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Star Wars From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search This article is about the media franchise. For the 1977 film, see Star Wars Episode IV: A New Hope. For other uses, see Star Wars (disambiguation). The Star Wars logo, as seen in all films. Star Wars portal Star Wars is an epic space opera franchise initially conceived by George Lucas. The first film in the franchise was simply titled Star Wars, but later had the subtitle Episode IV: A New Hope added to distinguish it from its sequels and prequels. Star Wars!Star Wars was released on May 25, 1977 by 20th Century Fox, and became a worldwide pop culture phenomenon, spawning two immediate sequels released in three-year intervals. Sixteen years after the release of the trilogy's final film, the first in a new prequel trilogy of films was released, again released in three-year intervals, with the final film released on May 19, 2005. As of 2008, the overall box office revenue generated by the six Star Wars films has totalled approximately $4.3 billion, making it the third-highest grossing film series, behind only Harry Potter and James Bond. Star Wars!The franchise has spawned other media including books, television series, video games, and comic books. These supplements to the film trilogies comprise the Star Wars Expanded Universe, and have resulted in significant development of the series' fictional universe. These media kept the franchise going in the interim between the film trilogies. In 2008, Star Wars: The Clone Wars was released to theaters as the first ever worldwide theatrical Star Wars film outside of the main trilogies. It was the franchise's first animated film, and was intended as an introduction to the Expanded Universe series of the same name, a 3D CGI animated series based on a 2003 animated 2D series, also of the same name. Contents [hide] 1 Setting 2 Feature films 2.1 Plot overview 2.2 Themes 2.3 Technical information 2.4 Production history 2.4.1 Original trilogy 2.4.2 Prequel trilogy 2.5 Future releases 3 Box office performance 4 Critical reaction 5 Expanded Universe 5.1 Other films 5.2 Animated series 5.3 Literature 5.4 Games 5.5 Fan works 6 Legacy 7 See also 8 Notes 9 References 10 Further reading 11 External links Setting The events depicted in Star Wars media take place in a fictional galaxy. Many species of alien creatures (often humanoid) are depicted. Robotic droids are also commonplace and are generally built to serve their owners. Space travel is common, and many planets in the galaxy are members of a Galactic Republic, later reorganized as the Galactic Empire. One of the prominent elements of Star Wars is the "Force", which is an omnipresent form of energy which can be harnessed by those with that ability. It is described in the first produced film as "an energy field created by all living things [that] surrounds us, penetrates us, [and] binds the galaxy together." The Force allows users to perform a variety of supernatural feats (such as telekinesis, clairvoyance, precognition, and mind control) and also can amplify certain physical traits, such as speed and reflexes; these abilities can vary from user to user and can be improved through training. While the Force can be used for good, it has a dark side that, when pursued, imbues users with hatred, aggression, and malevolence. The six films feature the Jedi, who use the Force for good, and the Sith, who use the dark side for evil in an attempt to take over the galaxy. In the Expanded Universe many dark side users are Dark Jedi rather than Sith, mainly because of the Rule of Two (see Sith Origin). Feature films The Star Wars franchise began as a film series. The original trilogy comprised of Star Wars, released on May 25, 1977, The Empire Strikes Back, released on May 21, 1980, and Return of the Jedi, released on May 25, 1983. The opening crawl of the sequels disclosed that they were numbered as "Episode V" and "Episode VI" respectively, though the films were generally advertised solely under their subtitles. Once Star Wars became a success and sequels were realized, Lucas numbered the initial film as "Episode IV" and gave it the subtitle A New Hope when the film was re-released in 1981. In 1997, to correspond with the twentieth anniversary of the release of Star Wars, Lucas released "Special Editions" of the three films to theaters. The re-releases featured alterations to the original films, primarily motivated by the improvement of CGI and other special effects technologies, which allowed visuals that were not possible to achieve at the time of the original filmmaking. Lucas continued to make changes to the original trilogy for subsequent releases, such as the first ever DVD release of the trilogy on September 21, 2004. More than two decades after the release of
the original film, the film series continued with long-awaited prequel trilogy began with Episode I: The Phantom Menace on May 19, 1999, followed by Episode II: Attack of the Clones on May 16, 2002, and ending with Episode III: Revenge of the Sith on May 19, 2005. Plot overview The prequel trilogy follows the upbringing of Anakin Skywalker, who is discovered by the Jedi Knight Qui-Gon Jinn. He is believed to be the "Chosen One" foretold by Jedi prophecy to bring balance to the Force. The Jedi Council, led by Yoda, sense that his future is clouded with fear, but reluctantly allow Qui-Gon's apprentice Obi-Wan Kenobi to train Anakin after Qui-Gon is killed by the Sith Lord Darth Maul. At the same time, the planet Naboo is under attack, and its ruler, Queen Padmé Amidala, seeks the assistance of the Jedi to repel the attack. The Sith Lord Darth Sidious secretly planned the attack to give his alias, Senator Palpatine, a pretense to overthrow the Supreme Chancellor of the Galactic Republic. The remainder of the prequel trilogy chronicles Anakin's fall to the dark side, as Sidious attempts to create an army to defeat the Jedi and lure Anakin to be his apprentice. Anakin and Padmé fall in love and eventually she becomes pregnant. Anakin soon succumbs to his anger, becoming the Sith Lord Darth Vader. While Sidious re-organizes the Republic into the Galactic Empire, Vader participates in the extermination of the Jedi Order, culminating in a lightsaber battle between him and Obi-Wan. After defeating his former apprentice, Obi-Wan leaves Vader for dead - but Sidious arrives shortly after to save him and put him into a suit of black armor that keeps him alive. At the same time, Padmé dies while giving birth to twins. The twins are hidden from Vader and not told of their true parents. Tatooine has two suns, as it is in a binary star system. This shot from A New Hope remains one of the most famous scenes of the entire saga.The original trilogy begins 19 years later as Vader nears completion of the massive Death Star space station which will allow him and Sidious, now the Emperor, to crush the rebellion which has formed against the evil empire. He captures Princess Leia Organa who has stolen the plans to the Death Star and hidden them in droid R2-D2. R2-D2, along with his counterpart C-3PO, escape to the planet Tatooine. There, the droids are purchased by Luke Skywalker, son of Anakin, and his step-uncle and aunt. While Luke is cleaning R2-D2, he accidentally triggers a message put into the robot by Leia, who asks for assistance from Obi-Wan. Luke later assists the droids in finding the Jedi Knight, who is now passing as an old hermit under the alias Ben Kenobi. Obi-Wan tells Luke of his father's greatness, but says that he was killed by Vader. Obi-Wan and Luke hire the Corellian space pilot and smuggler Han Solo and his Wookiee co-pilot Chewbacca to take them to the rebels. Obi-Wan