian Candidate (2004), Lonely Hearts (2006), Monster House (2006), Moving McAllister (2007), The Year of Getting to Know Us (2008). Notable television series or made-for-television films that have been partially or completely shot in Jacksonville include Intimate Strangers (1986), Inherit the Wind (1988), Roxanne: The Prize Pulitzer (1989), A Girl of the Limberlost (1990), Orpheus Descending (1990), Pointman (1995), Saved by the Light (1995), The Babysitter's Seduction (1996), Sudden Terror: The Hijacking of School Bus #17 (1996), First Time Felon (1997), Gold Coast (1997), Safe Harbor (1999), The Conquest of America (2005), Super Bowl XXXIX (2005), and Recount (2008). In an episode of NCIS, the suspect/criminal was stationed at NAS Jax even though it wasn't really filmed there.  Annual Events One of the most popular sporting events is the annual Gate River Run, the US National Championship 15K since 1994 and largest 15K race in the country. The 13,000+ recreational runners -- some running for the first time -- are joined by a few thousand more supporters, spectators and volunteers who make this Jacksonville's largest participation sporting event. The 9.3 mile race has taken place every March since 1977. . The Amelia Island Concours d'Elegance, an annual event in early March, is one of the nation's premier automotive concours events. Also in March is the Blessing of the Fleet and the Great Atlantic Seafood and Music Festival. The Jacksonville Jazz Festival is held every April and is the second-largest jazz festival in the nation. Springing the Blues is a free outdoor blues festival held in Jacksonville Beach, also in April. The Jacksonville Film Festival is staged every May and features a variety of independent films, documentaries, and shorts screening at seven historic venues in the city. Past attendees of the festival have included director John Landis and Academy Award nominee Bill Murray and winner Graham Greene, both of whom were awarded the Tortuga Verde Lifetime Achievement Award. The World of Nations Celebration is also in May. The Spring Music Fest is a free concert Memorial Day weekend that is sponsored by the city that features some of today's most popular artists. Every July 4 is the Freedom, Fanfare & Fireworks celebration, one of the nation's largest fireworks displays, held at Metropolitan Park and on the surface of the St. Johns River. A very large fireworks display is also held at Jacksonville Beach, centered on the rebuilt pier. The AT&T Greater Jacksonville Kingfish Tournament is an annual event held in July. The first contest was held in 1981 and it has grown to be the largest Kingfish tournament in the United States. Participation is limited to 1,000 boats that compete for over $500,000 in prizes, attracting approximately 30,000 spectators. The Greater Jacksonville Agricultural Fair is held every November at the Jacksonville Fairgrounds & Exposition Center, featuring an array of carnival games &
rides, food, live entertainment, vendor merchandise booths and agriculture/livestock exhibition & judging. Planetfest, an annual corporate music festival in November, features a variety of musicians and is sponsored by radio station WPLA, Planet 107.3. Thanksgiving weekend is a busy time, with the lighting of Jacksonville's official Christmas Tree at the Jacksonville Landing on Friday, the day after Thanksgiving. The Jacksonville Light Parade happens on Saturday night following Thanksgiving.  Tourism See also: List of museums in Florida The city center includes the Jacksonville Landing and the Jacksonville Riverwalks. The Landing is a popular riverfront dining and shopping venue, accessible by River Taxi from the Southbank Riverwalk. The Northbank Riverwalk runs 2.0 miles along the St. Johns from Berkman Plaza to I-95 at the Fuller Warren Bridge while the Southbank Riverwalk stretches 1.2 miles from the Radisson Hotel to Museum Circle. Adjacent to Museum circle is St. Johns River Park (aka Friendship Park), location of Friendship Fountain, one of the most recognizable and popular attractions for locals as well as tourists in Jacksonville. This landmark was built in 1965 and promoted as the “World’s Tallest and Largest” fountain. Jacksonville Museum of Modern Art (JMoMA) opened its 60,000-square-foot (6,000 m2) facility in 2003, located adjacent to the Main Library downtown. Tracing its roots back to the formation of Jacksonville's Fine Arts Society in 1924, the museum features eclectic permanent and traveling exhibitions. In November 2006, JMOMA was renamed Museum of Contemporary Art Jacksonville (MOCA Jacksonville) to reflect their continued commitment to art produced after the modernist period. The Museum of Science & History (MOSH) is found on Jacksonville's Southbank Riverwalk, and features a main exhibit that changes quarterly, plus three floors of nature and local history exhibits, a hands-on science area and the Alexander Brest Planetarium. Mr. Brest was also the benefactor for the Alexander Brest Museum and Gallery on the campus of Jacksonville University. The exhibits are a diverse collection of carved ivory, Pre-Columbian artifacts, Steuben glass, Chinese porcelain and Cloisonné, Tiffany glass, Boehm porcelain and rotating exhibitions containing the work of local, regional, national and international artists.  The Cummer Museum of Art and Gardens holds a large collection of European and American paintings, as well as a world-renowned collection of early Meissen porcelain. The museum is surrounded by three acres of formal English and Italian style gardens, and is located in the Riverside neighborhood, on the bank of the St. Johns River. There is also a hands-on children's section. The Karpeles Manuscript Library is the world’s largest private collection of original manuscripts & documents. The museum in Jacksonville is located in a 1921 neoclassical building on the outskirts of downtown. In addition to document displays, there is also an antique-book library, with volumes dating from the late 1800s. The Catherine Street Fire Station building is on the National Register of Historic Places and was relocated to Metropolitan Park in 1993. It houses the Jacksonville Fire Museum and features 500+ artifacts including an 1806 hand pumper. The LaVilla Museum opened in 1999 and features a permanent display of African-American history. The art exhibits are changed periodically. There are also several historical properties and items of interest in the city, including the Klutho Building, the Old Morocco Temple Building, the Palm and Cycad Arboretum, and the Prime F. Osborn III Convention Center, originally built as Union Station train depot. The Art Walk, a monthly outdoor art festival on the first Wednesday of each month, is sponsored by Downtown Vision, Inc, an organization which works to promote artistic talent and venues on the First Coast. The Jacksonville Zoo and Gardens boasts the second largest animal collection in the state. The zoo features elephants, lions, and, of course, jaguars (with an exhibit, Range of the Jaguar, hosted by the owners of the Jacksonville Jaguars, Delores and Wayne Weaver), as well as a multitude of reptile houses, free flight aviaries, and many other animals. Shipwreck Island in Jacksonville Beach is the only waterpark in Duval County. It opened in 1995 and changes rides every few years to keep the season passholders coming
back. Adventure Landing in Jacksonville and Jacksonville Beach are the only amusement parks in Duval County.  Retail Jacksonville has two fully enclosed shopping malls. The older is the Regency Square Mall, which opened in 1967 and is located on former sand dunes in the Arlington area. The other is The Avenues Mall, which opened in 1990 on the Southside, at the intersection of I-95 and US 1. The end of the indoor shopping mall may be indicated by the opening of The St. Johns Town Center in 2005 and the River City Marketplace, on the Northside in 2006. Both of these are "open air" malls, with a similar mix of stores, but without being contained under a single, enclosed roof. According to the International Council of Shopping Centers (ICSC), only one enclosed mall has been built in the United States since 2006. The Avenues and St. John's Town Center are both owned by Simon Property Group; Regency is owned by General Growth Properties; River City Marketplace is being developed by Ramco Gershenson.  Sports Main article: Sports in Jacksonville Jacksonville is home to a number of professional sports teams. The Jacksonville Jaguars of the National Football League compete at the major league level. The city's other sports teams are minor league. Jacksonville is also home to two universities, a four year college, and the fourth largest community college in the country. All of these institutions field sports teams. Additionally, several college sports events are held in Jacksonville annually by teams and conferences not located in the city. Club Sport League Venue Jacksonville Jam Basketball American Basketball League (ABA) UNF Arena Jacksonville Jaguars Football National Football League (NFL) - AFC Jacksonville Municipal Stadium Jacksonville Suns Baseball Southern League - Southern Division Baseball Grounds of Jacksonville Jacksonville University College Baseball NCAA - Atlantic Sun Conference Alexander Brest Field Jacksonville Barracudas Hockey Southern Professional Hockey League (SPHL) Jacksonville Ice Jacksonville Dixie Blues Women's Football Women's Football League Episcopal High School Jacksonville Breakers Women's Ice Hockey Florida Women's Hockey League Jacksonville Ice Jacksonville University College Football NCAA – Pioneer Football League D.B. Milne Field Jacksonville University College Basketball NCAA – Atlantic Sun Conference Jacksonville Veterans Memorial Arena Edward Waters College College Football NAIA – Florida Sun Conference Earl Kitchings Stadium Edward Waters College College Basketball NAIA – Florida Sun Conference James Weldon Johnson Gymansium University of North Florida College Basketball NCAA – Atlantic Sun Conference UNF Arena University of North Florida College Baseball NCAA – Atlantic Sun Conference UNF Harmon Stadium University of North Florida College Lacrosse Florida Lacrosse League - Division II (FLL) UNF