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Political positions of Barack Obama From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search This article may be too long to comfortably read and navigate. Please consider splitting content into sub-articles and using this article for a summary of the key points of the subject. This article is part of a series about Barack Obama Barack Obama Background · Illinois Senate · US Senate Political positions · Public image · Family 2008 primaries · Obama–Biden campaign Transition · Inauguration · Electoral history Presidency (Timeline, First 100 days) Barack Obama campaigning in New Hampshire, August 2007 See also: Comparison of United States presidential candidates, 2008 Barack Obama has declared his position on many political issues through his public comments and legislative record. The Obama Administration has stated that its general agenda is to "revive the economy; provide affordable, accessible health care to all; strengthen our public education and social security systems; define a clear path to energy independence and tackle climate change; end the war in Iraq responsibly and finish our mission in Afghanistan; and work with our allies to prevent Iran from developing a nuclear weapon." Contents [hide] 1 Economic policy 1.1 Corporate governance 1.2 Labor rights 1.3 Minimum wage 1.4 Equal pay 1.5 Education 1.6 Energy policy 1.7 Health care 1.8 Homes, mortgages, mortgage crisis, and real estate industry 1.9 NASA 1.10 Network neutrality and government use of information technology 1.11 Taxation 1.12 Social Security 1.13 Lobbying and campaign finance reform 1.14 Immigration 1.15 Affirmative action 1.16 Trade 1.17 Faith based programs 1.18 Government waste 1.19 U.S. automobile industry loan guarantees 2 Foreign policy 2.1 Overview 2.2 Foreign policy advisors 2.3 Foreign policy issues 2.3.1 Diplomacy and negotiations 2.3.2 Intelligence 2.3.3 Military 2.3.4 Nuclear proliferation 2.3.5 Foreign aid 2.4 Countries and regions 2.4.1 Afghanistan 2.4.2 Africa 2.4.3 Antarctica 2.4.4 Armenian genocide 2.4.5 Cuba 2.4.6 China 2.4.7 Darfur 2.4.8 Europe 2.4.9 India 2.4.10 Iran 2.4.11 Iraq 2.4.12 Israel 126.96.36.199 Israeli-Palestinian conflict 188.8.131.52 2006 Israel-Hezbollah War 2.4.13 Kosovo 2.4.14 Middle East 2.4.15 Pakistan 2.4.16 South Ossetia 2.4.17 Zimbabwe 3 Social policy 3.1 Abortion and contraception 3.2 Disability rights 3.3 Environmental policy and record 3.4 Native Americans 3.5 African Americans 3.6 LGBT issues 3.7 Sex education 3.8 HIV 3.9 Gun policy 3.10 Death penalty 3.11 Civil liberties 3.11.1 USA PATRIOT Act 3.11.2 Warrantless wiretaps 3.12 Religion 3.13 Embryonic stem cell research 3.14 Marijuana decriminalization and medical marijuana 3.15 Parental responsibility 3.16 Criteria for selecting judges 3.17 District of Columbia voting rights 4 See also 5 References 6 External links 6.1 Official sites 6.2 Topic pages and databases 6.2.1 General 6.2.2 Disability issues 6.2.3 Environment 6.2.4 Foreign affairs 6.2.5 Health care 6.2.6 Israel and the Middle East conflict  Economic policy Barack Obama's current economic advisors are Austan Goolsbee of the University of Chicago and Jeffrey Liebman of Harvard University. In 2006, Obama wrote: "We should be asking ourselves what mix of policies will lead to a dynamic free market and widespread economic security, entrepreneurial innovation and upward mobility [...] we should be guided by what works." Speaking before the National Press Club in April 2005, he defended the New Deal social welfare policies of Franklin D. Roosevelt, associating Republican proposals to establish private accounts for Social Security with Social Darwinism.  Corporate governance On April 20, 2007, Obama introduced a bill in the Senate (Shareholder Vote on Executive Compensation Act - S. 1181) requiring public companies to give shareholders an annual nonbinding vote on executive compensation, popularly called "Say on pay." A companion bill introduced by Rep. Barney Frank passed the House the same day. Several corporations voluntarily have begun to give shareholders such a vote because of concerns about excessive CEO salaries.  Labor rights Obama supports the Employee Free Choice Act, a bill that adds penalties for labor violations and which would circumvent the secret ballot requirement to organize a union. Obama promises to sign the EFCA into law. He is also a cosponsor of the "Re-empowerment of Skilled and Professional Employees and Construction Tradesworkers" or RESPECT act (S. 969) that aims to overturn the National Labor Relations Board's "Kentucky River" 532 U.S. 706 (2001) decision that redefined many employees lacking the authority to hire, fire, or discipline, as "supervisors" who are not protected by federal labor laws.  Minimum wage Obama favored the increase in the federal minimum wage from $5.15 an hour to $7.25, and he voted to end the filibuster against a bill to accomplish that. He favors raising it to $9.50 an hour by 2011, and then indexing it for inflation afterwards.  Equal pay Obama favors the concept of equal pay (the abolition of wage differences based on gender). He has supported legislation designed to improve the effectiveness of the Equal Pay Act of 1963. In 2007, the House of Representatives passed the Lilly Ledbetter Fair Pay Act, which, according to the National Federation of Independent Business, would have allowed "employees to file charges of pay discrimination within 180 days of the last received paycheck affected by the alleged discriminatory decision." The bill would have overturned the Supreme Court decision in Ledbetter v. Goodyear. There the Court dismissed a woman's discrimination claim because she had filed it more than 180 days after the first affected paycheck. The bill died in a 2008 Senate vote in which Obama and other Democrats could not break a Republican filibuster. In the 111th congress it was passed again, and Obama signed it on January 29, 2009.  Education During an October 2004 debate, Obama stated that he opposed education vouchers for use at private schools because he believes they would undermine public schools. In May 2009, it was reported
that Obama would offer continued funding for the 1,716 Washington D.C. students who were currently enrolled in the city's voucher program until they graduated from high school, but that no new students would be admitted into the program.  In a July 2007 address to the National Education Association, Obama supported merit pay for teachers, to be based on standards to be developed "with teachers." Obama also called for higher pay for teachers. Obama's plan is estimated to cost $18 billion annually and was originally planned to be partially funded by delaying NASA's Constellation program for five years but he has since reconsidered and stated that he will look for "an entirely different offset." "We owe it to our children to invest in early-childhood education; and recruit an army of new teachers and give them better pay and more support; and finally decide that, in this global economy, the chance to get a college education should not be a privilege for the few, but a birthright of every American." He also is against the teaching of intelligent design as scientific fact, but supports teaching theology. Obama has proposed the American Opportunity Tax Credit, which would provide a refundable tax credit for education in exchange for community service. Obama wants 5,000 failing schools to close, and then reopen with new principals and teachers.   Energy policy Barack Obama delivering a speech at the University of Southern California in support of California Proposition 87In his New Energy For America plan, Obama proposes to reduce overall U.S. oil consumption by at least 35%, or 10 million barrels per day, by 2030 in order to offset imports from OPEC nations. Obama voted in favor of the Energy Policy Act of 2005, which provided incentives (chiefly tax breaks) to reduce national consumption of energy and to encourage a wide range of alternative energy sources. It also resulted in a net tax increase on oil companies. Obama and other Senators introduced the BioFuels Security Act in 2006. "It's time for Congress to realize what farmers in America's heartland have known all along - that we have the capacity and ingenuity to decrease our dependence on foreign oil by growing our own fuel," Obama said. In a May 2006 letter to President George W. Bush, he joined four other midwest farming state Senators in calling for the preservation of a $0.54-per-gallon tariff on imported ethanol. In an interview with NBC's Tim Russert on May 4, 2008, Obama said, "...we've got a serious food problem around the world. We've got rising food prices here in the United States." "There's no doubt that biofuels may be contributing to it. And what I've said is, my top priority is making sure that people are able to get enough to eat. And if it turns out that we've got to make changes in our ethanol policy to help people get something to eat, then that's got to be the step we take." On the issue of nuclear power, in 2005, Obama stated, "... as Congress considers policies to address air quality and the deleterious effects of carbon emissions on the global ecosystem, it is reasonable – and realistic – for nuclear power to remain on the table for consideration. Illinois has 11 nuclear power plants – the most of any State in the country – and nuclear power provides more than half of Illinois’ electricity needs." Regarding McCain's plans for 45 new nuclear power plants, Obama said that it's not serious, it's not new, it's not the kind of energy policy that will give families the relief they need. Obama declared himself flatly opposed to building the Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repository in Nevada. In 2006, in response to Illinois residents' concerns about unreported radioactive leaks by Exelon Corporation, Obama introduced a Senate bill to effect mandatory disclosure of such leaks. In 2008, The New York Times, which had endorsed Hillary Rodham Clinton, charged that, in revising his bill, Obama had "removed language mandating prompt reporting and simply offered guidance to regulators". In response, the Obama campaign cited a National Journal analysis of the revised bill, showing that "Obama's bill would require that any leak of radioactive materials exceeding the levels set by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the EPA be reported to state and local authorities, and to the NRC within 24 hours." Then-U.S. Senator Barack ObamaObama and other Senators introduced a bill in 2007 to promote the development of commercially viable plug-in hybrids and other electric-drive vehicles in order to shift away from petroleum fuels and "toward much cleaner – and cheaper – electricity for transportation". Similar legislation is now in effect in the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007. Obama proposes that the U.S. Government invest in such developments using revenue generated from an auction-based cap-and-trade or emissions trading program to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Obama stresses innovation as a means to improve energy efficiency, calling for a 50% improvement by 2030. He has called for a 50 miles per US gallon (4.7 L/100 km; 60 mpg-imp) rule, proposing tax credits to automakers in order to ease the transition. He opposes drilling in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge. On June 22, 2008 Obama proposed tightening regulations on oil speculators in an effort to ease record high prices of oil. "My plan fully closes the Enron loophole and restores common-sense regulation," Obama said.  