begins to teach Luke about the Force, but allows himself to be killed in a showdown with Vader during the rescue of Leia. His sacrifice allows the group to escape with the plans that allow the rebels to destroy the Death Star. Vader continues to hunt down the rebels, and begins building a second Death Star. Luke travels to find Yoda to become trained as a Jedi, but is interrupted when Vader lures him into a trap by capturing Han and the others. Vader reveals that he is Luke's father and attempts to turn him to the dark side. Luke escapes, and returns to his training with Yoda. He learns that he must face his father before he can become a Jedi, and that Leia is his twin sister. As the rebels attack the second Death Star, Luke confronts Vader under the watch of the Emperor. Instead of convincing Luke to join the dark side, the young Jedi defeats Vader in a lightsaber duel and is able to convince him that there is still some good in him. Vader kills the Emperor before succumbing to his own injuries, and the second Death Star is destroyed, restoring freedom to the galaxy. Themes See also: Philosophy and religion in Star Wars and The Force (Star Wars) Star Wars features elements such as (Jedi) knights, witches, and princesses that are related to archetypes of the fantasy genre. The Star Wars world, unlike science-fiction and fantasy films that featured sleek and futuristic settings, was portrayed as dirty and grimy. Lucas' vision of a "used universe" was further popularized in the science fiction-horror films Alien, which was set on a dirty space freighter; Mad Max 2, which is set in a post-apocalyptic desert; and Blade Runner, which is set in a crumbling, dirty city of the future. Lucas made a conscious effort to parallel scenes and dialogue between films, and especially to parallel the journeys of Luke Skywalker with that of his father Anakin when making the prequels. Technical information All six films of the Star Wars series were shot in an aspect ratio of 2.35:1. The original trilogy was shot with anamorphic lenses. Episodes IV and V were shot in Panavision, while Episode VI was shot in Joe Dunton Camera (JDC) scope. Episode I was shot with Hawk anamorphic lenses on Arriflex cameras, and Episodes II and III were shot with Sony's CineAlta high-definition digital cameras. Lucas hired Ben Burtt to oversee the sound effects on A New Hope. Burtt's accomplishment was such that the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences presented him with a Special Achievement Award because it had no award at the time for the work he had done. Lucasfilm developed the THX sound reproduction standard for Return of the Jedi. The scores for the six Star Wars films were composed by John Williams. Lucas' design for Star Wars involved a grand musical sound, with leitmotifs for different characters and important concepts. Williams' Star Wars title theme has become one of the most famous and well-known musical compositions in modern music history. Production history Original trilogy George Lucas, the creator of Star Wars.In 1971, Universal Studios agreed to make American Graffiti and Star Wars in a two-picture contract, although Star Wars was later rejected in its early concept stages. American Graffiti was completed in 1973 and, a few months later,
Lucas wrote a short summary called "The Journal of the Whills", which told the tale of the training of apprentice C.J. Thorpe as a "Jedi-Bendu" space commando by the legendary Mace Windy. Frustrated that his story was too difficult to understand, Lucas then wrote a 13-page treatment called The Star Wars, which was a loose remake of Akira Kurosawa's The Hidden Fortress. By 1974, he had expanded the treatment into a rough draft screenplay, adding elements such as the Sith, the Death Star, and a young boy as the protagonist named Annikin Starkiller. For the second draft, Lucas made heavy simplifications, and also introduced the young hero on a farm as Luke. Annikin became Luke's father, a wise Jedi knight. The "Force" was also introduced as a supernatural power. The next draft removed the father character and replaced him with a substitute named Ben Kenobi, and in 1976 a fourth draft had been prepared for principal photography. The film was titled Adventures of Luke Starkiller, as taken from the Journal of the Whills, Saga I: The Star Wars. During production, Lucas changed Luke's name to Skywalker and altered the title to simply The Star Wars and finally Star Wars. At that point, Lucas was not expecting the film to become part of a series. The fourth draft of the script underwent subtle changes that made it more satisfying as a self-contained film, ending with the destruction of the Empire itself by way of destroying the Death Star. However, Lucas had previously conceived of the film as the first in a series of adventures. Later, he realised the film would not in fact be the first in the sequence, but a film in the second trilogy in the saga. This is stated explicitly in George Lucas' preface to the 1994 reissue of Splinter of the Mind's Eye: It wasn't long after I began writing Star Wars that I realized the story was more than a single film could hold. As the saga of the Skywalkers and Jedi Knights unfolded, I began to see it as a tale that could take at last nine films to tell—three trilogies—and I realized, in making my way through the back story and after story, that I was really setting out to write the middle story. The second draft contained a teaser for a never-made sequel about "The Princess of Ondos," and by the time of the third draft some months later Lucas had negotiated a contract that gave him rights to make two sequels. Not long after, Lucas met with author Alan Dean Foster, and hired him to write these two sequels as novels. The intention was that if Star Wars were successful, Lucas could adapt the novels into screenplays. He had also by that point developed a fairly elaborate backstory to aid his writing process. When Star Wars proved successful, Lucas decided to use the film as the basis for an elaborate serial, although at one point he considered walking away from the series altogether. However, Lucas wanted to create an independent filmmaking center—what would become Skywalker Ranch—and saw an opportunity to use the series as a financing agent. Alan Dean Foster had already begun writing the first sequel novel, but Lucas decided to abandon his plan to adapt Foster's work; the book was released as Splinter of the Mind's Eye the next year. At first Lucas envisioned a series of films with no set number of entries, like the James Bond series. In an interview with Rolling Stone in August 1977, he said that he wanted his friends to each take a turn at directing the films and giving unique interpretations on the series. He also said that the backstory where Darth Vader turns to the dark side, kills Luke's father and fights Ben Kenobi on a volcano as the Galactic Republic falls would make an excellent sequel. Later that year, Lucas hired science fiction author Leigh Brackett to write Star Wars II with him. They held story conferences and by late November 1977, Lucas had produced a handwritten treatment called The Empire Strikes Back. The treatment is very similar to the final film except that Darth Vader does not reveal he is Luke's father. In the first draft that Brackett would write from this, Luke's father appears as a ghost to instruct Luke. Brackett finished her first draft in early 1978; Lucas has said he was disappointed with it, but before he could discuss it with her, she died from cancer. With no writer available, Lucas had to write his next draft himself. It was this draft in which Lucas first made use of the "Episode" numbering for the films; Empire Strikes Back was listed