Intramural Fields Jacksonville Axemen Rugby League American National Rugby League UNF Stadium Field Duval Panthers Minor American Football FFAA Jean Ribault High School  Media The Florida Times-Union, Jacksonville's largest circulation newspaperThe Florida Times-Union is the major daily newspaper in Jacksonville and Jacksonville.com is its official Web site. Another daily newspaper is The Daily Record. Popular magazines include Folio Weekly, MetroJacksonville, Jacksonville Free Press, Jacksonville Business Journal, The Florida Star, Saint Augustine Catholic, Arbus, Hola News, and Jacksonville Magazine. Jacksonville is served by television stations affiliated with major American networks including WTLV (NBC), WJXX (ABC), WTEV (CBS), WAWS (FOX/My Network TV), WJCT (PBS),and WCWJ (CW). WJXT is a former longtime CBS affiliate that turned independent in 2002. www.Jax4Kids.com is a resource available to Jacksonville-area parents, grandparents and educators to find current and upcoming events, classes, camps, sports and other programs for cultural and educational enrichment for children. Main article: List of radio stations in Florida#Jacksonville Area Jacksonville's radio market is dominated by the same two large ownership groups that dominate the radio industry across the United States: Cox Radio and Clear Channel Communications. The dominant AM radio station in terms of ratings is WOKV 690AM, which is also the flagship station for the Jacksonville Jaguars. In September 2006, WOKV began simulcasting on 106.5 FM as WOKV FM. There are two radio stations broadcasting a primarily contemporary hits format; WAPE 95.1 has dominated this niche for over twenty years, and more recently has been challenged by WFKS 97.9 FM (KISS FM). WJBT 93.3 (The Beat) is a hip-hop/R&B station, WPLA 107.3 is a modern rock and alternative music station, WFYV 104.5—Rock 105 Jacksonville Classic rock, WQIK 99.1 is a country station as well as WGNE-FM 99.9, WCRJ FM 88.1 (The Promise) is the main Contemporary Christian station operating since 1984, WHJX 105.7 and
WFJO 92.5 plays music in Spanish like salsa, merengue, and reggaeton, and WJCT 89.9 is the local public radio station and NPR affiliate. A local Jacksonville college, Jones College also hosts a station WKTZ 90.9 FM.  Demographics City CenterHistorical populations Census Pop. %± 1850 1,045 — 1860 2,118 102.7% 1870 6,912 226.3% 1880 7,650 10.7% 1890 17,201 124.8% 1900 28,429 65.3% 1910 57,699 103% 1920 91,558 58.7% 1930 129,549 41.5% 1940 173,065 33.6% 1950 204,275 18% 1960 201,030 −1.6% 1970 528,865 163.1% 1980 540,920 2.3% 1990 635,230 17.4% 2000 735,503 15.8% Est. 2006 799,875 8.8% Jacksonville is the most populous city in Florida, and the twelfth most populous city in the United States. As of the census estimates of 2006, there were 799,875 people, 315,796 households, and 199,037 families residing in the city. However, it is perhaps misleading to compare Jacksonville's population to other major cities. As a result of the 1968 consolidation of Jacksonville and Duval County, most of the suburban communities of Jacksonville were absorbed within the city limits of Jacksonville proper. It may be a more accurate comparison to compare the metropolitan area of Jacksonville to the Metropolitan area of other cities. The population density was 374.9/km² (970.9/mi²). There were 308,826 housing units at an average density of 157.4/km² (407.6/mi²). The racial makeup of the city was 64.48% White, 34.03% Black or African American, 0.34% Native American, 2.78% Asian, 0.06% Pacific Islander, 1.33% from other races, and 1.99% from two or more races. 4.16% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. The largest ancestries include: German (9.6%), American (9.3%), Irish (9.0%), English (8.5%), and Italian (3.5%). Jacksonville has, as named by the United States Census the 10th largest Arab population in the United States. Also Jacksonville has a large Filipino population, in part related to their tradition of service with the Navy. There were 284,499 households out of which 33.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 46.7% were married couples living together, 16.0% had a female householder with no husband present, and 33.0% were non-families. 26.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.7% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.53 and the average family size was 3.07. In the city, the population was spread out with 26.7% under the age of 18, 9.7% from 18 to 24, 32.3% from 25 to 44, 21.0% from 45 to 64, and 10.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females there were 93.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 90.6 males. In 2000, the median income for a household in the city was $40,316, and the median income for a family was $47,243. Males had a median income of $32,547 versus $25,886 for females. The per capita income for the city was $20,337. About 9.4% of families and 12.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 16.7% of those under age 18 and 12.0% of those age 65 or over.  Languages As of 2000, English spoken as a first language accounted for 90.60%, while Spanish was at 4.13%, and Tagalog spoken as a mother tongue made up 1.00% of the population. In total, all languages spoken other than English were at 9.39%.  Religion Jacksonville has a diverse religious population. The city is estimated to contain 265,158 Evangelical Protestants and 89,649 Mainline Protestants who attend a total of 794 churches. Several of these are megachurches, including First Baptist Church downtown and Christ's Church (formerly Mandarin Christian Church) on Greenland Road. There are 162,329 Roman Catholics who attend 51 Catholic churches within the Roman Catholic Diocese of St. Augustine. Since 1906, the city's Unitarian Universalists have worshipped at the Unitarian Universalist Church of Jacksonville  The Episcopal Diocese of Florida has its see in St. John's Cathedral, the current building dating from 1906. There is a good representation of various Lutheran Synods, as well. The greater metropolitan area also has a Jewish population of 14,000, mostly residing in the neighborhood of Mandarin. There are
two Reform, four Conservative, and four Orthodox synagogues, three of them Chabad-affiliated,. There are over 3,000 members of various Eastern Orthodox church jurisdictions in eight parishes or missions, and 18,050 of other religious affiliations. Within the city limits there are also seven Mormon church buildings housing twelve congregations of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, a population of Muslims centered around the Islamic Center of Northeast Florida,, a Bahá'í center, and New Age and Neopagan communities.  Law and government  Administrative structure The most noteworthy feature of Jacksonville government is its consolidated nature. The Duval County-Jacksonville consolidation eliminated any type of separate county executive or legislature, and supplanted these positions with the Mayor of Jacksonville and the City Council of the City of Jacksonville, respectively. Because of this, voters who live outside of the city limits of Jacksonville, but inside of Duval County, are allowed not only to vote in elections for these positions, but to run for them as well. In fact, in 1995, John Delaney, a resident of Neptune Beach, was elected mayor of the City of Jacksonville.  Exceptions In 1968, the small municipalities of Baldwin, Neptune Beach, Atlantic Beach and Jacksonville Beach voted not to join the consolidated government. The four separate communities, which comprise only 6% of the total county population, provide their own municipal services, while maintaining the right to contract with the consolidated government to provide services. In December 2005, the city council of Baldwin in the far western portion of Duval County voted to eliminate the Baldwin Police Department. In March 2006, the Jacksonville Sheriff's Office assumed policing responsibilities for the one-square mile town.  Executive  Mayor Jacksonville uses the Mayor-Council form of city government, also called the Strong-Mayor form, in which a mayor serves as the city's Chief Executive and Administrative officer. The mayor holds veto power over all resolutions and ordinances made by the city council, and also has the power to hire and fire the head of various city departments. The current mayor is John Peyton. See also: List of mayors of Jacksonville, Florida  Law enforcement Jacksonville and Duval County historically maintained separate police agencies: the Jacksonville Police Department and Duval County Sheriff's Office. As part of consolidation in 1968, the two merged, creating the Jacksonville Sheriff's Office (JSO). The JSO is headed by the elected Sheriff of Duval County, currently John Rutherford, and is responsible for law enforcement and corrections in the county.  Crime In 2006, based on the United States Department of Justice, FBI-Uniform Crime Reports, Jacksonville reported 6,663 violent crimes including 110 murders. Violent Crime in Jacksonville was up 9.5% since 2005 but property crimes were down. There has been an increase in Gang activity over the past few years, but it is not a significant problem—yet. The murder rate is the most troubling, and the majority of homicides involve drug-related crime. Based on the Morgan Quitno Press 2006 national crime rankings, Jacksonville ranked as the 10th safest in the nation among the 32 US cities with a population of 500,000 or more.  As of Nov 19, 2007, Jacksonville ranked the 11th most dangerous city in Florida, safer than Orlando (1st), Miami (3rd), Tampa (6th), Tallahassee (7th) and Gainesville (8th). Nationwide, Jacksonville was ranked as the 115th most dangerous city; Detroit was 1st.  Constitutional Officers Office Name Mayor John Peyton - Republican Sheriff John Rutherford - Republican Property Appraiser James N. Overton - Republican Tax Collector Mike Hogan - Republican Supervisor of Elections Jerry Holland - Republican Clerk of the Circuit and County Courts Jim Fuller - Republican State Attorney Harry Shorstein - Democrat Public Defender Bill White - Democrat  Firefighting and Rescue The Jacksonville Fire and Rescue Department (JFRD) is responsible for all fire protection and rescue service (ambulance) in Duval County with exceptions. Jacksonville Beach has its own department, while Atlantic Beach provides a fire station facility that is staffed and equipped by JFRD. Baldwin has a (mostly) volunteer fire department and Neptune Beach relies on Atlantic Beach for fire protection. The current JFRD Director/Fire Chief is Dan Kleman. This position is appointed by the Mayor.  Autonomous agencies Some government services remained - as they had been prior to consolidation – independent of both city and county authority. In accordance with Florida law, the school board continues to exist with nearly complete autonomy. Jacksonville also has several quasi-independent government agencies which only nominally answer to the consolidated authority, including electric authority, port authority, transportation authority, housing authority and airport authority. The main environmental and agricultural body is the Duval