Health care See also: Health care reform in the United States Obama supporters at a campaign rally in Austin, Texas, on February 23, 2007. President Obama said he supports universal health care and programs to increase access to education.On January 24, 2007 Obama spoke about his position on health care at Families USA, a health care advocacy group. Obama said, "The time has come for universal health care in America [...] I am absolutely determined that by the end of the first term of the next president, we should have universal health care in this country." Obama went on to say that he believed that it was wrong that forty-seven million Americans are uninsured, noting that taxpayers already pay over $15 billion annually to care for the uninsured. Obama cites cost as the reason so many Americans are without health insurance. Obama's health care plan includes implementing guaranteed eligibility for affordable health care for all Americans, paid for by insurance reform, reducing costs, removing patent protection for pharmaceuticals, and required employer contributions. He would provide for mandatory health care insurance for children. In July 2008 The New York Times reported that Senator Obama has promised to “bring down premiums by $2,500 for the typical family.” His advisers have said that the $2,500 premium reduction includes, in addition to direct premium savings, the average family's share of the reduction in employer paid health insurance premiums and the reduction in the cost of government health programs such as Medicare and Medicaid. The Associated Press reported in September 2008 that Senator Obama was proposing a National Health Insurance Exchange that would include both private insurance plans and a Medicare-like government run option. Coverage would be guaranteed regardless of health status, and premiums would not vary based on health status either. The campaign estimates the cost of the program at $60 billion annually. The plan requires that parents cover their children, but does not require adults to buy insurance. Obama opposes the Health Care Choice Act. According to an October 26, 2008 article in the New York Times, Obama is considering a new payroll tax on large and medium employers who do not already provide their employees with health insurance, and this tax would be used to pay for health care for uninsured people, but Obama has not cited the specific percentage of payroll that the tax would be, or how small a number of employees the employer would have to have in order to be exempt from the tax.  Homes, mortgages, mortgage crisis, and real estate industry Obama voted for the $700 billion Emergency Economic Stabilization Act of 2008. Obama introduced the Stop Fraud Act to increase penalties for mortgage fraud by mortgage brokers and real estate brokers and to provide more protections for low-income homebuyers. In regards to capital gains on house sales, Obama says he favors increasing capital gains tax above the present 15% rate to 20% for families whose income is above $250,000.  NASA "As president, Obama will support the development of this vital new platform Crew Exploration Vehicle to ensure that the United States' reliance on foreign space capabilities is limited to the minimum possible time period." Obama advocated a delay of the NASA Constellation Program by at least five years in order to fund educational programs. He has since reversed this position, stating "I know it's still being reported that we were talking about delaying some aspects of the Constellation program to pay for our early-education program ... I told my staff we're going to find an entirely different offset, because we've got to make sure that the money going into NASA for basic research and development continues to go there. That has been a top priority for us."  Network neutrality and government use of information technology In a June 2006 podcast, Obama expressed support for telecommunications legislation to protect network neutrality on the Internet, saying: "It is because the Internet is a neutral platform that I can put out this podcast and transmit it over the Internet without having to go through any corporate media middleman. I can say what I want without censorship or without having to pay a special charge. But the big telephone and cable companies want to change the Internet as we know it." Obama reaffirmed his commitment to net neutrality at a meeting with Google employees in November 2007, at which he said, "once providers start to privilege some applications or web sites over others, then the smaller voices get squeezed out, and we all lose." At the same event, Obama pledged to appoint a Chief Technology Officer to oversee the U.S. government's management of IT resources and promote wider access to government information and decision making.  Taxation See also: Comparison of United States presidential candidates, 2008#Tax policy Under Obama's plan, middle-class families would see their income taxes cut, with no family making less than $250,000 seeing an increase. However, he did vote for a budget in June 2008, that would raise the taxes on single people with a taxable income of over $32,000 by pushing up their tax bracket from 25% to 28%. Obama has proposed a tax plan which includes tax credits to lower the amount of taxes paid. It is argued that the typical middle-class family would receive over $1,000 in tax relief, with tax payments that are 20% lower than they faced under President Ronald Reagan. According to the Tax Policy Center, the Obama plan provides three times as much tax relief for middle-class families as the McCain plan. Obama's plan includes a temporary "making work pay" program, which gives a tax credit at 6.2% of earned income up to $400 for single workers (making less than $75,000/yr), and an $800 for married couples (making less than $150,000/yr), expiring at the end of 2010.  Families making more than $250,000 would pay either the same or lower income tax rates than they paid in the 1990s. For the wealthiest 2% of families, Obama plans to reverse a portion of the tax cuts they have received over the past eight years. But no family will pay higher income tax rates than they would have paid in the 1990s. Dividend rates would be 39 percent lower than what President George W. Bush proposed in his 2001 tax cut. Obama’s plan is to cut income taxes overall, which he states would reduce revenues to below the levels that prevailed under Ronald Reagan (less than 18.2 percent of GDP). Obama argues that his plan is a net tax cut, and that his tax relief for middle class families is larger than the revenue raised by his tax changes for families over $250,000. Obama plans to pay for the tax changes while bringing down the budget deficit by cutting unnecessary spending. Speaking in November 2006 to members of Wake Up Wal-Mart, a union-backed campaign group, Obama said: "You need to pay your workers enough that they can actually not only shop at Wal-Mart, but ultimately send their kids to college and save for retirement." His tax plan is projected to bring in an additional $700 billion in taxes over the next 10 years. In The Audacity of Hope and the Blueprint for Change Obama advocates responding to the "precarious budget situation" by eliminating "tax credits that have outlived their usefulness", closing corporate tax loopholes, and restoring the PAYGO policy that prohibits increases in federal spending without a way to compensate for the lost revenue. During an October 13, 2008 speech at Toledo, Ohio, Obama said that for the next two years, he favors a $3,000 tax credit to businesses for each new full time employee whom they hire above the number in their current work force. For people with incomes above $250,000, Obama wants to reduce their charitable tax deduction from 35 cents for each dollar donated to 28 cents for each dollar donated, to match the level of deductions for people making less than $250,000. In a press conference on March 24, 2009, Obama stated that he wanted to return to the rate that existed in the Reagan administration. "There's very little evidence that this has a significant impact on charitable giving," said Obama. "I'll tell you what has a significant impact on charitable giving, is a financial crisis and an economy that's contracting. And so the most important thing that I can do for charitable giving is to fix the economy, to get banks lending again, to get businesses opening their doors again, to get people back to work again." Obama said he wanted to "look at raising the capital gains tax for purposes of fairness."  Social Security In response to a possible shortfall in Social Security funding, Obama has endorsed imposition of a new FICA tax on incomes above $250,000. Currently, income above $102,000 is exempt from such taxation. Obama opposed Bush's proposal for privatization of Social Security.  Lobbying and campaign finance reform Obama has spoken out numerous times against the influence of lobbying in the United States. He also co-sponsored legislation that limits lobbyists' influence by mandating that lawmakers pay full charter fare when flying on lobbyists' corporate jets. On January 24, 2007, in reference to his stated plan to take public financing should he procure the nomination, he said, "I think that for a time, the presidential public financing system works." On November 27, he said, "I will aggressively pursue an agreement with the Republican nominee to preserve a publicly financed general election," and on February 28, 2008, he wrote that he planned to "aggressively pursue" a publicly financed campaign, later promising to sit down with John McCain to ensure "a public system" of campaign financing is preserved. However, on June 19, 2008, he opted out of public campaign financing and declared, "I support a robust system of public financing of elections (...) but the public financing of presidential elections as it exists today is broken." Furthermore he has maintained that he will not take contributions from federal lobbyists and special interests during his 2008 presidential campaign. According to his website, Obama would create an online database of lobbying reports, campaign finance filings and ethics records, and would create an independent watchdog agency to oversee congressional ethical violations.  Immigration Obama supports a guest worker program, and voted in favor of the Bush administration backed Comprehensive Immigration Reform Act of 2007. Obama has said that he "will not support any bill that does not provide [an] earned path to citizenship for the undocumented population." Obama has said that he does not believe that the 12 million illegal immigrants should be deported. He said "It's not going to happen. We're not going to go round them up ... We should give them a pathway to citizenship." In September 2006, Obama voted for the Secure Fence Act, authorizing the construction of 700 miles (1,100 km) of fencing along the United States–Mexico border. Obama has supported granting driver's licenses to illegal immigrants. In June 2007, Obama voted against declaring English as the official language of the federal government. In November 2007, Obama stated that, "We can … go a long way toward meeting industry’s need for skilled workers with Americans. Until we have achieved that, I will support a temporary increase in the H-1B visa program as a stopgap measure until we can reform our immigration system comprehensively." In July 2007, Obama said, "Find out how many senators appeared before an immigration rally last year. Who was talking the talk, and who walked the walk -- because I walked…I didn't run away from the issue, and I didn't just talk about it in front of Latino audiences." "I believe we must secure our borders, fix our broken immigration bureaucracy, and require the 12 million undocumented to get on a responsible path to citizenship. I will also increase the number of people we allow in the country legally to a level that unites families and meets the demand for jobs employers cannot fill" "I support comprehensive immigration reform that includes improving our visa programmes, including the H-1B programme, to attract some of the world's most talented people to America", Obama said in an interview with IANS in October 2008.  