as Episode II. As Michael Kaminski argues in The Secret History of Star Wars, the disappointment with the first draft probably made Lucas consider different directions in which to take the story. He made use of a new plot twist: Darth Vader claims to be Luke's father. According to Lucas, he found this draft enjoyable to write, as opposed to the year-long struggles writing the first film, and quickly wrote two more drafts, both in April 1978. He also took the script to a darker extreme by having Han Solo become imprisoned in carbonite and left in limbo. This new story point of Darth Vader being Luke's father had drastic effects on the series. Michael Kaminski argues in his book that it is unlikely that the plot point had ever seriously been considered or even conceived of before 1978, and that the first film was clearly operating under an alternate storyline where Vader was separate from Luke's father; there is not a single reference to this plot point before 1978. After writing the second and third drafts of Empire Strikes Back in which the point was introduced, Lucas reviewed the new backstory he had created: Anakin Skywalker was Ben Kenobi's brilliant student; he had a child called Luke but was swayed to the dark side by Emperor Palpatine (who became a Sith and not simply a politician). Anakin battled Ben Kenobi on the site of a volcano and was wounded, but then resurrected as Darth Vader. Meanwhile Kenobi hid Luke on Tatooine while the Republic became the Empire and Vader hunted down the Jedi knights. With this new backstory in place, Lucas decided that the series would be a trilogy, changing Empire Strikes Back from Episode II to Episode V in the next draft. Lawrence Kasdan, who had just completed writing Raiders of the Lost Ark, was then hired to write the next drafts, and was given additional input from director Irvin Kershner. Kasdan, Kershner, and producer Gary Kurtz saw the film as a more serious and adult film, which was helped by the new, darker storyline, and developed the series from the light adventure roots of the first film. By the time he began writing Episode VI in 1981 (then titled Revenge of the Jedi), much had changed. Making Empire Strikes Back was stressful and costly, and Lucas' personal life was disintegrating. Burnt out, and not wanting to make any more Star Wars films, he vowed that
he was done with the series in a May 1983 interview with Time magazine. Lucas' 1981 rough drafts had Darth Vader competing with the Emperor for possession of Luke—and in the second script, the "revised rough draft," Vader became a sympathetic character. Lawrence Kasdan was hired to take over once again and, in these final drafts, Vader was explicitly redeemed and finally unmasked. This change in character would provide a springboard to the "Tragedy of Darth Vader" storyline that underlies the prequels. Prequel trilogy After losing much of his fortune in a divorce settlement in 1987, Lucas had no desire to return to Star Wars, and had unofficially canceled his Sequel Trilogy by the time of Return of the Jedi. However the prequels, which were quite developed, continued to fascinate him. After Star Wars became popular once again, in the wake of Dark Horse's comic line and Timothy Zahn's trilogy of novels, Lucas saw that there was still a large audience. His children had begun to grow older, and with the explosion of CGI technology he was now considering returning to directing. By 1993 it was announced, in Variety among other sources, that he would be making the prequels. He began outlining the story, now indicating that Anakin Skywalker would be the protagonist rather than Ben Kenobi, and that the series would be a tragic one examining Anakin's transformation to evil. Lucas also began to change how the prequels would exist relative to the originals — at first they were supposed to be a "filling-in" of history, backstory, existing parallel or tangential to the originals, but now he saw that they could form the beginning of one long story that started with Anakin's childhood and ended with his death. This was the final step towards turning the franchise into a "Saga". In 1994, Lucas began writing the first screenplay titled Episode I: The Beginning. Following the release of that film, Lucas announced that he would also be directing the next two, and began working on Episode II at that time. The first draft of Episode II was completed just weeks before principal photography, and Lucas hired Jonathan Hales, a writer from The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles, to polish it up. Unsure of a title, Lucas had jokingly called the film "Jar Jar's Great Adventure." In writing The Empire Strikes Back, Lucas initially decided that Lando Calrissian was a clone and came from a planet of clones which caused the "Clone Wars" mentioned by Kenobi in A New Hope; he later came up with an alternate concept of an army of clone shocktroopers from a remote planet which attacked the Republic and were repelled by the Jedi knights. The basic elements of that backstory became the plot basis for Episode II, with the new wrinkle added that the entire event was personal manipulation of Palpatine's. Lucas began working on Episode III even before Attack of the Clones was released, offering concept artists that the film would open with a montage of seven Clone War battles. As he reviewed the storyline that summer, however, he says he radically re-organized the plot. Michael Kaminski, in The Secret History of Star Wars, offers evidence that issues in Anakin's fall to the dark side prompted Lucas to make massive story changes, first revising the opening sequence to have Palpatine kidnapped and Dooku killed by Anakin as the first act in the latter's turn towards the dark side. After principal photography was complete in 2003, Lucas made even more massive changes in Anakin's character, re-writing his entire turn to the dark side — he would now turn primarily in a quest to save Padme from death, rather than the previous version in which that reason was one of several, including that he genuinely believed that the Jedi were evil and plotting to take over the Republic. This fundamental re-write was accomplished both through editing the principal footage, and new and revised scenes filmed during pick-ups in 2004. Lucas often exaggerated the amount of material he wrote for the series; much of it stemmed from the post–1978 period when the series grew into a phenomenon. Michael Kaminski explained that these exaggerations were both a publicity and security measure. Kaminski rationalized that since the series' story radically changed throughout the years, it was always Lucas' intention to change the original story retroactively because audiences would only view the material from his perspective. Future releases At a ShoWest convention in 2005, Lucas demonstrated new technology and stated that he planned to release the six films in a new 3-D film format, beginning with A New Hope in 2007. However, by January 2007, Lucasfilm stated on StarWars.com that "there are no definitive plans or dates for releasing the Star Wars saga in 3-D." At Celebration Europe in July 2007, Rick McCallum confirmed that Lucasfilm is "planning to take all six films and turn them into 3-D," but they are "waiting for the companies out there that are developing this technology to bring it down to a cost level that makes it worthwhile for everybody". In July 2008 Jeffrey Katzenberg, the CEO of Dreamworks Animations, let it slip that George Lucas is to redo all six of the movies in 3D.  