County Soil and Water Conservation District, which works closely with other area and state agencies.  Legislative The St. James Building, the seat of city government in Jacksonville.  City Council Main article: Jacksonville City Council The city council has nineteen members, fourteen of whom are elected from single-member districts, and five who are ostensibly elected at-large. However, although these five additional council members are elected at-large, they are required to meet an unusual residency requirement. In the early 1990s, because these five "at-large" members were generally all elected from the same area, voters approved a change in the city government which divided the city up into five districts unrelated to any other districts, solely for the purpose of electing these at-large council members. Thus, at-large council members are elected from each of these five districts by the voters of the county as a whole.  Regional Representatives Jacksonville is currently represented in the U.S. House of Representatives by Ander Crenshaw (R) and Corrine Brown (D) and in the U.S. Senate by Bill Nelson (D) and Mel Martinez (R), in the state senate by Jim King (R), Stephen R. Wise (R), Tony Hill (D), and in the state house by Aaron P. Bean (R), Jennifer Carroll (R), Terry L. Fields (D), Audrey Gibson (D), Stan Jordan (R), Dick Kravitz (R), Charles McBurney(R) and Don Davis (R) (deceased). As of April 2008, Jacksonville, as well as the rest of the State of Florida, are served by Governor Charlie Crist (R), who replaced term-limited Governor Jeb Bush (R).  Judiciary John Milton Bryan Simpson United States Courthouse  Federal Court Jacksonville is in the United States District Court for the Middle District of Florida. There are 15 authorized judgeships in the district who are appointed by the POTUS and confirmed by the Senate. Additionally, there are 7 judges with Senior status who are eligible to hear cases. Chief Judge of the District is Patricia C. Fawsett. A new Federal Courthouse in Jacksonville was completed in late 2002 and opened in 2003 to replace the old facility, built in 1933. On February 8th, 2005, the 492,000 sq ft (45,700 m2) building at 300 North Hogan Street was named, the John Milton Bryan Simpson United States Courthouse.  State Court Jacksonville is in the 4th Judicial Circuit of Florida, which includes Duval, Clay and Nassau Counties. Circuit Courts have jurisdiction over felonies, tax issues, real property, juvenile issues, probate, family law (dissolution of marriage, paternity and adoption) and determination of competence. There are 29 elected circuit judges for Duval county: (8) Civil, (1) Probate, (7) Family, (8) Criminal and (4) Juvenile. Donald Moran is Chief Judge.  The State Attorney's Office has the responsibility for prosecuting persons charged with crimes. The position of State Attorney is an elected position and is currently held by Harry Shorstein. Angela Corey will assume office on January 6, 2009. The Public Defender's Office has the responsibility for defending persons charged with crimes subject to incarceration and judged indigent. The position of Public Defender is an elected position and is currently held by Bill White. Matthew Shirk will assume office on January 6, 2009. The existing courthouse was constructed in 1958 and the county's population grew by more than 50% in the past forty years. A new $190M Duval County Courthouse was a key component of the Better Jacksonville Plan, approved by voters in 2000. After eight years and several mis-steps, the (now) $350M complex should be completed in 2011.  County Court County Courts primarily handle civil cases where the amount in controversy is less than $15,000, Small claims court, misdemeanors, violations of civil & municipal ordinances and traffic tickets. There are 17 elected county judges for Duval county.   Politics Jacksonville, like most of North & Central Florida and the panhandle, was historically populated by Democrats, who still outnumber Republicans. In the last half of the twentieth century, large numbers of Northern Republicans retired and moved to coastal communities in South Florida. For the most part, they were not politically active. Until John Delaney was elected in 1995, the last Republican mayor in Jacksonville was elected in 1887. Until Bob Martinez was elected in 1986, the last Republican governor in Florida was elected in 1874 (Republican Claude Kirk, formerly a Democrat, was elected in 1966 when the liberals in South Florida refused to nominate incumbent Governor Haydon Burns as the Democratic candidate and split the party. Kirk was defeated for re-election and Democrats were subsequently elected for the next 20 years.) In the years after Ronald Reagan was elected president in 1981, thousands of voters switched to the Republican Party. Additionally, thousands of Republicans moved to Florida and
Jacksonville from northern states or relocated from south Florida to avoid overcrowding, high prices and crime. Republican Party organizers saw Florida as a tremendous opportunity in the early 1990’s. While the Democrats were complacent, the Republicans energized their members, increased fundraising efforts and motivated fellow Republicans to get out and vote. Three of Florida’s last four governors were Republicans. The last three mayors of Jacksonville have been Republican (Ed Austin was elected as a Democrat, but changed parties in mid-term).  Education  Higher education Jacksonville is home to Jacksonville University, the University of North Florida, Florida Community College at Jacksonville, Edward Waters College, The Art Institute of Jacksonville, Florida Coastal School of Law, Brewer Christian College, Trinity Baptist College, Jones College (Jacksonville), and Florida Technical College Former mayor John Delaney has been president of the University of North Florida since leaving office in July 2003.  Primary & secondary education Main article: Duval County Public Schools Public Schools in Duval County are controlled by the Duval County School Board. The county is home to four of the nation's best high schools (Stanton College Preparatory School 5th, Paxon School for Advanced Studies 8th, Mandarin High School 151st, Douglas Anderson School of the Arts 158th,) according to Newsweek Magazine in 2008. Jacksonville, along with the standard district schools, is home to three International Baccalaureate Diploma Programme ("IB") high schools. They are Stanton, Paxon, and Jean Ribault High School. Jacksonville also has a notable magnet high school devoted to the performing and expressive arts, Douglas Anderson. The Advanced International Certificate of Education Program (AICE) is available at Mandarin High School and William M. Raines High School. The prestigious Bolles School , Episcopal High School and Trinity Christian Academy are located in Jacksonville as are two Catholic secondary schools: Bishop Kenny High School and Bishop Snyder High School.  There are a number of private Christian schools including University Christian and other Christian schools. See also: List of high schools in Jacksonville  Libraries Main article: Jacksonville Public Library (Florida) The Jacksonville Public Library had its beginnings when May Moore and Florence Murphy started the "Jacksonville Library and Literary Association" in 1878. The Association was populated by various prominent Jacksonville residents and sought to create a free public library and reading room for the city. Over the course of 127 years, the system has grown from that one room library to become one of the largest in the state. Now featuring twenty branches - from the 54,000 sq ft (5,000 m2). West Regional Library (located on Chaffee Road in the western part of the city) to smaller neighborhood libraries like Westbrook and Eastside (located in the central part of the city) - the Library annually receives nearly 4 million visitors and circulates over 6 million items. Nearly 500,000 library cards are held by area residents. On November 12, 2005, the new 300,000 sq ft (30,000 m2) Main Library opened to the public, replacing the Haydon Burns Library, built in 1965. The largest public library in the state, this opening was a historic event for the library system and the City of Jacksonville. It marks the completion of an unprecedented period of growth for the system under the Better Jacksonville Plan. It adds to the city's architectural and cultural landscape and provides a gathering place downtown for the entire community. The new Main Library offers specialized reading rooms, public access to hundreds of computers and extensive collection of books and other materials, public displays of art, and special collections ranging from the African-American Collection to the recently opened Holocaust Collection.  Economy  Business Climate Jacksonville's location on the St. Johns River and the Atlantic Ocean proved providential in the growth of the city and its industry. The largest city in the state, it is also the largest deepwater port in the south (as well as the second-largest port on the U.S. East coast) and a leading port in the U.S. for automobile imports, as well as the leading transportation and distribution hub in the state. However, the strength of the city's economy lies in its broad diversification.