Affirmative action In reference to state ballot initiatives on affirmative action, Obama's spokesperson Candice Toliver said that "Senator Obama believes in a country in which opportunity is available to all Americans, regardless of race, gender or economic status. That's why he opposes these ballot initiatives, which would roll back opportunity for millions of Americans and cripple efforts to break down historic barriers to the progress of qualified women and minorities." Obama writes in his most recent book, The Audacity of Hope: "Affirmative action programs, when properly structured, can open up opportunities otherwise closed to qualified minorities without diminishing opportunities for white students." In July, Obama stated, "I am a strong supporter of affirmative action when properly structured so that it is not just a quota, but it is acknowledging and taking into account some of the hardships and difficulties that communities of color may have experienced, continue to experience, and it also speaks to the value of diversity in all walks of American life." He has indicated support for affirmative action based on class, not just race, (q.v. redistributive change) in comments where he said that his daughters should be treated by prospective colleges and employers as people that grew up with a privileged background.  Trade Barack Obama made critical statements about the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) during the Democratic primaries, calling the trade agreement "devastating" and "a big mistake". In February 2008, a Canadian diplomatic memo surfaced, which alleged that Obama's economic advisor Austan Goolsbee had met with Canadian consular officials in Chicago and told them to disregard Obama's campaign rhetoric regarding NAFTA, a charge the Obama campaign later denied (see Barack Obama presidential primary campaign, 2008#NAFTA controversy). Obama also noted that free trade comes with its own costs: he believes the displacement of Mexican farmers by more efficient American counterparts has led to increased immigration to the United States from that country.  Faith based programs In July 2008, after winning the primary, Obama announced that he wants to expand federal funding of faith-based programs and establish a "Council for Faith-Based and Neighborhood Partnerships". He specified that, under his plan, federal money given to places of worship could only be used on secular programs. In particular, he mentioned, on July 1 in Zanesville, Ohio, that "support for social services to the poor and the needy have consistently been underfunded". He went on to praise President Bush's efforts, but contended that the current administration's plan never managed to "rally the armies of compassion."  Government waste On September 22, 2008, Obama said, "I am not a Democrat who believes that we can or should defend every government program just because it's there... We will fire government managers who aren't getting results, we will cut funding for programs that are wasting your money and we will use technology and lessons from the private sector to improve efficiency across every level of government... The only way we can do all this without leaving our children with an even larger debt is if Washington starts taking responsibility for every dime that it spends."  U.S. automobile industry loan guarantees On October 13, 2008, Obama said that he wanted Congress to double its guaranteed loans to the U.S. automobile industry from $25 billion to $50 billion.  Foreign policy Further information: Foreign policy of the Barack Obama administration Obama's overall foreign policy philosophy has been postulated as "The Obama Doctrine" by Washington Post columnist E.J. Dionne, which Dionne explains as "a form of realism unafraid to deploy American power but mindful that its use must be tempered by practical limits and a dose of self-awareness."   Overview His first major speech on foreign policy was delivered on April 23, 2007 to the Chicago Council on Global Affairs. He identified the problems that he believes the current foreign policy has caused, and the five ways the United States can lead again, focused on "common security", "common humanity", and remaining "a beacon of freedom and justice for the world": "Bringing a responsible end" to the war in Iraq and refocusing on the broader region. "Building the first truly 21st century military and showing wisdom in how we deploy it." "Marshalling a global effort" to secure, destroy, and stop the spread of weapons of mass destruction. "Rebuild and construct the alliances and partnerships necessary to meet common challenges and confront common threats," including global warming. "Invest in our common humanity" through foreign aid and supporting the "pillars of a sustainable democracy – a strong legislature, an independent judiciary, the rule of law, a vibrant civil society, a free press, and an honest police force." During the speech Obama called for an expansion of the United States Armed Forces "by adding 65,000 soldiers to the Army and 27,000 Marines", an idea previously introduced by Secretary of Defense Robert Gates. In a Washington, DC speech entitled "A New Strategy for a New World" delivered July 15, 2008, Obama stated five main foreign policy goals: ending the war in Iraq responsibly; finishing the fight against al Qaeda and the Taliban; securing all nuclear weapons and materials from terrorists and rogue states; achieving true energy security; and, rebuilding our alliances to meet the challenges of the 21st century.  Foreign policy advisors Barack Obama is currently advised on foreign policy by a support group of approximately 300 people organized into 20 teams based upon subject. A core group of advisors, led by Susan E. Rice and Anthony Lake, filters hundreds of papers and messages daily to provide the Senator with more concise positions on foreign policy and more specific reactions to international developments. Obama's foreign policy advisers have included Richard Danzig, Mark Lippert, Gregory Craig, Denis McDonough, Daniel Shapiro, Scott Gration, Sarah Sewall, Ivo Daalder, Jeffrey Bader, Mark Brzezinski, Zbigniew Brzezinski, Richard Clarke, Roger Cressey, Philip Gordon, Lawrence Korb, James Ludes, Robert Malley, Bruce Riedel, Dennis Ross, Mona Sutphen, and Samantha Power (resigned March 7, 2008).  Foreign policy issues  Diplomacy and negotiations Obama's campaign website states: The United States is trapped by the Bush-Cheney approach to diplomacy that refuses to talk to leaders we don't like. Not talking doesn't make us look tough — it makes us look arrogant, it denies us opportunities to make progress, and it makes it harder for America to rally international support for our leadership. Obama is willing to meet with the leaders of all nations, friend and foe. He will do the careful preparation necessary, but will signal that America is ready to come to the table, and that he is willing to lead. Returning to that theme on May 18, 2008, Obama told a crowd in Pendleton, Oregon that "strong countries and strong presidents talk to their adversaries. ... That’s what Reagan did with Gorbachev." He continued, "Iran, Cuba, Venezuela — these countries are tiny compared to the Soviet Union. They don’t pose a serious threat to us the way the Soviet Union posed a threat to us. And yet we were willing to talk to the Soviet Union at the time when they were saying, 'We’re going to wipe you off the planet.'" After John McCain criticized those remarks as evidence of Obama's "inexperience and reckless judgment," Obama responded that the United States should have "the courage and confidence" to talk to its adversaries. "Demanding that a country meets all your conditions before you meet with them, that’s not a strategy. It’s just naive, wishful thinking."  Intelligence In a broad foreign policy address at Chicago's DePaul University on October 2, 2007, Obama touched on intelligence concerns and government secrecy, saying: I'll turn the page on a growing empire of classified information, and restore the balance we've lost between the necessarily secret and the necessity of openness in a democratic society by creating a new National Declassification Center. We'll protect sources and methods, but we won't use sources and methods as pretexts to hide the truth. Obama proposes giving the Director of National Intelligence a fixed term independent of Presidential control as one means of depoliticizing the intelligence process and reforming the U.S. intelligence community. In a 2007 article appearing in Foreign Affairs, Obama wrote, "...we should institutionalize the practice of developing competitive assessments of critical threats and strengthen our methodologies of (intelligence) analysis. He originally opposed efforts to include any legal immunity, especially retroactive immunity, for government officials and telecommunications firms alleged to have taken part in the Bush administration's warrantless eavesdropping program as part of legislation to modernize the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act. However, on June 20, 2008, Obama issued a statement saying that he would support the FISA Amendments Act of 2008 passed the previous week by the House of Representatives, although he would attempt to have a retroactive immunity provision included in the bill removed before it came to a Senate floor vote. Obama's decision to vote in favor of a bill containing an immunity provision attracted criticism from some of his activist supporters. Obama voted for an amendment to strip retroactive immunity from the bill, but the amendment failed to pass. On July 9, he voted for the entire FISA amendments bill which still included retroactive immunity.  Military Obama said he would institute an "Independent Defense Priorities Board," cut investments from an “unproven missile defense system,” "set a goal for a world without nuclear weapons," "work with Russia to take our ICBM's off hair trigger alert" and "slow the development of Future Combat Systems." On April 23, 2007 Barack Obama addressed the Chicago Council on Global Affairs and called for an expansion of the United States Armed Forces "by adding 65,000 soldiers to the Army and 27,000 Marines", an idea previously introduced by Secretary of Defense Robert Gates, and "providing them with the first-rate equipment, armor, training, and incentives they deserve"; despite his incentives to slow the development of Future Combat Systems. This plan was eventually manifest in the form of the Grow the Army initiative. Although he opposes reviving the military draft, Obama favors changing the Selective Service requirements so that women as well as men must register at age 18.  