Lucas has hinted in the past that he will release future, more definitive editions of the six Star Wars films on a next-generation home-video format. There have been discussions that he will take this opportunity to make any final adjustments, changes, additions, and/or subtractions to his films for this final release. An altered clip from The Phantom Menace included in a featurette on the DVD release of Revenge of the Sith (in which a computer generated Yoda replaces the original puppet) appears to be a sign that the "archival" editions are indeed in the works. Lucasfilm Vice President of Marketing Jim Ward confirmed that Lucasfilm is likely to do even more work on the films, stating "As the technology evolves and we get into a high-definition platform that is easily consumable by our customers, the situation is much better, but there will always be work to be done." Box office performance Film Release date Box office revenue Box office ranking United States Foreign Worldwide All-time domestic All-time worldwide Star Wars Episode IV: A New Hope May 25, 1977 $460,998,007 $314,400,000 $775,398,007 #3 #19 Star Wars Episode V: The Empire Strikes Back May 21, 1980 $290,475,067 $247,900,000 $538,375,067 #33 #52 Star Wars Episode VI: Return of the Jedi May 25, 1983 $309,306,177 $165,800,000 $475,106,177 #27 #68 Original Star Wars trilogy $1,069,779,251 $871,606,177 $1,788,879,321 Star Wars Episode I: The Phantom Menace May 19, 1999 $431,088,301 $493,229,257 $924,317,558 #5 #7 Star Wars Episode II: Attack of the Clones May 16, 2002 $310,676,740 $338,721,588 $649,398,328 #22 #32 Star Wars Episode III: Revenge of the Sith May 19, 2005 $380,270,577 $468,728,238 $848,998,815 #8 #16 Prequel Star Wars trilogy $1,122,035,083 $1,300,679,983 $2,422,714,701 Star Wars: The Clone Wars August 15, 2008 $35,161,554 $30,428,477 $65,590,031 #1,527 — Complete Star Wars film series $2,226,975,888 $2,316,942,637 $4,277,184,053 Critical reaction Film Rotten Tomatoes Metacritic Overall Cream of the Crop Star Wars Episode IV: A New Hope 95% (59 reviews) 88% (17 reviews) 91% (13 reviews) Star Wars Episode V: The Empire Strikes Back 97% (65 reviews) 88% (16 reviews) 78% (15 reviews) Star Wars Episode VI: Return of the Jedi 74% (58 reviews) 69% (16 reviews) 52% (14 reviews) Star Wars Episode I: The Phantom Menace 63% (153 reviews) 39% (16 reviews) 52% (35 reviews) Star Wars Episode II: Attack of the Clones 66% (211 reviews) 38% (39 reviews) 53% (39 reviews) Star Wars Episode III: Revenge of the Sith 79% (251 reviews)  68% (41 reviews) 68% (40 reviews) Star Wars: The Clone Wars 18% (147 reviews) 8% (24 reviews) 35% (30 reviews) Expanded Universe Main article: Star Wars Expanded Universe The term Expanded Universe (EU) is an umbrella term for officially licensed Star Wars material outside of the six feature films. The material expands the stories told in the films, taking place anywhere from 25,000 years before The Phantom Menace to 140 years after Return of the Jedi. The first Expanded Universe story appeared in Marvel Comics' Star Wars #7 in January 1978 (the first six issues of the series having been an adaptation of the film), followed quickly by Alan Dean Foster's novel Splinter of the Mind's Eye the following month. George Lucas retains artistic control over the Star Wars universe. For example, the death of central
characters and similar changes in the status quo must first pass his screening before authors are given the go-ahead. In addition, Lucasfilm Licensing devotes efforts to ensure continuity between the works of various authors across companies. Elements of the Expanded Universe have been adopted by Lucas for use in the films, such as the name of capital planet Coruscant, which first appeared in Timothy Zahn's novel Heir to the Empire before being used in The Phantom Menace. A character introduced in Dark Horse Comics' Star Wars series, a blue Twi'lek Jedi Knight named Aayla Secura, was liked enough by Lucas to be included as a character in Attack of the Clones. To date, six films and three animated series have been produced for television, with a live-action series and a 3D CGI animated series in pre-production as well as a 3D CGI full-length theatrical movie, The Clone Wars, which was released on August 15, 2008. Lucas has played a large role in the production of the television projects, usually serving as storywriter or executive producer. Star Wars has had numerous radio adaptations. A radio adaptation of A New Hope was first broadcast on National Public Radio in 1981. The adaptation was written by science fiction author Brian Daley and directed by John Madden. It was followed by adaptations of The Empire Strikes Back in 1983 and Return of the Jedi in 1996. The adaptations included background material created by Lucas but not used in the films. Mark Hamill, Anthony Daniels, and Billy Dee Williams reprised their roles as Luke Skywalker, C-3PO, and Lando Calrissian, respectively. The series also used John Williams' original score from the films and Ben Burtt's original sound designs. Other films In addition to the two trilogies, several authorized films have been produced: The Star Wars Holiday Special, a 1978 two-hour television special, shown only once and never released on video. Notable for the introduction of Boba Fett. Caravan of Courage: An Ewok Adventure, a 1984 American made-for-TV film - released theatrically overseas. Ewoks: The Battle for Endor, a 1985 American made-for-TV film - released theatrically overseas. The Great Heep, a 1986 animated television special from the Star Wars: Droids TV series. Star Wars: The Clone Wars, a 2008 theatrical release that leads into the animated TV series of the same name. Animated series Following the success of the movies and merchandising for both the original trilogy and its spin-offs, two cartoons were created for the younger fan base: Star Wars: Droids, also known as Droids, which premiered in September 1985, focused on the travels of R2-D2 and C-3P0 as they shift through various different owners/masters, and vaguely fills in the gaps between the events of Star Wars Episode III: Revenge of the Sith and Star Wars Episode IV: A New Hope. Star Wars: Ewoks and colloquially as The Ewoks, was simultaneously released in September 1985 and focused on the adventures of Wicket and various other recognizable Ewok characters from the original trilogy in the years leading up to Star Wars Episode VI: Return of the Jedi. Star Wars: Clone Wars cartoon series created by Genndy Tartakovsky that aired on Cartoon Network from 2003 to 2005. Star Wars: The Clone Wars animated series coming off of the animated movie Star Wars: The Clone Wars, that began in October, 2008. Literature Main articles: List of Star Wars books and List of Star Wars comic books Star Wars-based fiction predates the release of the first film, with the 1976 novelization of Star Wars (ghost-written by Alan Dean Foster and credited to Lucas). Foster's 1978 novel, Splinter of the Mind's Eye, was the first Expanded Universe work to be released. In addition to filling in the time between the films, this additional content greatly expanded the Star Wars timeline before and after the film series. Star Wars fiction flourished during the time of the original series (1977–1983) but slowed to a trickle afterwards. In 1992, however, Timothy Zahn's Thrawn Trilogy debuted, sparking a new interest in the Star Wars universe. Since then, several hundred tie-in novels have been published by Bantam and Del Rey. A similar resurgence in the Expanded Universe occurred in 1996 with the Steve Perry novel Shadows of the Empire, set between Episodes V and VI, and accompanying video game and comic book series. LucasBooks radically changed the face of the Star Wars universe with the introduction of the New Jedi Order series, which takes place some 20 years after Return of the Jedi and stars a host of new characters alongside series originals. For younger audiences, three