While the area once had many thriving dairies such as Gustafson's Farm and Skinner Dairy, this aspect of the economy has declined over time. The area's economy is balanced among distribution, financial services, biomedical technology, consumer goods, information services, manufacturing, insurance and other industries. Jacksonville is a rail, air, and highway focal point and a busy port of entry, with Jacksonville International Airport, ship repair yards and extensive freight-handling facilities. Lumber, phosphate, paper, cigars and wood pulp are the principal exports; automobiles and coffee are among imports. The city also has a large and diverse manufacturing base. According to Forbes in 2007, Jacksonville, Florida ranked 3rd in the top ten U.S. cities to relocate to find a job. Jacksonville was also the 10th fastest growing city in the U.S. Cecil Commerce Center is located on the site of the former Naval Air Station Cecil Field which closed in 1999 following the 1993 Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC) decision. Covering a total area of 22,939 acres (92.8 km²), it was the largest military base in the Jacksonville area and is now the most significant, long-term development asset in the City of Jacksonville. The parcel contains more than 3% of the total land area in Duval County (17,000 acres)and is one of the best locations for business in the Southeast. The industrial and commercial-zoned center offers mid to large-size parcels for development and boasts excellent transportation and utility infrastructure as well as the third-longest runway in Florida.  Companies Jacksonville is home to many prominent corporations & organizations including three Fortune 500 Companies: CSX Corporation, Fidelity National Financial and Winn-Dixie Supermarkets. For more details on this topic, see Companies in Jacksonville, Florida.  Military Jacksonville is home to three military facilities, and with Naval Submarine Base Kings Bay nearby gives Jacksonville the third largest military presence in the country. Only Norfolk, Virginia and San Diego, California are bigger. The military is by far the largest employer in Jacksonville and their total economic impact is approximately $6.1 billion annually. Naval Air Station Jacksonville is a military airport located four miles (6 km) south of the central business district. Approximately 23,000 civilian and active-duty personnel are employed on the base. There are 35 operational units/squadrons assigned there and support facilities include an airfield for pilot training, a maintenance depot capable of virtually any task, from changing a tire to intricate micro-electronics or total engine disassembly. Also on-site is a Naval Hospital, a Fleet Industrial Supply Center, a Navy Family Service Center, and recreational facilities. Naval Station Mayport is a Navy Ship Base that is the third largest fleet concentration area in the United States. Mayport's operational composition is unique, with a busy harbor capable of accommodating 34 ships and an 8,000-foot (2,400 m) runway capable of handling any aircraft used by the Department of Defense. Until 2007, it was home to the aircraft carrier USS John F. Kennedy, which locals called "Big John". Blount Island Command is a Marine Corps Logistics Base whose mission is to support the Maritime Prepositioning Force (MPF) which provides for rapid deployment of personnel to link up with prepositioned equipment and supplies embarked aboard forward deployed Maritime Prepositioning Ships (MPS). USS Jacksonville, a nuclear powered Los Angeles-class submarine, is the only US Navy ship named for the city. The ship's nickname is The Bold One and Norfolk, Virginia is her home port. The Florida Air National Guard is based at Jacksonville International Airport.  Port The Port of Jacksonville is a large component of the local economy. Approximately 50,000 jobs in Northeast Florida are related to port activity and a total of $2.7 billion in economic impact in Northeast Florida: port wages & salaries = $1.3 billion in business revenue = $743 million in local purchases = $239.1 million state & local taxes = $119.3 million customs revenue = $258 million  Infrastructure Baptist Medical Center South, completed in February, 2005, was Jacksonville's first hospital of the 21st century  Health systems Healthcare in Jacksonville is dominated by Baptist Health and Shands HealthCare for local residents, but the
Nemours Children’s Clinic and Mayo Clinic Hospital facilities each draw patients regionally. There are literally hundreds of individual practitioners and Professional Associations (PA) in the Jacksonville area. For more details on this topic, see List of hospitals in Florida.  Housing The Jacksonville Housing Authority (JHA) is the quasi-independent agency responsible for public housing and subsidized housing in Jacksonville. The Mayor and City Council of Jacksonville established the JHA in 1994 to create an effective, community service oriented, public housing agency with innovative ideas and a different attitude. The primary goal was to provide safe, clean, affordable housing for eligible low and moderate income families, the elderly, and persons with disabilities. The secondary goal was to provide effective social services, work with residents to improve their quality of life, encourage employment and self-sufficiency, and help residents move out of assisted housing. To that end, JHA works with HabiJax to help low and moderate income families to escape the public housing cycle and become successful, productive, homeowners and taxpayers.  Non-profit/Service organizations Jax4Kids.com is a resource available to Jacksonville-area parents, grandparents and educators to find current and upcoming events, classes, camps, sports and other programs for cultural and educational enrichment for children. For more details on this topic, see Non-profit organizations in Jacksonville, Florida.  Utilities Basic utilities in Jacksonville (water, sewer, electric) are provided by the JEA (formerly Jacksonville Electric Authority). According to Article 21 of the Jacksonville City Charter, "JEA is authorized to own, manage and operate a utilities system within and outside the City of Jacksonville. JEA is created for the express purpose of acquiring, constructing, operating, financing and otherwise have plenary authority with respect to electric, water, sewer, natural gas and such other utility systems as may be under its control now or in the future." People's Gas is Jacksonville's natural gas provider. Comcast is Jacksonvilles local cable provider. AT&T (formerly BellSouth) is Jacksonville's local phone provider. The city has a successful recycling program with separate pickups for garbage, yard waste and recycling. Collection is provided by several private companies under contract to the City of Jacksonville.  Transportation P-3 Orion aircraft from NAS Jacksonville overfly downtown Jacksonville and three of its road bridges, 1994. The Fuller Warren drawbridge in the foreground has since been torn down and replaced by a higher span.  Highways Interstate Highways 10 and 95 intersect in Jacksonville. Interstate Highway 10 ends at this intersection (the other end being in Santa Monica, California). The eastern terminus of US-90 is in nearby Jacksonville Beach near the Atlantic Ocean. Additionally, several other roads as well a major local expressway, J. Turner Butler Boulevard (SR 202) also connect Jacksonville to the beaches. Interstate 95 has a bypass route, with I-295, which bypasses the city to the west, and SR-9A, bypassing the city to the east. When the major interchange at 9A and SR 202 (Butler Blvd) is completed in October 2008, 9A will become I-295 and the interstate will circumscribe the most populated portion of Jacksonville. A downtown Jacksonville free Trolley.  Mass transit Public transportation provided by the Jacksonville Transportation Authority (JTA) includes regular and express bus service, downtown trolleys, JTA Connexion (paratransit) and the stadium shuttle. The city has the JTA Skyway, an elevated monorail, which travels through the central business district. However, there are few Skyway stations and as such, traffic is light. The Skyway has been criticized in that it goes from "nowhere to nowhere" along its limited route, which encompasses only downtown and is of no help in commuting from suburban neighborhoods or to the Jacksonville Sports complex.  Railroads Jacksonville is also home to the world headquarters of CSX Transportation, which owns a large building on the riverbank downtown that is a significant part of the skyline. The Amtrak passenger railroad serves Jacksonville from a station on Clifford Lane in the northwest section of the city. Florida East Coast Railway is another large railroad which is headquartered in Jacksonville.  Airports Airports in Jacksonville are managed by the Jacksonville Aviation Authority (JAA). The commercial passenger facility is Jacksonville International Airport on the Northside. Smaller planes can fly to Craig Municipal Airport in Arlington and Herlong Airport on the Westside. The JAA also operates Cecil Field, the former NAS airfield at Cecil Commerce Center that is intended for the aerospace and manufacturing companies located there.  Seaports Public seaports in Jacksonville are managed