Nuclear proliferation Obama has spoken out against nuclear proliferation. According to his campaign website, Obama will "crack down on nuclear proliferation by strengthening the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty." Obama has also vowed to stop the development of new American nuclear arms, pursuing an ultimate goal of "a world without nuclear weapons."  Foreign aid Obama is the principal sponsor of the Global Poverty Act of 2007 (S.2433), co-sponsored by Senators Chuck Hagel (R-NE) and Maria Cantwell (D-WA). It calls for a "comprehensive strategy to further the United States foreign policy objective of promoting the reduction of global poverty". A similar bill, H.R. 1302, was passed by the House of Representatives on September 25, 2007. On August 6, 2008 the Republican National Committee also described the bill as costing $845 billion. The Congressional Budget Office, however, has stated that "implementing S. 2433 would cost less than $1 million per year...."  Countries and regions  Afghanistan Obama announced a plan — if elected — to deploy an additional 7,000 troops to Afghanistan. "As president, I would pursue a new strategy, and begin by providing at least two additional combat brigades to support our effort in Afghanistan" "We need more troops, more helicopters, better intelligence-gathering and more nonmilitary assistance to accomplish the mission there" "I would not hold our military, our resources and our foreign policy hostage to a misguided desire to maintain permanent bases in Iraq," Obama said on July 14, 2008. After meeting with French President Nicolas Sarkozy in Paris on July 25 as part of a world tour, Obama said in the joint news conference with Sarkozy, "Afghanistan is a war that we have to win" because al-Qaeda and the radical Islamic Taliban movement cannot be allowed to establish new havens for planning "terrorist attacks . . . that could affect Paris or New York." Obama declared that there were no effective options to this policy, saying, "So we don't have a choice; we've got to finish the job." Obama said the United States "needs to send two additional brigades at least" to Afghanistan and praised Sarkozy for his willingness to send more French troops to that country.  Africa "Ultimately, a new generation of Africans have to recognize the international community, the international relief organizations or the United States can't help Africa if its own leaders are undermining the possibilities of progress," Obama said. "The United States must continue to stand strongly against the Mugabe government’s abuses of power in Zimbabwe. We must join with our European allies, the United Nations, and – most importantly – the countries and institutions of the region to press for positive change in Zimbabwe", Obama said on March 15, 2007. Obama paid tribute to South Africa's ANC fight for freedom, saying they taught lessons to the world and helped inspire his own political career. "If it wasn't for some of the activities that happened here, I might not be involved in politics and might not be doing what I am doing in the United States," he said. In a nationally televised speech at the University of Nairobi, he spoke forcefully on the influence of ethnic rivalries and corruption in Kenya. The speech touched off a public debate among rival leaders, some formally challenging Obama's remarks as unfair and improper, others defending his positions. Obama expressed his concerns about the growing number of systematic sexual assaults against women in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) since Congo Civil War erupted. In December 2006, President Bush signed into law the The Democratic Republic of the Congo Relief, Security and Democracy Promotion Act, the first federal legislation to be enacted with Obama as its primary sponsor, which identifies such systematic sexual violence as a particular threat in Congo.  Antarctica Obama wants to amend the Antarctic Treaty to make mandatory what had been voluntary restrictions on tourism to Antarctica in order to help protect its fragile environment.  Armenian genocide On October 31, 2008 Obama issued a statement to Armenians for Obama including the passage: "Barack Obama shares with Armenian Americans a principled commitment to ending genocide. That starts with acknowledging the tragic instances of genocide in world history…Barack Obama strongly supports passage of the Armenian Genocide Resolution (H.Res.106 and S.Res.106) and will recognize the Armenian Genocide." On January 19, 2008 Obama announced that as a U.S. Senator, he has stood with the Armenian American community in calling for Turkey's acknowledgement of the Armenian Genocide, and supports its recognition. In 2006, Obama criticized Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice for firing United States Ambassador to Armenia, John Evans, after he used the term "genocide" to describe Turkey's killing of hundreds of thousands of Armenians. Obama said that he shared with Evans his "firmly held conviction that the Armenian Genocide is not an allegation, a personal opinion, or a point of view, but rather a widely documented fact supported by an overwhelming body of historical evidence". On June, 2008 Obama restated his commitment to U.S. recognition of the Armenian Genocide in a letter to ANCA Chairman Ken Hachikian. "I share your view that the United States must recognize the events of 1915 to 1923, carried out by the Ottoman Empire, as genocide. As you know, this resulted in the deportation of nearly 2,000,000 Armenians, of whom 1,500,000 men, women, and children were killed", wrote Obama. In 2007 Obama supported House Resolution 106 which recognized the killings as genocide.  Cuba In an August opinion piece in the Miami Herald, he stated: "A democratic opening in Cuba is, and should be, the foremost objective of our policy." He then went on to note: "We need a clear strategy to achieve it – one that takes some limited steps now to spread the message of freedom on the island, but preserves our ability to bargain on behalf of democracy with a post-Fidel government." More to the point, his administration would recognize that "bilateral talks would be the best means of promoting Cuban freedom." In a speech before the Cuban American National Foundation in Miami Obama hardened his position, vowing to maintain the economic embargo against Cuba and not to begin normalizing relations with the US until the island nation took "significant steps towards democracy" including the "freeing of all political prisoners". He characterized his position as "strong, smart, and principled" diplomacy. According to Hillary Clinton's written statement during her Senate confirmation hearings for Secretary of State, Obama believes in lifting the restrictions on Cuban-Americans making visits and sending cash to their families in Cuba. She reaffirmed that he has no current intention to remove the embargo itself.  China On March 20, 2008 Obama criticized his rivals for undermining America’s security: "Because of the Bush-McCain policies, our debt has ballooned. This is creating problems in our fragile economy." "It also means we’re having to pay for this war with loans from China. Having China as our banker isn’t good for our economy, it isn’t good for our global leadership, and it isn’t good for our national security. History teaches us that for a nation to remain a preeminent military power, it must remain a preeminent economic power." Obama appealed to China on grounds of co-operation and increased friendship following Obama's election victory on November 4 2008. On November 8 2008, Hu Jintao and Barack Obama had a phone conversation in which the Chinese President congratulated Obama on his recent election victory. During the conversation both parties agreed that the development of US-China relations is not only in the interest of both nations, but also in the interests of the world.  Darfur Obama addressing the Save Darfur rally at the National Mall in Washington, D.C. on April 30, 2006.In a December 2005 Washington Post opinion column, and at the Save Darfur rally in April 2006, Obama called for more assertive action to oppose genocide in the Darfur region of Sudan. He has divested $180,000 in personal holdings of Sudan-related stock, and has urged divestment from companies doing business in Iran. In the July-August 2007 issue of Foreign Affairs, Obama called for an outward looking post-Iraq War foreign policy and the renewal of American military, diplomatic, and moral leadership in the world. Saying "we can neither retreat from the world nor try to bully it into submission," he called on Americans to "lead the world, by deed and by example."  Europe Obama said he would "ask more from our European allies" to win the struggle in Afghanistan. "You can't have a situation where the United States is called upon to do the dirty work, or the United States and Britain are called upon to do the dirty work, and nobody else wants to engage in actual firefights with the Taliban."  India Barack Obama has pledged to "build a close strategic partnership" between US and India if elected. "Already, in communities across this country, Indian Americans are lifting up our economy and creating jobs," he said. "Leading entrepreneurs, innovators, lawyers, doctors, engineers, and hardworking professionals are adding to the richness and success of the American society." "Too often, flawed strategies like racial profiling have had a disproportionate effect on Indian Americans. Too often, restrictions at our borders have prevented entry for many students and family members who seek nothing more than opportunity and reunification with loved ones", Obama argued in an article he has written for India Abroad. Obama said in an interview with IANS he would support "comprehensive immigration reform", including the H-1B visa programme "to attract some of the world most talented people to America". "We know that we cannot and should not put up walls around our economy."  Iran During his 2004 Senate campaign, Obama stated that he had not ruled out military action against Iran. In a meeting with the Chicago Tribune editorial board, Obama stated: "The big question is going to be, if Iran is resistant to these pressures, including economic sanctions, which I hope will be imposed if they do not cooperate, at what point are we going to take military action, if any?" Obama stressed that he would only use force as a last resort. Obama has not declared a change in this stance since the 2004 campaign. In 2006, he called on Iran to "take some ownership for creating some stability" in Iraq. In an interview with NBC's Tim Russert on October 22, 2006, Obama said, "I think that military options have to be on the table when you're dealing with rogue states that have shown constant hostility towards the United States. The point that I would make, though, is that we have not explored all of our options...We have not explored any kind of dialogue with either Iran or North Korea, and I think that has been a mistake. As a consequence, we have almost no leverage over them." Speaking to the American Israel Public Affairs Committee on March 2, 2007, Obama stated that he regards Iran's government as "a threat to all of us," stating that the US "should take no option, including military action, off the table. Sustained and aggressive diplomacy combined with tough sanctions should be our primary means to prevent Iran from building nuclear weapons." Diplomacy would include "more determined U.S. diplomacy at the United Nations," "harnessing the collective power of our friends in Europe who are Iran's major trading partners," and "a cooperative strategy with Gulf States who supply Iran with much of the energy resources it