series have been introduced. The Jedi Apprentice series follows the adventures of Qui-Gon Jinn and his apprentice Obi-Wan Kenobi before Episode I. The Jedi Quest series follows the adventures of Obi-Wan Kenobi and his apprentice Anakin Skywalker after Episode I and before Episode II. The third and currently on-going series is The Last Of the Jedi series which follows the adventure of Obi-Wan Kenobi and the adventures of a surviving Jedi almost immediately after Episode III. Marvel Comics published Star Wars comic book series and adaptations from 1977 to 1986. A wide variety of creators worked on this series, including Roy Thomas, Archie Goodwin, Howard Chaykin, Al Williamson, Carmine Infantino, Gene Day, Walt Simonson, Michael Golden, Chris Claremont, Whilce Portacio, Jo Duffy, and Ron Frenz. They also published a Star Wars newspaper strip by Russ Manning, Steve Gerber, and Archie Goodwin, the latter under a pseudonym. In the late 1980s, Marvel announced it would publish a new Star Wars comic by Tom Veitch and Cam Kennedy. However, in December 1991, Dark Horse Comics acquired the Star Wars license and used it to launch a number of ambitious sequels to the original trilogy instead, including the very popular Dark Empire stories. They have since gone on to publish a large number of original adventures set in the Star Wars universe. There have also been parody comics, including Tag and Bink. Games Main articles: Star Wars computer and video games, List of Star Wars video games, and Star Wars Trading Cards Since 1982, dozens of video games have been published bearing the Star Wars name, beginning with Star Wars: The Empire Strikes Back published for the Atari 2600 by Parker Brothers. Since then, Star Wars has opened the way to a myriad of space-flight simulation games, first-person shooter games, roleplaying games, RTS games, and others. Two different official tabletop role-playing games have been developed for the Star Wars universe: a version by West End Games in the 1980s and 1990s, and one by Wizards of the Coast in the 2000s. The best-selling games so far are the Lego Star Wars and the Battlefront series, with 12 million and 10 million units respectively. The latest games released are Lego Star Wars: The Complete Saga and Star Wars: The Force Unleashed, for the PS3, PSP, PS2, Xbox 360, Nintendo DS and Wii. While The Complete Saga focuses on all six episodes of the series, The Force Unleashed, of the same name of the multimedia project which it is a part of, takes place in the largely unexplored time period between Star Wars Episode III: Revenge of the Sith and Star Wars Episode IV: A New Hope and casts players as Darth Vader's "secret apprentice" hunting down the remaining Jedi. The game features a new game engine, and was released on September 16, 2008 in the United States. There are two more titles based around the Clone Wars which were released in November 2008 for the Nintendo DS (Star Wars: The Clone Wars - Jedi Alliance and Wii (Star Wars: The Clone Wars - Lightsaber Duels). Star Wars trading cards have been published since the first 'blue' series, by Topps, in 1977. Dozens of series have been produced, with Topps being the licensed creator in the United States. Some of the card series are of film stills, while others are original art. Many of the cards have become highly collectible with some very rare 'promos', such as the 1993 Galaxy Series II 'floating Yoda' P3 card often commanding US$1000 or more. While most 'base' or 'common card' sets are plentiful, many 'insert' or 'chase cards' are very rare. Fan works Main article: Star Wars fan films The Star Wars saga has inspired many fans to create their own apocrypha set in the Star Wars galaxy. In recent years, this has ranged from writing fan-fiction to creating fan films. In 2002, Lucasfilm sponsored the first annual Official Star Wars Fan Film Awards, officially recognizing filmmakers and the genre. Because of concerns over potential copyright and trademark issues, however, the contest was initially open only to parodies, mockumentaries, and documentaries. Fan-fiction films set in the Star Wars universe were originally ineligible, but in 2007 Lucasfilm changed the submission standards to allow in-universe fiction entries. While many of the serious fan films have used elements from
the licensed Expanded Universe to tell their story, they are not considered an official part of the Star Wars canon. Lucasfilm, for the most part, has allowed but not endorsed the creation of these derivative fan-fiction works, so long as no such work attempts to make a profit from or tarnish the Star Wars franchise in any way. Lucasfilm's open support and sanction of fan creations is a marked contrast to the attitudes of many other copyright holders. Some owners, such as Paramount Pictures with the Star Trek properties, have been known to actively discourage the creation of such works by fans. Legacy Main article: Cultural impact of Star Wars The Star Wars saga has had a significant impact on modern global pop culture. Both the films and characters have been parodied in numerous films and television. Notable film parodies of Star Wars include Hardware Wars, a 13 minute 1977 spoof which Lucas has called his favorite Star Wars parody, and Spaceballs, a feature film by Mel Brooks which featured effects done by Lucas' Industrial Light & Magic. Lucasfilm itself made two mockumentaries, Return of the Ewok (1982), about Wicket W. Warrick's actor Warwick Davis, and R2-D2: Beneath the Dome (2002), which depicts R2-D2 "life story". There have also been many songs based on, and in, the Star Wars universe. "Weird Al" Yankovic recorded two parodies: "Yoda", a parody of "Lola" by The Kinks; and "The Saga Begins", a parody of Don McLean's song "American Pie" that retells of The Phantom Menace from Obi-Wan Kenobi's perspective. When Ronald Reagan proposed the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI), a system of lasers and missiles meant to intercept incoming ICBMs, the plan was quickly labeled "Star Wars," implying that it was science fiction and linking it to Ronald Reagan's acting career. According to Frances Fitzgerald, Ronald Reagan was annoyed by this, but Assistant Secretary of Defense Richard Perle told colleagues that he "thought the name was not so bad."; "'Why not?' he said. 'It's a good movie. Besides, the good guys won.'" This gained further resonance when Reagan described the Soviet Union as an Evil Empire, which was taken from the opening crawl to A New Hope. See also Cast of Star Wars Empire of Dreams: The Story of the Star Wars Trilogy Physics and Star Wars Star Wars Games List of Star Wars creatures List of Star Wars weapons Dates in Star Wars Notes ^ Lucas, George. (2004). DVD commentary for Star Wars Episode IV: A New Hope [DVD]. 20th Century Fox. ^ "Star Wars' Earnings". AOL UK Money. 14 May 2007. http://money.aol.co.uk/enhPhotoGalleryPollPopup.adp?popupgalleryid=2277&photoid=0&pause=1&articleID=20070514132509990009. Retrieved on 27 December 2007. ^ a b c d (2006). Star Wars Episode IV: A New Hope [DVD]. 20th Century Fox. ^ a b c (2001). Star Wars Episode I: The Phantom Menace [DVD]. 20th Century Fox. ^ a b c (2002). Star Wars Episode II: Attack of the Clones [DVD]. 20th Century Fox. ^ a b c (2005). Star Wars Episode III: Revenge of the Sith [DVD]. 20th Century Fox. ^ a b c d (2004). Star Wars Episode V: The Empire Strikes Back [DVD]. 20th Century Fox. ^ a b c (2004). Star Wars Episode VI: Return of the Jedi [DVD]. 