by the Jacksonville Port Authority, known as JAXPORT. Four modern deepwater (38 ft) seaport facilities, including America's newest cruise port, make Jacksonville a full-service international seaport. In FY2006, JAXPORT handled 8.7 million tons of cargo, including nearly 610,000 vehicles, which ranks Jacksonville 2nd in the nation in automobile handling, behind only the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey. The 20 other maritime facilities not managed by the Port Authority move about 10 million tons of additional cargo in and out of the St. Johns River. In terms of total tonnage, the Port of Jacksonville ranks 40th nationally; within Florida, it is 3rd behind Tampa and Port Everglades. In 2003, the JAXPORT Cruise Terminal opened, providing cruise service to Key West, Florida, the Bahamas, and Mexico via Carnival Cruise Lines ship, Celebration. In FY2006 there were 78 cruise ship sailings with 128,745 passengers. The Mayport Ferry became JAXPORTs responsibility on October 1, 2007.  Bridges A 1992 map of downtown Jacksonville showing three road bridges. Acosta Bridge over the St. Johns RiverThere are seven bridges over the St. Johns River at Jacksonville. They include (starting from furthest downstream) the Dames Point Bridge, the Mathews Bridge, the Isaiah D. Hart Bridge, the Main Street Bridge, the Acosta Bridge, the Fuller Warren Bridge (which carries I-95 traffic) and the Buckman Bridge. Beginning in 1953, tolls were charged on the Hart, Mathews, Fuller Warren and the Main Street bridges to pay for bridge construction, renovations and many other highway projects. As Jacksonville grew, toll plazas created bottlenecks and caused delays and accidents during rush hours. In 1988, Jacksonville voters chose to eliminate toll collection and replace the revenue with a ½ cent local sales tax increase. In 1989, the toll booths were removed. The Mayport Ferry connects the north and south ends of State Road A1A between Mayport and Fort George Island, and is the last active ferry in Florida. [show]v • d • eSt. Johns River crossings in the Jacksonville, Florida area Upriver from Downtown Shands Bridge (to be replaced or supplemented) | Buckman Bridge | Timuquana Bridge (never built) Downtown Jacksonsonville Fuller Warren Bridge | FEC Strauss Trunnion Bascule Bridge | Acosta Bridge | Main Street Bridge | Hart Bridge | Mathews Bridge | 20th Street Extension (never built) Downriver from Downtown Dames Point Bridge | State Road 113A (never built) | Mayport Ferry  Sister cities Jacksonville has six sister cities. They are: - Bahia Blanca, Argentina (since 1967) - Murmansk, Russia (1975) - Masan, South Korea (1983) - Nantes, France (1984) - Yingkou, China (1990) - Port Elizabeth, South Africa (2000) In 2000, The Sister Cities International awarded Jacksonville the Innovation Arts & Culture Award for the city's program with Nantes. See also: List of sister cities in Florida  See also Orange Park, Florida  References ^ "Population Estimates for the 25 Largest U.S. Cities based on July 1, 2006 Population Estimates" (PDF). US Census Bureau. Retrieved on 2007-06-28. ^ a b "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved on 2008-01-31. ^ "US Board on Geographic Names". United States Geological Survey (2007-10-25). Retrieved on 2008-01-31. ^ "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Retrieved on 2008-01-31. ^ "US Census July 1, 2006 est". ^ "Annual Estimates of the Population of Metropolitan and Micropolitan Statistical Areas: April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2006". US Census Bureau. Retrieved on 2007-11-03. ^ "Timucua Village of Ossachite". The Historical Text Archive. Retrieved on 2007-11-03. ^ Exploring Florida.com: Pedro Menendez de Aviles Claims Florida for Spain ^ "The Jacksonville Silent Film Museum at Norman Studios". Retrieved on 2007-07-19. ^ Jacksonville Real Estate website: Better Jacksonville Plan ^ "Climate Information for Jacksonville, Florida". ClimateZone.com. Retrieved on 2006-07-23. ^ NOAA/National Climatic Data Center: Table-Mean Number of Days With Minimum Temperature 32 Degrees F or Less ^ See List of snow events in Florida. ^ "Jacksonville,Florida's history with tropical systems". HurricaneCity. Retrieved on 2006-07-23. ^ "Historical Jacksonville Weather Data". Retrieved on Jul 19, 2007. ^ a b "Bank of America Tower". SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved on 7-Dec-2008. ^ a b "Bank of America Tower, Jacksonville Florida". Portfolio — Current Properties. Parameter Realty Partners. Retrieved on 7-Dec-2008. ^ Riverplace Tower, Jacksonville ^
Tallest Buildings in Jacksonville ^ Directory of Neighborhood Organizations ^ "Recreation and Community Services". Retrieved on 2008-03-24. ^ Yahoo Travel: Jacksonville Beach-Players-By-The-Sea ^ CitySearch: Jacksonville-Stage Aurora Theatre ^ News4Jax.com: Mar 11, 2006-10,000 Participate; Keflezighi Wins Gate River Run ^ New York Times: February 25, 2000- Collecting; It's The Stars' Cars That Steal the Scene by Keith Martin ^ Superpages Travel reviews ^ INUSA tourguide: Jacksonville, Florida ^ Florida Times-Union: November 16, 2008-Remember when we all used to go to the Mall? by Diana Middleton ^ "Cox Radio's Market Profile for Jacksonville, Florida". Retrieved on 2007-07-19. ^ "Clear Channel Radio Station List for Jacksonville, Florida". Retrieved on 2007-07-19. ^ "Inside wokv.com". Retrieved on 2007-07-19. ^ Jacksonville city, Florida - Fact Sheet - American FactFinder ^ "Modern Language Association Data Center Results of Jacksonville, FL". Retrieved on 2007-07-19. ^ "Diocese of Saint Augustine Statistical Overview". Retrieved on 2007-07-19. ^ "Unitarian Universalist Church of Jacksonville". Retrieved on 2007-07-19. ^ "Chabad-Lubavitch Centers in Jacksonville, Florida". Retrieved on 2007-07-19. ^ "Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints in Jacksonville, Florida". Retrieved on 2007-07-19. ^ "Islamic Center of Northeast Florida, Inc, as well as the Islamic Community of Bosniaks.". Retrieved on 2007-07-19. ^ "Jacksonville Bahá’í Community". Retrieved on 2007-07-19. ^ "Metro Area Membership Report for Jacksonville, Florida". Retrieved on 2007-07-19. ^ FBI 2006 Uniform Crime Report ^ Morgan Quitno rankings for the safest and most dangerous cities ^ Central Florida channel 13: Orlando Most Dangerous? ^ "Representatives, Regular Session 2007". Florida House of Representatives. Retrieved on 2007-03-06. ^ Energy Star building profiles: Jacksonville Federal Courthouse ^ Washington Post website: Building Designations ^ a b City of Jacksonville website: 4th Judicial Circuit Court ^ http://www.bishopsnyder.org/ retrieved on May 12, 2007 ^ a b "Jacksonville Public Library: A History". Retrieved on 2007-08-19. ^ "Jacksonville Public Library: Profile". Retrieved on 2007-08-19. ^ "The Better Jacksonville Plan". Retrieved on 2007-07-19. ^ Clark, Hannah (2007-02-16). "Table: Best Cities for Jobs". Forbes.com. Retrieved on 2007-12-20. ^ Woolsey, Matt (2007-10-31). "In Pictures: America's Fastest-Growing Cities". Forbes.com. Retrieved on 2007-12-20. ^ Bnet Business Network: Cities of the United States (2005)-Jacksonville: Economy ^ Bouchard4B website: Things I didn't know about Jaxport ^ The Florida Legislature Archive: BILL# HB945 RELATING TO the Jacksonville Seaport Authority ^ The Jacksonville Port Authority (JAXPORT) ^ "Jacksonville Sisters Cities Association". Retrieved on 2007-07-19.  Further reading James B. Cooks, Jacksonville: The Consolidation Story, from Civil Rights to the Jaguars, University Press of Florida, 2004. Greg Jenkins, Florida's Ghostly Legends And Haunted Folklore: North Florida And St. Augustine, Pineapple Press, 2005. Buddy Martin, The Boys from Old Florida: Inside Gator Nation, Sports Publishing, 2006 Herman Mason, Jr., African-American Life in Jacksonville, Arcadia Publishing, 1997. Joanelle Mulrain, Re-Rooting Life's Journeys Keeping the Faith: Race, Politics, and Social Development in Jacksonville, Florida, 1940-1970, Greenwood Publishing, 2000. John Oehser, Jags to Riches: The Cinderella Season of the Jacksonville Jaguars, St. Martins Press, 1997. Daniel Schaefer, From scratch pads and dreams: A ten year history of the University of North Florida, University of North Florida, 1982. Jules Wagman, Jacksonville and Florida's First Coast, Windsor Publishing, 1989. Dr. Caroyln Williams, Historic Photos of Jacksonville, Turner Publishing Company, 2006. 40 years ago this weekend, Jacksonville gave itself a national reputation for violence. The Florida Times-Union. Foley, Bill; Wood, Wayne (2001). The great fire of 1901 (1st ed.). Jacksonville, Florida: The Jacksonville Historical Society. ISBN 0-9710261-0-6  External links Find more about Jacksonville, Florida on Wikipedia's sister projects: Dictionary definitions Textbooks Quotations Source texts Images and media News stories Learning resources Jacksonville & & the Beaches Convention and Visitors Bureau Jacksonville Sisters Cities Association City of Jacksonville Official Site Clay County Chamber of Commerce Duval County Schools Jacksonville.com - Florida Times-Union Jacksonville Chamber of Commerce Jacksonville (Florida) at the Open Directory Project Jacksonville Public Library Jacksonville, Florida is at coordinates 30°19′10″N 81°39′36″W / 30.319406, -81.659999 (Jacksonville, Florida)Coordinates: 30°19′10″N 81°39′36″W / 30.319406, -81.659999 (Jacksonville, Florida) [show]v • d • eMunicipalities and communities of Duval County, Florida County seat: Jacksonville Cities Atlantic Beach | Jacksonville | Jacksonville Beach | Neptune Beach Town Baldwin [show]v • d • eGreater Jacksonville Metropolitan Area Central city Jacksonville Municipalities over 10,000 population (in 2000) Jacksonville Beach (Duval) • Atlantic Beach (Duval) • Fernandina Beach (Nassau) • Macclenny (Baker) • St. Augustine (St. Johns) Municipalities 1,000-10,000 population (in 2000) Baldwin (Duval) • Neptune Beach (Duval) • Green Cove Springs (Clay) • Keystone Heights (Clay) • Orange Park (Clay) • Penney Farms (Clay) • Callahan (Nassau) • Hilliard (Nassau) • Glen St. Mary (Baker) • St. Augustine Beach (St. Johns) • Hastings (St. Johns) • Marineland (St. Johns) • Crescent Beach (St. Johns) Counties Duval • Clay • St. Johns • Nassau • Baker [show]v • d • e50 largest cities of the United States by population New York City Los Angeles Chicago Houston Phoenix Philadelphia San Antonio San Diego Dallas San Jose Detroit Jacksonville Indianapolis San Francisco Columbus Austin Fort Worth Memphis Charlotte Baltimore El Paso Milwaukee Boston Seattle Nashville Denver Washington Las Vegas Louisville Portland Oklahoma City Tucson Atlanta Albuquerque Fresno Long Beach Sacramento Mesa Kansas City Cleveland Virginia Beach Omaha Miami Oakland Tulsa Minneapolis Colorado Springs Raleigh Honolulu Arlington [show]v • d • eMayors of cities with populations of 100,000 in Florida John Peyton (Jacksonville) Manny Diaz (Miami) Pam Iorio (Tampa) Rick Baker (St. Petersburg) Buddy Dyer (Orlando) Julio Robaina (Hialeah) Jim Naugle (Fort Lauderdale) John Marks (Tallahassee) Eric Feichthaler (Cape Coral) Patricia Christensen (Port St. Lucie) Frank C. Ortis (Pembroke Pines) Peter Bober (Hollywood) Scott J. Brook (Coral Springs) Pegeen Hanrahan (Gainesville) Lori Cohen Moseley (Miramar) Frank Hibbard (Clearwater) Lamar Fisher (Pompano Beach) John Mazziotti (Palm Bay) Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jacksonville,_Florida" Categories: Settlements established in 1791 | 1832 establishments | Cities in Duval County, Florida | County seats in Florida | Port settlements in Florida | Settlements on the St. Johns River | Greater Jacksonville | Jacksonville, Florida
227's YouTube "Chili" - STOMP THE YARD (BLACK COLLEGE STEP SHOW MOVIE) Starring Columbus Short, Meagan Good, Ne-Yo, Darrin Henson, Chris Brown, Brian White, Las Alonso, Valerie Pettiford & Harry Lennix (NBA Mix)!