needs." He formulated a strategy of "direct engagement with Iran similar to the meetings we conducted with the Soviets at the height of the Cold War." In a September 2007 speech in Iowa, Obama voiced concern over Bush administration policy on Iran: ...we hear eerie echoes of the run-up to the war in Iraq in the way that the President and Vice President talk about Iran. ... They issue veiled threats. They suggest that the time for diplomacy and pressure is running out when we haven't even tried direct diplomacy. Well George Bush and Dick Cheney must hear — loud and clear — from the American people and the Congress: you don't have our support, and you don't have our authorization for another war. Obama has criticized Hillary Clinton for supporting the Kyl-Lieberman amendment, which would classify the Iranian Quds Force as a terrorist organization, saying the measure could enable Bush to launch military action against Iran. While specifying that he "would have supported a stand-alone piece of legislation identifying the Iranian Revolutionary Guard as a terrorist organization." Obama stated that he would have voted against the Kyl-Lieberman amendment if he had not been in New Hampshire campaigning. The Clinton campaign has countered that this was inconsistent with Obama's co-sponsorship of a 2006 Iran sanctions bill which contained a similar designation. In a June 2008 speech to AIPAC Obama endorsed a boycott of "firms associated with the Iranian Revolutionary Guard, whose Quds force has rightly been labeled a terrorist organization." On June 4, 2008, Obama spoke at an AIPAC conference where he stated that the Iraq war had endangered Israel because Iran posed a much greater threat. During his speech, Obama stated that "There's no greater threat to Israel or to the peace and stability of the region than Iran" and pledged that "I will do everything in my power to prevent Iran from obtaining a nuclear weapon.” After meeting with French President Nicolas Sarkozy in Paris on July 25 as part of a world tour, Obama issued his strongest warning yet to Tehran with Sarkozy at his side. Obama urged Iran to "end its illicit nuclear program" or face increased pressure from a unified international community, saying that the Iranian government should not "wait for the next president" before accepting proposals to resolve the current stalemate with Western countries. Obama said that the world faced an "extraordinarily grave situation" from Iran's pursuit of a uranium enrichment program, which the United States and its allies fear could be used eventually to build nuclear weapons. Obama said that he had found "uniform concern about Iran" in his meetings with leaders in the Middle East and Europe on his trip. In July 2008, Obama warned Iran that "A nuclear Iran would pose a grave threat and the world must prevent Iran from obtaining a nuclear weapon." Obama said no options were "off the table" in dealing with a nuclear threat from Iran but that the country should be offered diplomatic incentives in the form of "big carrots" as well as punitive measures or threats in the form of "big sticks." Obama said, "I think there are opportunities for us to mobilize a much more serious regime of sanctions on Iran, but also to offer them the possibility of improved relations in the international community if they stand down on these nuclear weapons." In December 2008, Obama gave an interview on Sunday's "Meet the Press" with host Tom Brokaw. During the interview Obama stated that Iran's "threats against Israel are contrary to everything that we believe in and what the international community should accept" and that the United States needs to "ratchet up tough but direct diplomacy with Iran" and make it clear to the Iranians that their development of nuclear weapons and their funding of terrorist organizations "like Hamas and Hezbollah," and threats against Israel are "unacceptable."  Iraq Obama was an early opponent of Bush administration policies on Iraq, when many Democratic leaders supported the Congressional joint resolution authorizing the Iraq War. Obama was not yet in the United States Senate, and therefore unable to vote on the joint resolution. On October 2, 2002, the day President Bush and Congress agreed on the joint resolution authorizing the Iraq War, Illinois State Senator Obama addressed the first high-profile Chicago anti-Iraq War rally in Federal Plaza at noon and said: "I am not opposed to all wars. I'm opposed to dumb wars. [...] You want a fight, President Bush? Let's finish the fight with Bin Laden and al-Qaeda, through effective, coordinated intelligence, and a shutting down of the financial networks that support terrorism, and a homeland security program that involves more than color-coded warnings." During a July 2004 interview reported by The New York Times when asked how he would have acted in regard to the Iraq resolution in 2002, Obama answered "What would I have done? I don't know. What I know is that from my vantage point the case [against invading Iraq] was not made" and that he was "not privy to Senate Intelligence reports," using it as a reason to support John Kerry and John Edwards in the 2004 election. Obama defended his words on a later edition of Meet the Press saying that he made the statement because it was during the middle of an election in which his party's presidential nominees had both voted to authorize the war and noting that he was openly opposed to the war as early as 2002. Speaking before the Chicago Council on Global Affairs in November 2006, he said: "The days of using the war on terror as a political football are over. [...] It is time to give Iraqis their country back, and it is time to refocus America's efforts on the wider struggle yet to be won." In his speech Obama also called for a phased withdrawal of American troops starting in 2007, and an opening of diplomatic dialogue with Iraq's neighbors, Syria and Iran. On January 30, 2007, Obama introduced the Iraq War De-Escalation Act of 2007 into Congress. Among other things, the Act calls for capping the level of troops in Iraq at January 2007 levels, and for commencing a phased redeployment of US forces from Iraq "with the goal of removing all combat brigades from Iraq by March 31, 2008, a date that is consistent with the expectation of the bipartisan Iraq Study Group. Announcing the act on the Senate floor, Obama stated that "no amount of American soldiers can solve the political differences at the heart of somebody else's civil war." David Petraeus gives an aerial tour of Baghdad to Barack Obama and Chuck Hagel.Obama has not supported cutting funding to the war as a way to end U.S. involvement in the conflict. He stated that, "Once we were in, we were going to have some responsibility to try to make it work as best we can". Obama was however one of 14 senators who voted against the successful passage of H.R.2206 in May 2007, a bill meant to provide continued funding for the Iraq war free from any withdrawal deadlines. In an interview with BBC's HARDtalk on March 6, 2008, Obama foreign policy adviser Samantha Power stated that Obama's pledge to "have all [US] combat brigades out of Iraq within 16 months" was a "best case scenario" that "he will revisit when he becomes president." She continued, saying that "what we can take seriously is that he will try to get US forces out of Iraq as quickly and responsibly as possible." Although Obama had previously said he wanted all the U.S. troops out of Iraq within 16 months of becoming President, after he won the primary, he said he might "refine" that promise. On July 3, Obama reasserted his position on withdrawal saying "I have always said I would listen to commanders on the ground. I have always said the pace of withdrawal would be dictated by the safety and security of our troops and the need to maintain stability. That assessment has not changed and when I go to Iraq and I have a chance to talk to some of the commanders on the ground, I’m sure I’ll have more information and will continue to refine my policies." Obama said he would set a goal of having all U.S. combat brigades out of Iraq by summer 2010 and shift more resources to fighting Taliban in Afghanistan. "We can safely redeploy our combat brigades at a pace that would remove them in 16 months" "That would be the summer of 2010 -- two years from now, and more than seven years after the war began," Obama said on July 14, 2008. Obama will provide at least $2 billion to expand services to Iraqi refugees in neighboring countries.  Israel Speaking to the American Israel Public Affairs Committee on March 2, 2007, Obama called Israel "our strongest ally in the region," and stated: "We must preserve our total commitment to our unique defense relationship with Israel by fully funding military assistance and continuing work on the Arrow and related missile defense programs." On the Palestinian Authority's new unity government, Obama said: "We should all be concerned about the agreement negotiated among Palestinians in Mecca last month." Obama denounced former President Jimmy Carter for meeting with Hamas. Obama said "Hamas is not a state, Hamas is a terrorist organization." In June 2008, Obama became the first presidential candidate ever to publicly back the traditional Israeli position that Jerusalem remain forever undivided under Israel rule. "Jerusalem will remain the capital of Israel, and it must remain undivided," Obama declared on June 4, 2008. Days later, he said, "obviously, it's going to be up to the parties to negotiate a range of these issues. And Jerusalem will be part of those negotiations." On a July 2008 world tour focused on trouble spots for U.S. national security interests, Obama met with Israeli president Shimon Peres, prime minister Ehud Olmert, opposition party leader Benjamin Netanyahu, and Palestinian Authority president Mahmoud Abbas and prime minister Salam Fayyad. Obama reiterated that Jerusalem should be the capital of Israel, but that territorial disputes regarding that city and elsewhere needed to be resolved without direct U.S. involvement. "That’s an issue that has to be dealt with by the parties involved, the Palestinians and the Israelis, and it is not the job of the United States to dictate the form in which that will take, but rather to support the efforts that are being made right now to resolve these very difficult issues that have a long history." On the same trip, Obama said, "The state of Israel faces determined enemies who seek its destruction, but it also has a friend and ally in the United States that will always stand by the people of Israel." Obama's selection for his Vice-Presidential candidate, Joe Biden, has stressed that Obama is strongly pro-Israel. In a speech in September 2008, Biden stated "I am chairman of the Foreign Relations Committee. I give you my word as a Biden, I would not have given up that job to be Barack Obama's vice president if I didn't in my gut and in my heart and in my head know that Barack Obama is exactly where I am on Israel. And he is...I promise you ... we will make [Israel] more secure." In February 2009, Obama announced that the United States will boycott the 2009 Durban Review Conference due to concerns that, like its predecessor, the 2001 World Conference against Racism, the conference will become a platform for anti-Semitism and anti-Zionism. The decision was praised by the National Post - a conservative newspaper - where columnist Jonathan Kay stated that this decision "signifies that — contrary to overheated campaign propaganda contained in GOP smear-campaign email blasts — Obama is hardly soft on the Israeli file."  