20th Century Fox. ^ Arnold, Gary (1997-01-26). "THE FORCE RETURNS: `Star Wars' Special Edition features some new tinkering but same old thrills.". The Washington Times. http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-56847187.html. Retrieved on 2008-03-28. ^ "Episode III Release Dates Announced". Star Wars. 2004-04-05. http://www.starwars.com/episode-iii/bts/production/news20040405.html. Retrieved on 2008-03-27. ^ http://www.greatestfilms.org/scenes41.html ^ "Star Wars plot summary". Ruined Endings. http://www.ruinedendings.com/film1226plot. Retrieved on 2008-03-29. ^ (2004). Empire of Dreams: The Story of the Star Wars Trilogy [DVD]. Star Wars Trilogy Box Set DVD documentary. ^ (2004). The Force Is With Them: The Legacy of Star Wars. Star Wars Original Trilogy DVD Box Set: Bonus Materials. ^ "Widescreen-O-Rama". The Digital Bits. http://www.thedigitalbits.com/articles/anamorphic/aspectratios/widescreenorama.html. Retrieved on 2008-03-27. ^ Sergi, Gianluca (March 1998). "Tales of the Silent Blast: Star Wars and Sound". Journal of Popular Film & Television 26 (1). ^ "Quality Home Theater Systems Products". Digital Home Theater. http://www.digihometheatre.com/surround-sound/thx.html. Retrieved on 2008-03-27. ^ "Star Wars Trilogy". Amazon.com. http://www.amazon.com/Star-Wars-Trilogy-John-Williams/dp/B0002YCVLU. Retrieved on 2008-03-27. ^ (Rinzler 2007, p. 8) ^ (Kaminski 2007, p. 50) ^ "Starkiller". Jedi Bendu. http://starwarz.com/starkiller/scripts.htm. 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Star Wars Insider (45). ^ (Kaminski 2007, p. 371) ^ (Kaminski 2007, p. 374) ^ (Bouzereau 1997, p. 196) ^ (Kaminski v.3.0 2007, p. 158) ^ (Kaminski v.3.0 2007, p. 162) ^ (Rinzler 2005, pp. 13–15) ^ (Rinzler 2005, p. 36) ^ (Kaminski 2007, pp. 380–384) ^ (2005). Star Wars: Episode III Revenge of the Sith documentary "Within a Minute" [DVD documentary]. ^ Arnold, William (12 May 2005). "Director George Lucas Takes A Look Back--And Ahead". Seattle Post-Intelligencer. ^ "Star Wars to enter third dimension". Guardian. 2005-03-18. http://film.guardian.co.uk/News_Story/Guardian/0,4029,1440820,00.html. Retrieved on 2008-01-09. ^ "Rick McCallum Talks Live Action TV Series and Star Wars 3-D". The Official Star Wars Blog. 2007-07-14. http://starwarsblog.wordpress.com/2007/07/14/rick-mccallum-talks-live-action-tv-series-and-star-wars-3-d/. Retrieved on 2007-07-17. ^ Techradar Techradar.com Retrieved on 2008-12-08. ^
"George Lucas Planning on a New Star Wars Video Release". Movieweb.com (Associated Press). 12 February 2007. http://www.movieweb.com/dvd/news/50/17650.php. Retrieved on 16 April 2008. ^ Drees, Rich. "George Lucas and the Not-So-Special Edition of Star Wars". Film Buff Online. http://www.filmbuffonline.com/Editorial/EditorialStarWars.htm. Retrieved on 16 April 2008. ^ "Star Wars: Episode III - Revenge of the Sith". DVDactive. http://www.dvdactive.com/easter-eggs/dvd/star-wars-episode-iii-revenge-of-the-sith.html. Retrieved on 2008-04-15. ^ "John D. Lowry". Apple Inc.. Archived from the original on 2006-02-11. http://web.archive.org/web/20060211154756/http://www.apple.com/pro/film/lowry/starwars/index2.html. Retrieved on 2008-03-27. ^ "Star Wars Episode IV: A New Hope (1977)". Box Office Mojo. http://boxofficemojo.com/movies/?id=starwars4.htm. Retrieved on 2008-09-12. ^ "Star Wars Episode V: The Empire Strikes Back (1980)". 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comics. 30 March 2006. http://www.darkhorse.com/news/interviews.php?id=1274. Retrieved on 16 April 2008. ^ Matt Martin (2007-08-11). "Warner Bros. swoops for Traveller's Tales". GamesIndustry.biz. http://www.gamesindustry.biz/articles/warner-bros-swoops-for-travellers-tales. Retrieved on 2008-01-09. ^ LucasArts (2007-05-10). Star Wars Battlefront: Renegade Squadron sends PSP system owners to the front. Press release. http://www.gamespot.com/news/6170467.html. Retrieved on 2008-01-09. ^ "Overview". Star Wars: The Force Unleashed. LucasArts. http://www.lucasarts.com/games/theforceunleashed/#/game_info/overview/. Retrieved on 2008-03-08. ^ Berardini, César A. (2008-04-03). "Star Wars: The Force Unleashed Dated". Team Xbox. http://news.teamxbox.com/xbox/16122/Star-Wars-The-Force-Unleashed-Dated. Retrieved on 2008-04-03. ^ "Star Wars Trading Cards". Star Wars cards. http://starwarscards.net/. Retrieved on 2008-03-27. ^ "Star Wars Promotional Trading Card List". The Star Wars Collectors Archive. http://theswca.com/textf/promo.html. Retrieved on 2008-03-28. ^ "Filmmaker Kevin Smith Hosts `The Official Star Wars Fan Film Awards' On SCI FI Channel; George Lucas to Present Special Honor.". Business Wire. 2002-04-23. http://www.accessmylibrary.com/coms2/summary_0286-25279212_ITM. Retrieved on 2008-03-28. ^ Knapton, Sarah (7 April 2008). "Court to rule in Star Wars costume battle". The Guardian. http://film.guardian.co.uk/news/story/0,,2271561,00.html. Retrieved on 15 April 2008. ^ Colman Jones. "Trekkies orbit around copyright turbulence". NOW On Toronto. Now Communications. http://www.nowtoronto.com/issues/17/12/News/tech.html. Retrieved on 2008-03-28. ^ ""Hardware Wars": The movie, the legend, the household appliances". Salon.com. http://dir.salon.com/story/ent/movies/feature/2002/05/21/hardware_wars/index.html. Retrieved on 2008-03-27. ^ Mel Brooks'. Spaceballs [DVD]. ^ "Mystery Ewok Theater 2005: Return of the Ewok". 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References Arnold, Alan (1980), Once Upon a Galaxy: A Journal of the Making of The Empire Strikes Back, Ballantine Books, ISBN 0345290755, http://www.amazon.com/Once-Upon-Galaxy-Journal-Strikes/dp/0345290755 Bouzereau, Laurent (1997), The Annotated Screenplays, Del Rey, ISBN 0345409817, http://www.amazon.com/Star-Wars-Screenplays-Laurent-Bouzereau/dp/0345409817 Kaminski, Michael (2007), The Secret History of Star Wars, http://secrethistoryofstarwars.com/book.html Kaminski, Michael (2008), The Secret History of Star Wars (3.0 ed.), http://secrethistoryofstarwars.com/book.html, retrieved on 21 May 2008 Rinzler, J.W. (2007), The Making of Star Wars: The Definitive Story Behind the Original Film (Star Wars), Del Rey, ISBN 0345494768, http://www.amazon.com/Making-Star-Wars-Definitive-Original/dp/0345494768 Rinzler, Jonathan (2005). The Making of Star Wars, Episode III - Revenge of the Sith. Del Rey. ISBN 0345431391. http://www.amazon.com/Making-Star-Wars-Episode-III/dp/0345431391. Further reading Star Wars, religion, and philosophy Bortolin, Matthew (2005-04-25). The Dharma of Star Wars. Wisdom Publications. ISBN 0861714970. http://www.amazon.com/Dharma-Star-Wars-Matthew-Bortolin/dp/0861714970. Decker, Kevin S. (2005-03-10). Star Wars and Philosophy. Open Court. ISBN 0812695836. http://www.amazon.com/Star-Wars-Philosophy-Popular-Culture/dp/0812695836. Porter, John M. (2003-01-31). The Tao of Star Wars. Humanics Trade Group. ISBN 0893343854. http://www.amazon.com/Tao-Star-Wars-John-Porter/dp/0893343854. Snodgrass, Jon (2004-09-13). Peace Knights of the Soul. InnerCircle Publishing. ISBN 0975521470. http://www.amazon.com/Peace-Knights-Soul-Jon-Snodgrass/dp/0975521470. Staub, Dick (2005-03-25). Christian Wisdom of the Jedi Masters. Jossey-Bass. ISBN 0787978949. http://www.amazon.com/Christian-Wisdom-Jedi-Masters-Staub/dp/0787978949. Joseph Campbell's influence on Star Wars Campbell, Joseph (1991-06-01). The Power of Myth. Anchor. ISBN 0385418868. http://www.amazon.com/Power-Myth-Joseph-Campbell/dp/0385418868. Henderson, Mary (1997-11-03). Star Wars: The Magic of Myth. Bantam. ISBN 0553102060. http://www.amazon.com/Star-Wars-Magic-Myth-Wars/dp/0553102060. Larsen, Stephen (2002-04-01). Joseph Campbell: A Fire in the Mind. Inner Traditions. ISBN 0892818735. http://www.amazon.com/Joseph-Campbell-Fire-Stephen-Larsen/dp/0892818735. External links Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Star Wars Wikinews has related news: Star Wars Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Star Wars Star Wars at the Open Directory Project The official