Beyonce * Maxwell * Mario ft. Gucci Mane & sean Garrett * Drake ft. Lil Wayne * Ginuwine * Fabolous Featuring The-Dream * Keyshia Cole Duet With Monica * Jay-Z, Rihanna & Kanye West * Gucci Mane Featuring Plies * Mary Mary Featuring Kierra "KiKi" Sheard * Ice Cream Paint Job * Pleasure P * Mariah Carey * Trey Songz * Trey Songz Featuring Gucci Mane & Soulja Boy Tell'em * R. Kelly Featuring Keri Hilson * K'Jon * Young Money * Twista Featuring Erika Shevon * Yo Gotti * New Boyz * Jeremih * Keri Hilson Featuring Kanye West & Ne-Yo * Musiq Soulchild * Whitney Houston * Anthony Hamilton * Charlie Wilson * Chrisette Michele * Jamie Foxx Featuring T-Pain * Plies * LeToya Featuring Ludacris * Mary J. Blige Featuring Drake * Mullage * Charlie Wilson * Jamie Foxx Featuring Drake, Kanye West + The-Dream * Jamie Foxx Featuring Drake, Kanye West + The-Dream * Jeremih * Mishon * Jennifer Hudson * Clipse Featuring Pharrell Williams * Kid Cudi Featuring Kanye West & Common * Raphael Saadiq Featuring Stevie Wonder & CJ * Anthony Hamilton Featuring David Banner * Jazmine Sullivan * Trey Songz Featuring Drake * F.L.Y. (Fast Life Yungstaz) * Laura Izibor
Jamaal Al-Din's Hoops 227 (227's YouTube Chili")!
Beyonce * Shakira * Jordin Sparks * Mariah Carey * New Boyz * Jason DeRulo * Mario ft. Gucci Mane & Sean Garrett * Katy Perry * The Black Eyed Peas * Colby Caillat * Fabolous ft. The Dream * Jason Aldean * Daughtry * Lady Gaga * Michael Franti & Spearhead Featuring Cherine Anderson * Boys Like Girls * Flo Rida Featuring Ne-Yo * Dorrough * Green Day * Linkin Park * Pink * Justin Bieber * Rob Thomas * Maxwell * Jason Mraz * Young Money * The Fray * Rascal Flatts * Zac Brown Band * Shinedown * Disney's Friends For Change * Toby Keith * Darius Rucker * Cascada * Billy Currington * Justin Moore * Kid Cudi Featuring Kanye West & Common * Keith Urban * Randy Houser * Drake Featuring Lil Wayne * Jeremih * Pearl Jam * Kelly Clarkson * George Strait * LMFAO * Twista Featuring Erika Shevon * Uncle Kracker * Eric Church * Jack Ingram * Love And Theft * Parachute * Chris Young * Theory Of A Deadman * Tim McGraw * Sean Paul * Gloriana * Creed * Ginuwine * Keyshia Cole Duet With Monica * Blake Shelton * Iyaz
2009 NCAA Basketball Tournament! List of NCAA Division 1 Teams & Coaches at 227!
America East Conference Albany - Will Brown Binghamton - Kevin Broadus Boston University - Dennis Wolff Hartford - Dan Leibovitz Maine - Ted Woodward New Hampshire - Bill Herrion Stony Brook - Steve Pikiell UMBC - Randy Monroe Vermont - Mike Lonergan 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! America East Conference
Atlantic 10 Conference Charlotte - Bobby Lutz Dayton - Brian Gregory Duquesne - Ron Everhart Fordham - Dereck Whittenburg George Washington - Karl Hobbs La Salle - John Giannini Rhode Island - Jim Baron Richmond - Chris Mooney St. Bonaventure - Mark Schmidt Saint Joseph's - Phil Martelli Saint Louis - Rick Majerus Temple - Fran Dunphy UMass - Derek Kellogg Xavier - Sean Miller 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Atlantic 10 Conference
Atlantic Coast Conference Boston College - Al Skinner Clemson - Oliver Purnell Duke - Mike Krzyzewski Florida State - Leonard Hamilton Georgia Tech - Paul Hewitt Maryland - Gary Williams Miami (Florida) - Frank Haith North Carolina - Roy Williams North Carolina State - Sidney Lowe Virginia - Dave Leitao Virginia Tech - Seth Greenberg Wake Forest - Dino Gaudio 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Atlantic Coast Conference
Atlantic Sun Conference Belmont - Rick Byrd Campbell - Robbie Laing East Tennessee State - Murry Bartow Florida Gulf Coast - Dave Balza Jacksonville - Cliff Warren Kennesaw State - Tony Ingle Lipscomb - Scott Sanderson Mercer - Bob Hoffman North Florida - Matt Kilcullen Stetson - Derek Waugh USC Upstate - Eddie Payne 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Atlantic Sun Conference
Big 12 Conference Baylor - Scott Drew Colorado - Jeff Bzdelik Iowa State - Greg McDermott Kansas - Bill Self Kansas State - Frank Martin Missouri - Mike Anderson Nebraska - Doc Sadler Oklahoma - Jeff Capel III Oklahoma State - Travis Ford Texas - Rick Barnes Texas A&M - Mark Turgeon Texas Tech - Pat Knight 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Big 12 Conference
Big East Conference Cincinnati - Mick Cronin Connecticut - Jim Calhoun DePaul - Jerry Wainwright Georgetown - John Thompson III Louisville - Rick Pitino Marquette - Buzz Williams Notre Dame - Mike Brey Pittsburgh - Jamie Dixon Providence - Keno Davis Rutgers - Fred Hill St. John's - Norm Roberts Seton Hall - Bobby Gonzalez South Florida - Stan Heath Syracuse - Jim Boeheim Villanova - Jay Wright West Virginia - Bobby Huggins 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Big East Conference
Big Sky Conference Eastern Washington - Kirk Earlywine Idaho State - Joe O'Brien Montana - Wayne Tinkle Montana State - Brad Huse Northern Arizona - Mike Adras Northern Colorado - Tad Boyle Portland State - Ken Bone Sacramento State - Brian Katz Weber State - Randy Rahe 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Big Sky Conference
Big South Conference Charleston Southern - Barclay Radebaugh Coastal Carolina - Cliff Ellis Gardner-Webb - Rick Scruggs High Point - Bart Lundy Liberty - Ritchie McKay Presbyterian - Gregg Nibert Radford - Brad Greenberg UNC-Asheville - Eddie Biedenbach VMI - Duggar Baucom Winthrop - Randy Peele 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Big South Conference
Big Ten Conference Illinois - Bruce Weber Indiana - Tom Crean Iowa - Todd Lickliter Michigan - John Beilein Michigan State - Tom Izzo Minnesota - Tubby Smith Northwestern - Bill Carmody Ohio State - Thad Matta Penn State - Ed DeChellis Purdue - Matt Painter Wisconsin - Bo Ryan 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Big Ten Conference
Big West Conference Cal Poly - Kevin Bromley Cal State Fullerton - Bob Burton Cal State Northridge - Bobby Braswell Long Beach State - Dan Monson Pacific - Bob Thomason UC Davis - Gary Stewart UC Irvine - Pat Douglass UC Riverside - Jim Wooldridge UC Santa Barbara - Bob Williams 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Big West Conference
Colonial Athletic Association Delaware - Monte Ross Drexel - Bruiser Flint George Mason - Jim Larranaga Georgia State - Rod Barnes Hofstra - Tom Pecora James Madison - Matt Brady Northeastern - Bill Coen Old Dominion - Blaine Taylor Towson - Pat Kennedy UNC-Wilmington - Benny Moss Virginia Commonwealth - Anthony Grant William & Mary - Tony Shaver 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Colonial Athletic Association
Conference USA East Carolina - Mack McCarthy Houston - Tom Penders Marshall - Donnie Jones Memphis - John Calipari Rice - Ben Braun Southern Methodist - Matt Doherty Southern Mississippi - Larry Eustachy Tulane - Dave Dickerson Tulsa - Doug Wojcik UAB - Mike Davis UCF - Kirk Speraw UTEP - Tony Barbee 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Conference USA