Israeli-Palestinian conflict Referring to the Israeli-Palestinian conflict in January 2006, Obama denounced Hamas while praising former Prime Minister of Israel Ariel Sharon. At a meeting with then Israeli Foreign Minister Silvan Shalom on the eve of Hamas' sweeping election victory, Obama stated that Sharon's role in the conflict had always been "absolutely important and constructive." At a meeting with Palestinian students two days later, Obama stated opposition to Hamas in favor of rival party Fatah, noting his desire to "consolidate behind a single government with a single authority that can then negotiate as a reliable partner with Israel." In a comment aimed at Hamas, he said that "the US will always side with Israel if Israel is threatened with destruction." In March 2007, Obama told Democratic activists in Iowa, "Nobody is suffering more than the Palestinian people. ...if we could get some movement among Palestinian leadership, what I'd like to see is a loosening up of some of the restrictions on providing aid directly to the Palestinian people." Obama has also discussed in more general terms his views about the Palestinians vis-à-vis the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. On June 4, 2007, he stated that: ...resolution [to the conflict] and a better life for all people... is something that can be achieved, but it's going to require some soul-searching on the Palestinian side. They have to recognize Israel's right to exist; they have to renounce violence and terrorism as a tool to achieve their political ends; they have to abide by agreements. In that context, I think the Israelis will gladly say, "Let's move forward negotiations that would allow them to live side by side with the Palestinians in peace and security." Obama was also a co-sponsor of the Palestinian Anti-Terrorism Act of 2006, which in part calls on "members of the international community to avoid contact with and refrain from financially supporting the terrorist organization Hamas until it agrees to recognize Israel, renounce violence, disarm, and accept prior agreements, including the Roadmap." On April 7, 2009, Obama spoke to university students at a round table in Istanbul, Turkey in which he stated that he was committed to achieving a peace settlement between Israel and the Palestinians and praised Turkey for its role as a peace broker during the conflict. Obama stated that: "It will depend on young people like you being open to new ideas and new possibilities and it will require young people like you never to stereotype or assume the worst about other people. In the Muslim world, this notion that somehow everything is the fault of the Israelis lacks balance -- because there's two sides to every question. That doesn't mean that sometimes one side has done something wrong and should not be condemned. But it does mean there's always two sides to an issue. I say the same thing to my Jewish friends, which is you have to see the perspective of the Palestinians. Learning to stand in somebody else's shoes to see through their eyes, that's how peace begins. And it's up to you to make that happen."  2006 Israel-Hezbollah War Obama defended Israel's response to the killing of eight Israeli soldiers and kidnapping of two others near the border with Lebanon, telling NBC's Tim Russert on August 22, 2006, "I don't think there is any nation that would not have reacted the way Israel did after two soldiers had been snatched. I support Israel's response to take some action in protecting themselves." Discussing the 2006 Israel-Hezbollah War Obama said, "don't fault Israel for wanting to rid their border with Lebanon from those Katyusha missiles that can fire in and harm Israeli citizens, so I think that any cease fire would have to be premised on the removal of those missiles."  Kosovo Obama's reaction to Kosovo's unilateral declaration of independence in 2008 was that the "announcement of independence by the leadership of Kosovo ends a chain of events that began with the bloody break-up of the former Yugoslavia. Kosovo’s independence is a unique situation resulting from the irreparable rupture Slobodan Milosevic’s actions caused; it is in no way a precedent for anyone else in the region or around the world." He expressed hope that "Serbia and Kosovo can emerge as models of democratic and economic growth, and their people can know a bright future." The Obama administration has expressed strong support for Kosovar independence, and Obama dispatched Secretary of State Hillary Clinton to meet with the republic's leaders to affirm his administration's commitment to seeking greater international recognition for the state.  Middle East In his first formal television interview as President, Obama addressed the Muslim world through an Arabic-language satellite TV network Al-Arabiya. He expressed interest and a commitment to repair relations that have continued to deteriorate under the previous administration. He called for a new partnership with the Muslim world, "based on mutual respect and mutual interest." The American envoy to the region is former Sen. George J. Mitchell.  Pakistan In an address on national security to the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars on August 1, 2007, Obama stated that as President he would consider military action in Pakistan in order to attack al-Qaeda, even if the Pakistani government did not give approval. Obama said, "I will not hesitate to use military force to take out terrorists who pose a direct threat to America." He also said "As President, I would deploy at least two additional brigades to Afghanistan to reinforce our counter-terrorism operations". On August 1, 2007 Obama declared in a foreign policy speech that the United States must be willing to strike al Qaeda targets inside Pakistan, with or without the consent of the Pakistani government. He said, "If we have actionable intelligence about high value terrorist targets and President Musharraf won't act, we will". On the same day in response, then-White House press secretary Tony Snow highlighted the policy's shift from the position established by the Bush Administration, he said: "Our approach to Pakistan is one that not only respects the sovereignty of Pakistan as a sovereign government, but is also designed to work in a way where we are working in cooperation with the local government". After weeks of discourse surrounding the policy, Obama said there was misreporting of his comments, saying that, "I never called for an invasion of Pakistan or Afghanistan." He clarified that rather than a surge in the number of troops in Iraq, there needs to be a "diplomatic surge" and that if there were "actionable intelligence reports" showing al-Qaida leader Osama bin Laden in Pakistan, the U.S. troops as a last resort should enter and try to capture terrorists. That would happen, he added, only if "the Pakistani government was unable or unwilling" to go after the terrorists. Obama has said that he would hold Pakistan accountable for the massive military aid it has received from Washington if he were elected to the White House. He said his administration will increase pressure on Pakistan to come to terms with terrorist safe havens along its northern border with Afghanistan. He noted that the US was providing Pakistan military aid which he said was being misused by that country to prepare for a war against India.  South Ossetia "I wholeheartedly condemn the violation of Georgia's sovereignty. I think it is important at this point for all sides to show restraint and to stop this arms conflict. Georgia's territorial integrity needs to be preserved and now is the time for direct talks," Obama said on August 8, 2008. Moscow sent tanks into the pro-Russian separatist region of South Ossetia when Georgia, a staunch U.S. ally, launched a major military offensive to retake the breakaway province.  Zimbabwe Obama supports Zimbabweean opposition leader Morgan Tsvangirai and congratulated him upon his swearing-in as Prime Minister of Zimbabwe, but he has historically been a critic of President Robert Mugabe. Obama's position is that sanctions should remain against the Zimbabwean government until Mugabe shows signs of cooperating with Tsvangirai.  Social policy The Almanac of American Politics (2008) rated Obama's overall social policies in 2006 as more conservative than 21 percent of the Senate, and more liberal than 77 percent of the Senate (18 percent and 77 percent, respectively, in 2005).  Abortion and contraception In his write-in response to a 1998 survey, Obama stated his abortion position as conforming with the Democratic platform: "Abortions should be legally available in accordance with Roe v. Wade." His presidential candidacy was endorsed by several groups which advocate for legal abortion, including NARAL Pro-Choice America and Planned Parenthood. In August 2008, in Lake Forest, California, Obama responded to the question as to when life begins, "Whether you're looking at it from a theological perspective or a scientific perspective, answering that question with specificity is above my pay grade." In the Illinois state legislature, Obama opposed the Induced Infant Liability Act and repeatedly voted against requirements and restrictions on what opponents label "born alive" abortions. Obama said his opposition was because of technical language he felt might have "interfered with a woman's right to choose" and said Illinois law already required medical care in such situations. Obama voted against the Partial-Birth Abortion Ban Act, saying "On an issue like partial birth abortion, I strongly believe that the state can properly restrict late-term abortions. I have said so repeatedly. All I've said is we should have a provision to protect the health of the mother, and many of the bills that came before me didn't have that." Obama voted against a bill that made it a federal crime for anyone other than a parent to accompany a minor across state lines to obtain an abortion. The bill was signed into law by President George W. Bush in 2005. Obama has, however, expressed support of bans on some late-term abortions, provided they include exemptions for the mental and physical health of the mother. During the third debate during the 2008 presidential campaign, Obama further detailed his stance on abortion: "...there surely is some common ground when both those who believe in choice and those who are opposed to abortion can come together and say, 'We should try to prevent unintended pregnancies by providing appropriate education to our youth, communicating that sexuality is sacred and that they should not be engaged in cavalier activity, and providing options for adoption, and helping single mothers if they want to choose to keep the baby'. Those are all things that we put in the Democratic platform for the first time this year, and I think that's where we can find some common ground, because nobody's pro-abortion. I think it's always a tragic situation. We should try to reduce these circumstances." Obama voted for a $100 million education initiative to reduce teen pregnancy and provide contraceptives to young people.  Disability rights Obama was the only Democratic presidential candidate to issue an unsolicited statement expressing his views on disability community issues. For example, he stated his intention to sign the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, and expressed his support of the ADA Restoration Act.  