Star Wars website Wookieepedia: The Star Wars Wiki — A wiki devoted to Star Wars The World of Star Wars at Yahoo! Star Wars Origins: How did George Lucas create Star Wars? [show]v • d • eStar Wars Episodes I: The Phantom Menace • II: Attack of the Clones • III: Revenge of the Sith IV: A New Hope • V: The Empire Strikes Back • VI: Return of the Jedi Spin-off films Holiday Special • Caravan of Courage • The Battle for Endor • The Great Heep • The Clone Wars • Proposed sequel trilogy Television series Droids • Ewoks • Clone Wars miniseries • The Clone Wars • Live-action TV series Other media Books • Comics • Radio • Video games • Music • Expanded Universe • Shadows of the Empire • The Force Unleashed Universe Characters • Locations • Creatures • Vehicles • Conflicts • Dates People George Lucas • John Williams • Ben Burtt • Rick McCallum [show]v • d • eGeorge Lucas Films: written & directed THX 1138 (1971) • American Graffiti (1973) • Star Wars Episode IV: A New Hope (1977) • Star Wars Episode I: The Phantom Menace (1999) • Star Wars Episode II: Attack of the Clones (2002) • Star Wars Episode III: Revenge of the Sith (2005) Films: written &/or produced More American Graffiti (1979) • Kagemusha (1980) • Star Wars Episode V: The Empire Strikes Back (1980) • Raiders of the Lost Ark (1981) • Body Heat (1981) • Star Wars Episode VI: Return of the Jedi (1983) • Twice Upon a Time (1983) • Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom (1984) • Latino (1985) • Mishima: A Life in Four Chapters (1985) • Howard the Duck (1986) • Labyrinth (1986) • The Land Before Time (1988) • Tucker: The Man and His Dream (1988) • Powaqqatsi (1988) • Willow (1988) • Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade (1989) • Radioland Murders (1994) • Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull (2008) • Star Wars: The Clone Wars (2008) • Red Tails (TBA) See also Filmography • American Zoetrope • Lucasfilm • Skywalker Ranch • Industrial Light & Magic • Skywalker Sound • LucasArts Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Star_Wars" Categories: Star Wars | Epic films | Sequel films | Space Westerns | Film trilogies
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America East Conference Albany - Will Brown Binghamton - Kevin Broadus Boston University - Dennis Wolff Hartford - Dan Leibovitz Maine - Ted Woodward New Hampshire - Bill Herrion Stony Brook - Steve Pikiell UMBC - Randy Monroe Vermont - Mike Lonergan 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! America East Conference
Atlantic 10 Conference Charlotte - Bobby Lutz Dayton - Brian Gregory Duquesne - Ron Everhart Fordham - Dereck Whittenburg George Washington - Karl Hobbs La Salle - John Giannini Rhode Island - Jim Baron Richmond - Chris Mooney St. Bonaventure - Mark Schmidt Saint Joseph's - Phil Martelli Saint Louis - Rick Majerus Temple - Fran Dunphy UMass - Derek Kellogg Xavier - Sean Miller 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Atlantic 10 Conference
Atlantic Coast Conference Boston College - Al Skinner Clemson - Oliver Purnell Duke - Mike Krzyzewski Florida State - Leonard Hamilton Georgia Tech - Paul Hewitt Maryland - Gary Williams Miami (Florida) - Frank Haith North Carolina - Roy Williams North Carolina State - Sidney Lowe Virginia - Dave Leitao Virginia Tech - Seth Greenberg Wake Forest - Dino Gaudio 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Atlantic Coast Conference
Atlantic Sun Conference Belmont - Rick Byrd Campbell - Robbie Laing East Tennessee State - Murry Bartow Florida Gulf Coast - Dave Balza Jacksonville - Cliff Warren Kennesaw State - Tony Ingle Lipscomb - Scott Sanderson Mercer - Bob Hoffman North Florida - Matt Kilcullen Stetson - Derek Waugh USC Upstate - Eddie Payne 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Atlantic Sun Conference
Big 12 Conference Baylor - Scott Drew Colorado - Jeff Bzdelik Iowa State - Greg McDermott Kansas - Bill Self Kansas State - Frank Martin Missouri - Mike Anderson Nebraska - Doc Sadler Oklahoma - Jeff Capel III Oklahoma State - Travis Ford Texas - Rick Barnes Texas A&M - Mark Turgeon Texas Tech - Pat Knight 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Big 12 Conference
Big East Conference Cincinnati - Mick Cronin Connecticut - Jim Calhoun DePaul - Jerry Wainwright Georgetown - John Thompson III Louisville - Rick Pitino Marquette - Buzz Williams Notre Dame - Mike Brey Pittsburgh - Jamie Dixon Providence - Keno Davis Rutgers - Fred Hill St. John's - Norm Roberts Seton Hall - Bobby Gonzalez South Florida - Stan Heath Syracuse - Jim Boeheim Villanova - Jay Wright West Virginia - Bobby Huggins 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Big East Conference
Big Sky Conference Eastern Washington - Kirk Earlywine Idaho State - Joe O'Brien Montana - Wayne Tinkle Montana State - Brad Huse Northern Arizona - Mike Adras Northern Colorado - Tad Boyle Portland State - Ken Bone Sacramento State - Brian Katz Weber State - Randy Rahe 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Big Sky Conference
Big South Conference Charleston Southern - Barclay Radebaugh Coastal Carolina - Cliff Ellis Gardner-Webb - Rick Scruggs High Point - Bart Lundy Liberty - Ritchie McKay Presbyterian - Gregg Nibert Radford - Brad Greenberg UNC-Asheville - Eddie Biedenbach VMI - Duggar Baucom Winthrop - Randy Peele 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Big South Conference
Big Ten Conference Illinois - Bruce Weber Indiana - Tom Crean Iowa - Todd Lickliter Michigan - John Beilein Michigan State - Tom Izzo Minnesota - Tubby Smith Northwestern - Bill Carmody Ohio State - Thad Matta Penn State - Ed DeChellis Purdue - Matt Painter Wisconsin - Bo Ryan 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Big Ten Conference
Big West Conference Cal Poly - Kevin Bromley Cal State Fullerton - Bob Burton Cal State Northridge - Bobby Braswell Long Beach State - Dan Monson Pacific - Bob Thomason UC Davis - Gary Stewart UC Irvine - Pat Douglass UC Riverside - Jim Wooldridge UC Santa Barbara - Bob Williams 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Big West Conference
Colonial Athletic Association Delaware - Monte Ross Drexel - Bruiser Flint George Mason - Jim Larranaga Georgia State - Rod Barnes Hofstra - Tom Pecora James Madison - Matt Brady Northeastern - Bill Coen Old Dominion - Blaine Taylor Towson - Pat Kennedy UNC-Wilmington - Benny Moss Virginia Commonwealth - Anthony Grant William & Mary - Tony Shaver 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Colonial Athletic Association
Conference USA East Carolina - Mack McCarthy Houston - Tom Penders Marshall - Donnie Jones Memphis - John Calipari Rice - Ben Braun Southern Methodist - Matt Doherty Southern Mississippi - Larry Eustachy Tulane - Dave Dickerson Tulsa - Doug Wojcik UAB - Mike Davis UCF - Kirk Speraw UTEP - Tony Barbee 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Conference USA
Horizon League - Butler - Brad Stevens Cleveland State - Gary Waters Detroit - Ray McCallum Loyola (Chicago) - Jim Whitesell UIC - Jimmy Collins UW-Green Bay - Tod Kowalczyk UW-Milwaukee - Rob Jeter Valparaiso - Homer Drew Wright State - Brad Brownell Youngstown State - Jerry Slocum 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Horizon League
Independents Bryant - Tim O'Shea Cal State Bakersfield - Keith Brown Chicago State - Benjy Taylor Houston Baptist - Ron Cottrell Longwood - Mike Gillian New Jersey Institute of Technology - Jim Engles North Carolina Central - Henry Dickerson Savannah State - Horace Broadnax SIU-Edwardsville - Lennox Forrester Texas-Pan American - Tom Schuberth Utah Valley - Dick Hunsaker 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! NCAA Division I independent schools (basketball)