Horizon League - Butler - Brad Stevens Cleveland State - Gary Waters Detroit - Ray McCallum Loyola (Chicago) - Jim Whitesell UIC - Jimmy Collins UW-Green Bay - Tod Kowalczyk UW-Milwaukee - Rob Jeter Valparaiso - Homer Drew Wright State - Brad Brownell Youngstown State - Jerry Slocum 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Horizon League
Independents Bryant - Tim O'Shea Cal State Bakersfield - Keith Brown Chicago State - Benjy Taylor Houston Baptist - Ron Cottrell Longwood - Mike Gillian New Jersey Institute of Technology - Jim Engles North Carolina Central - Henry Dickerson Savannah State - Horace Broadnax SIU-Edwardsville - Lennox Forrester Texas-Pan American - Tom Schuberth Utah Valley - Dick Hunsaker 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! NCAA Division I independent schools (basketball)
Ivy League Brown - Jesse Agel Columbia - Joe Jones Cornell - Steve Donahue Dartmouth - Terry Dunn Harvard - Tommy Amaker Penn - Glen Miller Princeton - Sydney Johnson Yale - James Jones 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Ivy League
Metro Atlantic Athletic Conference Canisius - Tom Parrotta Fairfield - Ed Cooley Iona - Kevin Willard Loyola (Maryland) - Jimmy Patsos Manhattan - Barry Rohrssen Marist - Chuck Martin Niagara - Joe Mihalich Rider - Tommy Dempsey St. Peter's - John Dunne Siena - Fran McCaffery 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Mid-American Conference
Mid-American Conference Akron – Keith Dambrot Ball State – Billy Taylor Bowling Green – Louis Orr Buffalo – Reggie Witherspoon Central Michigan – Ernie Ziegler Eastern Michigan – Charles Ramsey Kent State – Geno Ford Miami – Charlie Coles Northern Illinois – Ricardo Patton Ohio – John Groce Toledo – Gene Cross Western Michigan – Steve Hawkins 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Mid-American Conference
Mid-Eastern Athletic Conference Bethune-Cookman - Clifford Reed Coppin State - Ron Mitchell Delaware State - Greg Jackson Florida A&M - Mike Gillespie Hampton - Kevin Nickelberry Howard - Gil Jackson Maryland-Eastern Shore - Meredith Smith Morgan State - Todd Bozeman Norfolk State - Anthony Evans North Carolina A&T - Jerry Eaves South Carolina State - Tim Carter Winston-Salem State - Bobby Collins 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Mid-Eastern Athletic Conference
Missouri Valley Conference Bradley - Jim Les Creighton - Dana Altman Drake - Mark Phelps Evansville - Marty Simmons Illinois State - Tim Jankovich Indiana State - Kevin McKenna Missouri State - Cuonzo Martin Northern Iowa - Ben Jacobson Southern Illinois - Chris Lowery Wichita State - Gregg Marshall 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Missouri Valley Conference
Mountain West Conference Air Force - Jeff Reynolds Brigham Young - Dave Rose Colorado State - Tim Miles New Mexico - Steve Alford San Diego State - Steve Fisher Texas Christian - Neil Dougherty UNLV - Lon Kruger Utah - Jim Boylen Wyoming - Heath Schroyer 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Mountain West Conference
Northeast Conference Central Connecticut State - Howie Dickenman Fairleigh Dickinson - Tom Green LIU-Brooklyn - Jim Ferry Monmouth - Dave Calloway Mount St. Mary's - Milan Brown Quinnipiac - Tom Moore Robert Morris - Mike Rice Jr. Sacred Heart - Dave Bike St. Francis (PA) - Don Friday St. Francis (NY) - Brian Nash Wagner - Mike Deane 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Northeast Conference
Ohio Valley Conference Austin Peay - Dave Loos Eastern Illinois - Mike Miller Eastern Kentucky - Jeff Neubauer Jacksonville State - James Green Morehead State - Donnie Tyndall Murray State - Billy Kennedy Southeast Missouri - Zac Roman Tennessee-Martin - Bret Campbell Tennessee State - Cy Alexander Tennessee Tech - Mike Sutton 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Ohio Valley Conference
Pacific-10 Conference Arizona - Russ Pennell Arizona State - Herb Sendek California - Mike Montgomery Oregon - Ernie Kent Oregon State - Craig Robinson Stanford - Johnny Dawkins UCLA - Ben Howland USC - Tim Floyd Washington - Lorenzo Romar Washington State - Tony Bennett 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Pacific-10 Conference
Patriot League American - Jeff Jones Army - Jim Crews Bucknell - Dave Paulsen Colgate - Emmett Davis Holy Cross - Ralph Willard Lafayette - Fran O'Hanlon Lehigh - Brett Reed Navy - Billy Lange 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Patriot League
Southeastern Conference Alabama - Philip Pearson Arkansas - John Pelphrey Auburn - Jeff Lebo Florida - Billy Donovan Georgia - Pete Herrmann Kentucky - Billy Gillispie LSU - Trent Johnson Mississippi - Andy Kennedy Mississippi State - Rick Stansbury South Carolina - Darrin Horn Tennessee - Bruce Pearl Vanderbilt - Kevin Stallings 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Southeastern Conference
Southern Conference Appalachian State - Houston Fancher Chattanooga - John Shulman The Citadel - Ed Conroy College of Charleston - Bobby Cremins Davidson - Bob McKillop Elon - Ernie Nestor Furman - Jeff Jackson Georgia Southern - Jeff Price Samford - Jimmy Tillette UNC-Greensboro - Mike Dement Western Carolina - Larry Hunter Wofford - Mike Young 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Southern Conference
Southland Conference Central Arkansas - Rand Chappell Lamar - Steve Roccaforte McNeese State - Dave Simmons Nicholls State - J. P. Piper Northwestern State - Mike McConathy Sam Houston State - Bob Marlin Southeastern Louisiana - Jim Yarbrough Stephen F. Austin - Danny Kaspar Texas A&M-Corpus Christi - Perry Clark Texas-Arlington - Scott Cross Texas-San Antonio - Brooks Thompson Texas State - Doug Davalos 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Southland Conference
Southwestern Athletic Conference Alabama A&M - L. Vann Pettaway Alabama State - Lewis Jackson Alcorn State - Samuel West Arkansas-Pine Bluff - George Ivory Grambling State - Larry Wright Jackson State - Tevester Anderson Mississippi Valley State - Sean Woods Prairie View A&M - Byron Rimm II Southern - Rob Spivery Texas Southern - Tony Harvey 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Southwestern Athletic Conference
The Summit League Centenary - Greg Gary IPFW - Dane Fife IUPUI - Ron Hunter North Dakota State - Saul Phillips Oakland - Greg Kampe Oral Roberts - Scott Sutton South Dakota State - Scott Nagy Southern Utah - Roger Reid UMKC - Matt Brown Western Illinois - Derek Thomas 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! The Summit League
Sun Belt Conference Arkansas-Little Rock - Steve Shields Arkansas State - Dickey Nutt Denver - Joe Scott Florida Atlantic - Mike Jarvis Florida International - Sergio Rouco Louisiana-Lafayette - Robert Lee Louisiana-Monroe - Orlando Early Middle Tennessee - Kermit Davis New Orleans - Joe Pasternack North Texas - Johnny Jones South Alabama - Ronnie Arrow Troy - Don Maestri Western Kentucky - Ken McDonald 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Sun Belt Conference