Environmental policy and record Addressing global warming, Obama stated: The issue of climate change is one that we ignore at our own peril. There may still be disputes about exactly how much is naturally occurring, but what we can be scientifically certain of is that our continued use of fossil fuels is pushing us to a point of no return. And unless we free ourselves from a dependence on these fossil fuels and chart a new course on energy in this country, we are condemning future generations to global catastrophe. He has pledged to cut greenhouse gas emissions 80 percent below 1990 levels by 2050 by creating a market-based cap-and-trade system. Obama also has plans for improving air and water quality through reduced carbon emissions. Obama worked as a member of the US Senate Committee on Environment and Public Works during the 109th Congress. During the presidential campaign Obama rejected John McCain's proposed suspension of federal gas taxes claiming it would hurt consumers, hinder highway construction, and endanger jobs. Obama criticized the idea of a gas tax "holiday" as a ploy by his rivals "designed to get them through an election" and not actually help "struggling consumers".  Native Americans Obama has stated, "The bond that I would like to create between an Obama administration and the [Native American] nations all across this country...is something that is going to be a top priority." Obama added that "few have been ignored by Washington for as long as native Americans – the first Americans" and that "too often Washington has paid lip service to working with tribes while taking a one-size-fits-all approach" and promised "that will change when I am president". Obama is the first presidential candidate to have been given honorary membership into a Native American tribe, the Crow Nation. At a private adoption ceremony, Obama was given the Crow name "One Who Helps People Throughout the Land".  African Americans Obama opposes offering reparations to the descendants of slaves. "I have said in the past — and I'll repeat again — that the best reparations we can provide are good schools in the inner city and jobs for people who are unemployed," Obama said. An apology for slavery would be appropriate but not particularly helpful in improving the lives of African Americans, he said. Reparations could also be a distraction, Obama said. "I consistently believe that when it comes to whether it's Native Americans or African-American issues or reparations, the most important thing for the U.S. government to do is not just offer words, but offer deeds," Obama told a meeting in Chicago in July 2008.  LGBT issues Obama voted against the Federal Marriage Amendment which would have defined marriage as between one man and one woman, but stated in a 2008 interview that he personally believes that marriage is "between a man and a woman" and that he is "not in favor of gay marriage." He supports civil unions that would carry equal legal standing to that of marriage for same-sex couples, but believes that decisions about the title of marriage should be left to the states. Following the 2008 elections, it was reported that Obama had formerly supported same-sex marriage. This article's factual accuracy is disputed. Please see the relevant discussion on the talk page. (May 2009) The neutrality of this article is disputed. Please see the discussion on the talk page. Please do not remove this message until the dispute is resolved. (May 2009) He has called for the repeal of the federal Defense of Marriage Act. Obama stated on March 15, 2007, that "I do not agree...that homosexuality is immoral." During the July 23, 2007 CNN/YouTube debate, Obama further stated that "... we've got to make sure that everybody is equal under the law. And the civil unions that I proposed would be equivalent in terms of making sure that all the rights that are conferred by the state are equal for same-sex couples as well as for heterosexual couples." Obama supports expanding the protections afforded by hate crimes statutes to cover crimes committed against individuals because of sexual orientation or gender identity. He has also stated his opposition to the United States' military's "Don't ask, don't tell" policy, and has affirmed his intention to repeal it during his Presidency. Obama was criticized[who?] for inviting Reverend Donnie McClurkin, Mary Mary and Reverend Hezekiah Walker — who all have a history of making anti-gay remarks — to participate in a three-day gospel music campaign tour called "Embrace the Courage", as part of Obama's "40 Days of Faith and Family" campaign in South Carolina. The Obama campaign responded to criticism in a press release, saying, "I strongly believe that African Americans and the LGBT community must stand together in the fight for equal rights. And so I strongly disagree with Reverend McClurkin's views and will continue to fight for these rights as president of the United States to ensure that America is a country that spreads tolerance instead of division." For events held Sunday, October 28, 2007, Obama added Reverend Andy Sidden, an openly gay pastor. On May 15, 2008, in a statement in response to the ruling of the California Supreme Court in In re Marriage Cases, Obama announced his opposition to Proposition 8, an initiative measure proposed for the 2008 California General Election ballot that, if passed, would amend the California Constitution to define marriage as between only a man and a woman. In a letter read to the Alice B. Toklas LGBT Democratic Club on June 29, 2008, Obama reiterated his opposition to the proposed amendment, stating that he supports extending "fully equal rights and benefits to same-sex couples under both state and federal law."  Sex education As an Illinois State Senator, Obama supported Senate bill 0099 for “age and developmentally appropriate” sex education, which would have allowed parents to choose to withdraw their children from the classes. The bill was endorsed by the Illinois Parent Teacher Association, the Illinois State Medical Society, the Illinois Public Health Association, and the Illinois Education Association. In a debate in 2004, when questioned by Alan Keyes about what kind of sex education was "age appropriate" for kindergarteners, Obama said, "I'll give you an example, because I have a six-year-old daughter and a three-year-old daughter, and one of the things my wife and I talked to our daughter about is the possibility of somebody touching them inappropriately, and what that might mean. And that was included specifically in the law, so that kindergarteners are able to exercise some possible protection against abuse...." In 2007, in response to a similar attack from Mitt Romney, an Obama spokesperson stated his position that communities should determine the curriculum. The Illinois bill did not call for addressing all sex-related issues in kindergarten classes, and Obama has said that he "does not support teaching explicit sex education to children in kindergarten."  HIV Obama has encouraged Democrats to reach out to evangelicals and other religious groups. In December 2006, he joined Sen. Sam Brownback (R-KS) at the "Global Summit on AIDS and the Church" organized by church leaders Kay and Rick Warren. Together with Warren and Brownback, Obama took an HIV test, as he had done in Kenya less than four months earlier. He encouraged "others in public life to do the same" and not be ashamed of it. Addressing over 8,000 United Church of Christ members in June 2007, Obama challenged "so-called leaders of the Christian Right" for being "all too eager to exploit what divides us."  Gun policy As a state legislator in Illinois, Obama supported banning the sale or transfer of all forms of semi-automatic firearms, increasing state restrictions on the purchase and possession of firearms and requiring manufacturers to provide child-safety locks with firearms. In 1996, during Obama's run for the Illinois State Senate, he was surveyed by a Chicago nonprofit, Independent Voters of Illinois about criminal justice and other issues. Obama's questionnaire showed that he supported a ban on the manufacture, sale and possession of handguns. Subsequently, Obama denied that his writing was on the document and said that he never favored a ban on the sale and possession of handguns. In 1999, he urged prohibiting the operation of any gun store within five miles of a school or park, which according to gun-rights advocates would eliminate gun stores from most of the inhabited portion of the United States. He sponsored a bill in 2000 limiting handgun purchases to one per month. As state senator, he voted against a 2004 measure that allowed self-defense as an affirmative defense for those charged with violating local laws making it otherwise unlawful for such persons to possess firearms. He also voted against allowing persons who had obtained domestic violence protective orders to carry handguns for their protection. From 1994 through 2002, Obama was a board member of the Joyce Foundation, which amongst other non-gun related activities provides funds for gun control organizations in the United States. While in the U.S. Senate, Obama has supported several gun control measures, including restricting the purchase of firearms at gun shows and the reauthorization of the Federal Assault Weapons Ban. Obama voted against legislation protecting firearm manufacturers from certain liability suits, which gun-rights advocates say are designed to bankrupt the firearms industry. Obama did vote in favor of the 2006 Vitter Amendment to prohibit the confiscation of lawful firearms during an emergency or major disaster, which passed 84-16. During a February 15, 2008 press conference, Obama stated, "I think there is an individual right to bear arms, but it's subject to commonsense regulation." Obama has also stated his opposition to allowing citizens to carry concealed firearms and supports a national law outlawing the practice, saying on Chicago Public Radio in 2004 "I continue to support a ban on concealed carry laws". Obama initially voiced support of Washington, D.C.'s handgun ban. Following the Supreme Court decision that the ban was unconstitutional, he revised his position in support of the decision overturning the law, saying, "Today's decision reinforces that if we act responsibly, we can both protect the constitutional right to bear arms and keep our communities and our children safe." He also said, in response to the ruling, "I have always believed that the Second Amendment protects the right of individuals to bear arms... The Supreme Court has now endorsed that view." After being elected as President, Obama announced that he favors measures that respect Second Amendment rights, while at the same time keeping guns away from children and criminals. He further stated that he supports banning private transfers of firearms at gun shows (referred to as "closing the gun show loophole"), "making guns in this country childproof", and permanently reinstating the expired Assault Weapons Ban.  