Ivy League Brown - Jesse Agel Columbia - Joe Jones Cornell - Steve Donahue Dartmouth - Terry Dunn Harvard - Tommy Amaker Penn - Glen Miller Princeton - Sydney Johnson Yale - James Jones 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Ivy League
Metro Atlantic Athletic Conference Canisius - Tom Parrotta Fairfield - Ed Cooley Iona - Kevin Willard Loyola (Maryland) - Jimmy Patsos Manhattan - Barry Rohrssen Marist - Chuck Martin Niagara - Joe Mihalich Rider - Tommy Dempsey St. Peter's - John Dunne Siena - Fran McCaffery 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Mid-American Conference
Mid-American Conference Akron – Keith Dambrot Ball State – Billy Taylor Bowling Green – Louis Orr Buffalo – Reggie Witherspoon Central Michigan – Ernie Ziegler Eastern Michigan – Charles Ramsey Kent State – Geno Ford Miami – Charlie Coles Northern Illinois – Ricardo Patton Ohio – John Groce Toledo – Gene Cross Western Michigan – Steve Hawkins 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Mid-American Conference
Mid-Eastern Athletic Conference Bethune-Cookman - Clifford Reed Coppin State - Ron Mitchell Delaware State - Greg Jackson Florida A&M - Mike Gillespie Hampton - Kevin Nickelberry Howard - Gil Jackson Maryland-Eastern Shore - Meredith Smith Morgan State - Todd Bozeman Norfolk State - Anthony Evans North Carolina A&T - Jerry Eaves South Carolina State - Tim Carter Winston-Salem State - Bobby Collins 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Mid-Eastern Athletic Conference
Missouri Valley Conference Bradley - Jim Les Creighton - Dana Altman Drake - Mark Phelps Evansville - Marty Simmons Illinois State - Tim Jankovich Indiana State - Kevin McKenna Missouri State - Cuonzo Martin Northern Iowa - Ben Jacobson Southern Illinois - Chris Lowery Wichita State - Gregg Marshall 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Missouri Valley Conference
Mountain West Conference Air Force - Jeff Reynolds Brigham Young - Dave Rose Colorado State - Tim Miles New Mexico - Steve Alford San Diego State - Steve Fisher Texas Christian - Neil Dougherty UNLV - Lon Kruger Utah - Jim Boylen Wyoming - Heath Schroyer 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Mountain West Conference
Northeast Conference Central Connecticut State - Howie Dickenman Fairleigh Dickinson - Tom Green LIU-Brooklyn - Jim Ferry Monmouth - Dave Calloway Mount St. Mary's - Milan Brown Quinnipiac - Tom Moore Robert Morris - Mike Rice Jr. Sacred Heart - Dave Bike St. Francis (PA) - Don Friday St. Francis (NY) - Brian Nash Wagner - Mike Deane 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Northeast Conference
Ohio Valley Conference Austin Peay - Dave Loos Eastern Illinois - Mike Miller Eastern Kentucky - Jeff Neubauer Jacksonville State - James Green Morehead State - Donnie Tyndall Murray State - Billy Kennedy Southeast Missouri - Zac Roman Tennessee-Martin - Bret Campbell Tennessee State - Cy Alexander Tennessee Tech - Mike Sutton 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Ohio Valley Conference
Pacific-10 Conference Arizona - Russ Pennell Arizona State - Herb Sendek California - Mike Montgomery Oregon - Ernie Kent Oregon State - Craig Robinson Stanford - Johnny Dawkins UCLA - Ben Howland USC - Tim Floyd Washington - Lorenzo Romar Washington State - Tony Bennett 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Pacific-10 Conference
Patriot League American - Jeff Jones Army - Jim Crews Bucknell - Dave Paulsen Colgate - Emmett Davis Holy Cross - Ralph Willard Lafayette - Fran O'Hanlon Lehigh - Brett Reed Navy - Billy Lange 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Patriot League
Southeastern Conference Alabama - Philip Pearson Arkansas - John Pelphrey Auburn - Jeff Lebo Florida - Billy Donovan Georgia - Pete Herrmann Kentucky - Billy Gillispie LSU - Trent Johnson Mississippi - Andy Kennedy Mississippi State - Rick Stansbury South Carolina - Darrin Horn Tennessee - Bruce Pearl Vanderbilt - Kevin Stallings 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Southeastern Conference
Southern Conference Appalachian State - Houston Fancher Chattanooga - John Shulman The Citadel - Ed Conroy College of Charleston - Bobby Cremins Davidson - Bob McKillop Elon - Ernie Nestor Furman - Jeff Jackson Georgia Southern - Jeff Price Samford - Jimmy Tillette UNC-Greensboro - Mike Dement Western Carolina - Larry Hunter Wofford - Mike Young 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Southern Conference
Southland Conference Central Arkansas - Rand Chappell Lamar - Steve Roccaforte McNeese State - Dave Simmons Nicholls State - J. P. Piper Northwestern State - Mike McConathy Sam Houston State - Bob Marlin Southeastern Louisiana - Jim Yarbrough Stephen F. Austin - Danny Kaspar Texas A&M-Corpus Christi - Perry Clark Texas-Arlington - Scott Cross Texas-San Antonio - Brooks Thompson Texas State - Doug Davalos 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Southland Conference
Southwestern Athletic Conference Alabama A&M - L. Vann Pettaway Alabama State - Lewis Jackson Alcorn State - Samuel West Arkansas-Pine Bluff - George Ivory Grambling State - Larry Wright Jackson State - Tevester Anderson Mississippi Valley State - Sean Woods Prairie View A&M - Byron Rimm II Southern - Rob Spivery Texas Southern - Tony Harvey 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Southwestern Athletic Conference
The Summit League Centenary - Greg Gary IPFW - Dane Fife IUPUI - Ron Hunter North Dakota State - Saul Phillips Oakland - Greg Kampe Oral Roberts - Scott Sutton South Dakota State - Scott Nagy Southern Utah - Roger Reid UMKC - Matt Brown Western Illinois - Derek Thomas 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! The Summit League
Sun Belt Conference Arkansas-Little Rock - Steve Shields Arkansas State - Dickey Nutt Denver - Joe Scott Florida Atlantic - Mike Jarvis Florida International - Sergio Rouco Louisiana-Lafayette - Robert Lee Louisiana-Monroe - Orlando Early Middle Tennessee - Kermit Davis New Orleans - Joe Pasternack North Texas - Johnny Jones South Alabama - Ronnie Arrow Troy - Don Maestri Western Kentucky - Ken McDonald 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Sun Belt Conference
West Coast Conference Gonzaga - Mark Few Loyola Marymount - Rodney Tention Pepperdine - Vance Walberg Portland - Eric Reveno Saint Mary's - Randy Bennett San Diego - Bill Grier San Francisco - Rex Walters Santa Clara - Kerry Keating 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! West Coast Conference
Western Athletic Conference Boise State - Greg Graham Fresno State - Steve Cleveland Hawai?i - Bob Nash Idaho - Don Verlin Louisiana Tech - Kerry Rupp Nevada - Mark Fox New Mexico State - Marvin Menzies San Jose State - George Nessman Utah State - Stew Morrill 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Western Athletic Conference
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Jamaal Al-Din, a native of Grand Rapids, Michigan and former leading scorer of Olympic Basketball and LSU great, Ed Palubinskas brings to you Michigan State University's and the NBA's Earvin "Magic" Johnson at 227's YouTube "MAGIC!" provided by Jamaal Al-Din's Hoops 227-the everything basketball website, featuring YouTube Videos and Wikipedia information on the legendary Earvin "Magic" Johnson, The Magic Johnson Foundation, Magic Johnson Enterprises, and everything including the magical phrase..."MAGIC!" 227's YouTube "MAGIC!"
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?227's YouTube "Chili" features these exciting YouTube music and entertainment celebrities...click onto to these 227 YouTube "Chili" links, channels and articles for the most watched YouTube hip-hop music videos in the world!
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