West Coast Conference Gonzaga - Mark Few Loyola Marymount - Rodney Tention Pepperdine - Vance Walberg Portland - Eric Reveno Saint Mary's - Randy Bennett San Diego - Bill Grier San Francisco - Rex Walters Santa Clara - Kerry Keating 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! West Coast Conference
Western Athletic Conference Boise State - Greg Graham Fresno State - Steve Cleveland Hawai?i - Bob Nash Idaho - Don Verlin Louisiana Tech - Kerry Rupp Nevada - Mark Fox New Mexico State - Marvin Menzies San Jose State - George Nessman Utah State - Stew Morrill 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Western Athletic Conference
2Pac 50 Cent A Adam Tensta Akon Aaliyah Ashanti Andre 3000 B Bow Wow Bobby Valentino Beyonce Bone Thugs n Harmony Birdman (rapper) Busta Rhymes Bobby Fischer C Chris Brown Cherish Cassidy Chingy Chamillionaire Christina Milian Chrisette Michele Cashis Ciara Cypress Hill Calzone Mafia Cuban Link D Destiny's Child DJ Clue Demetri Montaque Danity Kane Day 26 Donnie D12 DJ Khaled Dr. Dre E E-40 Eminem Eazy-E F Fabolous Flo Rida Fat Joe Frankie J G G-Unit The Game H Hurricane Chris I Ice Cube J Jay-Z J.R. Rotem J Holiday Jordan Sparks K Kanye West Kelly Rowland keri hilson The Kreators L Lil' Kim Lil' Mo Lil Jon Lil Mama Lloyd Banks Lil Wayne Ludacris Lloyd Lil Mama Lil Eazy-E Leona lewis M MC Hammer Mike Shorey MF Doom Mariah Carey Mario Mary J. Blige N Ne-Yo Nate Dogg Niia N.W.A. Notorious B.I.G. Nas Nick Cannon Nelly Necro O Olivia Omarion Obie Trice Old Dirty Bastard P Public Enemy Plies P Diddy pink Pharcyde Q R Red Cafe Run DMC Ray J R Kelly Rihanna Rick Ross (rapper) S Sean Combs Sean Kingston Snoop Dogg Stargate Sean Garrett Suge Knight Soulja Boy Tell 'Em Stat Quo shakira T The Notorious B.I.G. Tupac Shakur Trina Tyrese T-Pain Three 6 Mafia T.I. Too Phat U Usher V V.I.C. W Warren G Wyclef Jean Wu Tang Clan will.i.am X Xzibit Y Young Jeezy Yung Berg Z
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Annie Lennox B'z Britney Spears Carlos Santana Dalida Earth, Wind & Fire Eddy Arnold Eminem Eurythmics Gloria Estefan Hibari Misora Journey Scorpions Van Halen Ace of Base Alan Jackson Country Alice Cooper Hard rock Andrea Bocelli Opera The Andrews Sisters Swing Ayumi Hamasaki Pop Black Sabbath Heavy metal Barbra Streisand Pop / Adult contemporary Beach Boys Rock Pop Bob Dylan Folk / Rock Bob Seger Rock Boston Arena rock Boyz II Men R&B Bruce Springsteen Rock Bryan Adams Def Leppard Destiny's Child R&B / Pop Dreams Come True Pop / Jazz Duran Duran Enya Ireland Four Tops George Strait Glay Iron Maiden Jay-Z Hip hop Jean Michel Jarre Jethro Tull Johnny Cash Kazuhiro Moriuchi Kiss Hard rock Kenny G Kylie Minogue Luis Miguel Linkin Park Meat Loaf Michael Bolton Mills Brothers Mötley Crüe Mr.Children Nat King Cole New Kids on the Block Nirvana 'N Sync Oasis Orhan Gencebay Pearl Jam Petula Clark Red Hot Chili Peppers The Police Ray Conniff Reba McEntire R.E.M. Richard Clayderman Ricky Martin Robbie Williams Roxette Sweden Shakira Colombia
The Seekers Australia Spice Girls Tom Petty & The Heartbreakers Tony Bennett T.Rex UB40 Vicente Fernandez Village People Willie Nelson
Jamaal Al-Din, a native of Grand Rapids, Michigan and former leading scorer of Olympic Basketball and LSU great, Ed Palubinskas brings to you Michigan State University's and the NBA's Earvin "Magic" Johnson at 227's YouTube "MAGIC!" provided by Jamaal Al-Din's Hoops 227-the everything basketball website, featuring YouTube Videos and Wikipedia information on the legendary Earvin "Magic" Johnson, The Magic Johnson Foundation, Magic Johnson Enterprises, and everything including the magical phrase..."MAGIC!" 227's YouTube "MAGIC!"
As we look to expand basketball marketing, camps and clinics nationally, our basketball affiliate programs are scheduled to begin in March of 2008. Our affiliates, exciting, take a look at this list: ebay, StubHub.com, Yahoo Affiliate Program!, TickCo Premium Seating, RazorGator Affiliate Program, SightSell, VistaPrint.com, Pokeorder and WeHaveSeats.com. Jamaal Al-Din's Hoops 227 welcomes our affiliate partners for 2008. Among the items offered our NCAA & NBA basketball tickets both premium and discounted rates. Basketball shoes and apparel for kids, fans, players and coaches ranging from Air Jordans, LeBron James, NIKE, Adidas, AND1, hats, collectibles and memoralbilia! Jamaal Al-Din's Hoops 227- The everything basketball website!
?227's YouTube "Chili" features these exciting YouTube music and entertainment celebrities...click onto to these 227 YouTube "Chili" links, channels and articles for the most watched YouTube hip-hop music videos in the world!
Sean Kingston, Justin Timberlake, M.I.A'"Paper Planes!" , Timbaland, 50 Cent, P-Diddy, Kanye West. Rihanna, Chris Brown, T.I.-"Big Things Poppin!" , Rihanna- Hate That I Love You (over 29 million views on YouTube)!, Leona Lewis, Soulja Boy, Britney Spears, Alicia Keys, Avril Lavigne, Alicia Keys- No One, Akon, NE-YO, LL Cool J, Dr. Dre, Snoop Dogg, Dmx, Jay-z, The Notorious B.I.G, 2PAC, Will Smith, Jonas Brothers, Pink "So What!" , Jordin Sparks feta. Chris Brown- "No Air" Official Music Video-over 33 million views on YouTube!), Lil Jon- get low music movie, Ludacris, Ice Cube, Flo Rida feat. T.Pain Music from the Movie Step Up 2 "Low," Chris Brown*Chris Brown feat. T.Pain- Kiss Kiss (over 51 million views on YouTube)!, Chris Brown-"With You," Chris Brown feat. Lil' Wayne (over 56 million views on YouTube!, Chris Brown "YO," Chris Brown-Run It, Chris Brown- Forever, Wu Tang Clan, The Fugees, Jordin Sparks-Tattoo, Rhianna- Cry, Rihanna- unfaithful, Rhianna- Umbrella (over 43 million views on YouTube/You Tube)!, Ashanti, Fergie Fergalicious, Fergie- Clumsy!, Rhianna- Dont' Stop The Music (over 62 million views on YouTube), Avril Lavign- Girlfriend (over 92 million views on YouTube)!, Clay Aiken, Akon, Christina Aguilera-Hurt, Clay Aiken-On My Way Here, All-American Rejects, All-American Rejects-Move Along, All-American Rejects-It Ends Tonight, Ashley Parker Angel, Michael Jackson ("Thriller"), Backstreet Boys, Augustana, Natasha Bedingfeild, Michael Jackson, Natasha Bedingfield feat. Sean Kingston-Love Like This, Natasha Bedingfield-Pocketful of Sunshine and lots more at 227's YouTube Chili!!! Your source for the world's most watched YouTube Music Videos at Jamaal Al-Din's Hoops 227- the everything basketball website!
Also: Jesse McCartney, Ray J,Usher,Elliott Yamin,Jonas Brothers,Fergie,Taylor Swift, Nelly Furtado, Jennifer Lopez, Flyleaf,Maroon 5,Kanye West,Keyshia Cole, The Pussycat Dolls,Colby O'Donis,Ashanti,R. Kelly,Girlicious, Colbi Calliat, Boy George,Mario,Three Days Grace,Beyonce', Gorillaz,Carrie Underwood,3 Doors Down,Finger Eleven, Ginuwine,Baby Bash,Kid Rock,Joe, Gwen Steffani, Billy Ray Cyrus, Danity Kane, Janel Parrish, Ciara, NLT, Fall Out Boy, Josh Turner, Fantasia and more!