Death penalty Obama has said that the death penalty is used too frequently and inconsistently. However, he favors it for cases in which "the community is justified in expressing the full measure of its outrage." Speaking as a state senator about the Illinois legislature's constant additions to the list of factors that render a defendant eligible for the death penalty, Obama said, "We certainly don't think that we should [...] have this laundry list that does not make any distinctions between the run-of-the-mill armed robbery that results in death and systematic killings by a terrorist organization. And I think essentially what the reduction of aggravating factors does is, it says, 'Here's a narrower set of crimes that we think potentially at least could deserve the death penalty.'" In his own words, "While the evidence tells me that the death penalty does little to deter crime, I believe there are some crimes — mass murder, the rape and murder of a child — so heinous that the community is justified in expressing the full measure of its outrage by meting out the ultimate punishment. On the other hand, the way capital cases were tried in Illinois at the time was so rife with error, questionable police tactics, racial bias, and shoddy lawyering, that 13 death row inmates had been exonerated." On June 25, 2008, Obama condemned United States Supreme Court decision Kennedy v. Louisiana, which outlawed the death penalty for a child rapist when the victim was not killed. He said that states have the right to consider capital punishment, but cited concern about the possibility of unfairness in some sentences.  Civil liberties Obama voted in favor of the 2006 version of the USA PATRIOT Act. He voted against the Military Commissions Act of 2006 and later voted to restore habeas corpus to those detained by the U.S. (which had been stripped by the Military Commissions Act). He has advocated closing the Guantanamo Bay detention camp, but has not supported two specific bills that would have done so. Obama still opposes the use of torture and used to oppose warrantless domestic wiretaps by the U.S. He voted against the Flag Desecration Amendment in 2006, arguing that flag burning didn't justify a constitutional amendment, but said that he would support a law banning flag burning on federal property. As of August 8, 2008, the ACLU has given Obama a score of 80% on civil liberty issues for the 110th Congress U.S. Senate.  USA PATRIOT Act As noted above, Obama voted to reauthorize the USA PATRIOT Act, which extended the Act, but with some amendments. Such amendments would clarify the rights of an individual who has received FISA orders to challenge nondisclosure requirements and to refuse disclosure of the name of their attorney. He voted against extending the USA PATRIOT Act’s Wiretap Provision on March 1, 2006. This bill would give the FBI the authority to conduct “roving wiretaps” and access to business records. Voting against this bill would prolong the debate, keeping the USA PATRIOT Act provisional whereas voting for this bill would extend the USA PATRIOT Act as permanent.  Warrantless wiretaps Obama had previously opposed legislation that granted legal immunity for telecommunications companies that helped the Bush administration to conduct wiretaps without warrants but later voted in favor of a compromise bill that included such provisions.  Religion Obama has encouraged Democrats to reach out to evangelicals and other church-going people, saying, "if we truly hope to speak to people where they’re at — to communicate our hopes and values in a way that’s relevant to their own — we cannot abandon the field of religious discourse." He supports separation of church and state and contends that: "I also think that we are under obligation in public life to translate our religious values into moral terms that all people can share, including those who are not believers. And that is how our democracy’s functioning, will continue to function. That’s what the founding fathers intended." In July 2008, Obama said that if elected president he would expand the delivery of social services through churches and other religious organizations, vowing to achieve what he said President Bush had fallen short on. His 2008 campaign web site contains his Faith Statement.  Embryonic stem cell research Obama supports embryonic stem cell research and was a co-sponsor of the 2005 Stem Cell Research Enhancement Act which was passed by both houses of Congress but vetoed by President Bush. Obama condemned Bush's veto, saying, "Democrats want this bill to pass. Conservative, pro-life Republicans want this bill to pass. By large margins, the American people want this bill to pass. It is only the White House standing in the way of progress - standing in the way of so many potential cures." He also voted in favor of the 2007 bill lifting restrictions on embryonic stem cell research that was passed but was also vetoed by President Bush. On March 9th, 2009, President Obama signed Executive Order 13505, Allowing "responsible, scientifically worthy human stem cell research, including human embryonic stem cell research, to the extent permitted by law". This executive order also served to revoke Executive Order 13435, signed on June 20th, 2007 by President Bush.  Marijuana decriminalization and medical marijuana "I think we need to rethink and decriminalize our marijuana laws," Mr. Obama told an audience during a debate at Northwestern University in 2004. "But I'm not somebody who believes in legalization of marijuana." His campaign said, "Senator Obama does not believe in legalization of marijuana, but agrees with President Bush that long minimum sentences for first-time drug users may not be the best way to occupy jail space or heal people from their disease." When asked if he would curtail DEA raids of medical marijuana growers he said "I would because I think our federal agents have better things to do, like catching criminals and preventing terrorism. The way I want to approach the issue of medical marijuana is to base it on science, and if there is sound science that supports the use of medical marijuana and if it is controlled and prescribed in a way that other medicine is prescribed, then it's something that I think we should consider."  Parental responsibility During a February 28, 2008 speech in Beaumont, Texas, Obama said, "It's not good enough for you to say to your child, 'Do good in school,' and then when that child comes home, you got the TV set on, you got the radio on, you don't check their homework, there is not a book in the house, you've got the video game playing... So turn off the TV set, put the video game away. Buy a little desk or put that child by the kitchen table. Watch them do their homework. If they don't know how to do it, give them help. If you don't know how to do it, call the teacher. Make them go to bed at a reasonable time. Keep them off the streets. Give 'em some breakfast... I also know that if folks letting our children drink eight sodas a day, which some parents do, or, you know, eat a bag of potato chips for lunch, or Popeyes for breakfast [...] You can't do that. Children have to have proper nutrition. That affects also how they study, how they learn in school."  Criteria for selecting judges On October 15, 2008, during the third and final presidential debate, Obama said, "I will look for those judges who have an outstanding judicial record, who have the intellect, and who hopefully have a sense of what real-world folks are going through." According to MSNBC, on July 17, 2007, Obama said, "We need somebody who's got the heart, the empathy, to recognize what it's like to be a young teenage mom. The empathy to understand what it's like to be poor, or African-American, or gay, or disabled, or old. And that's the criteria by which I'm going to be selecting my judges." However, he stated at the final debate that "the most important thing in any judge is their capacity to provide fairness and justice to the American people."  District of Columbia voting rights Residents of the Washington, D.C. do not have voting representation in Congress, as residents of states do, under the United States Constitution. Instead, Washington currently elects a non-voting delegate to the United States House of Representatives and has no representation in the United States Senate. Obama supports "full representation in Congress" for residents of the District of Columbia. As a Senator, Obama co-sponsored the failed Voting Rights Act of 2007, which would have granted the District of Columbia full voting representation in the House.  See also Comparison of United States presidential candidates, 2008 List of Barack Obama presidential campaign endorsements, 2008 Political positions of Joe Biden Political positions of John McCain Political positions of Sarah Palin  References ^ http://change.gov/agenda/ ^ David Leonhardt. "ECONOMIX; Assessing The Advisers In the '08 Race" New York Times. April 18, 2007 ^ Obama (2006), p. 159. ^ Franklin, Ben A. (June 1, 2005). "The Fifth Black Senator in U.S. History Makes F.D.R. His Icon". Washington Spectator. http://www.washingtonspectator.com/articles/20050601obama_1.cfm. Retrieved on 2007-01-21. ^ "S. 1181: A bill to amend the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 to provide shareholders with an advisory vote on executive compensation" GovTrack.us ^ "EMPLOYEE FREE CHOICE ACT OF 2007--MOTION TO PROCEED". Congressional Record (GPO): pp. S8378-S8398. 2007-06-26. http://frwebgate4.access.gpo.gov/. 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U.S. Senate Roll Call Votes 110th Congress - 2nd Session. United States Senate. 2008-07-09. http://www.senate.gov/legislative/LIS/roll_call_lists/roll_call_vote_cfm.cfm?congress=110&session=2&vote=00168. Retrieved on 2008-07-14. "A bill to amend the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act of 1978 to establish a procedure for authorizing certain acquisitions of foreign intelligence, and for other purposes. [...] Obama (D-IL), Yea" ^ - Obama plans ^ http://my.barackobama.com/page/content/fpccga ^ https://www.fcs.army.mil ^ Candidates differ on female draft, Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, October 13, 2008 ^ a b "Foreign Policy: Nuclear Weapons". BarackObama.com. http://www.barackobama.com/issues/foreignpolicy/#nuclear. Retrieved on 2008-05-24. ^ Library of Congress ("THOMAS" page for S. 2433) ^ Library of Congress (September 26, 2007). "H.R. 1302". Library of Congress. http://thomas.loc.gov/cgi-bin/bdquery/z?d110:HR01302:@@@X. Retrieved on 2008-08-06. ^ Benen, Steve (August 6, 2008). "The lunatics are running the RNC’s asylum". The Carpetbagger Report. http://www.thecarpetbaggerreport.com/archives/16461.html. Retrieved on 2008-08-06. ^ Congressional Budget Office (March 28, 2008). "S. 2433 Global Poverty Act of 2007" (PDF). Congressional Budget Office. http://www.cbo.gov/ftpdocs/90xx/doc9082/s2433.pdf. Retrieved on 2008-08-06. 2008-08-06 ^ Obama would send 7,000 more U.S. troops to Afghanistan, lessen force in Iraq ^ a b Dan Balz and William Branigin (2008-07-25). "Obama Talks Tough on Iran After Meeting With French President". The Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2008/07/25/AR2008072501970_pf.html. Retrieved on 2008-07-25. ^ Obama takes political spotlight on return to Africa | U.S. Senator Barack Obama ^ Statement of Senator Obama on Zimbabwe | U.S. Senator Barack Obama ^ Obama says South Africans' freedom fight inspired political career | U.S. Senator Barack Obama ^ "Obama Slates Kenya for Fraud". News24.com. August 28, 2006. http://www.news24.com/News24/Africa/News/0,,2-11-1447_1989646,00.html. Retrieved on 2008-01-14. ^ Wamalwa, Chris (September 2, 2006). "Envoy Hits at Obama Over Graft Remark". The Standard (Nairobi). http://www.eastandard.net/InsidePage.php?id=1143957666. Retrieved on 2008-10-19. Moracha, Vincent; Mangoa Mosota (September 4, 2006). "Leaders Support Obama on Graft Claims". The Standard (Nairobi). http://www.eastandard.net/InsidePage.php?id=1143957752. Retrieved on 2008-10-19. ^ U.S. Senate, 109th Congress, 2nd Session (January 3, 2006). "S. 2125, Democratic Republic of the Congo Relief, Security, and Democracy Promotion Act". Thomas. http://thomas.loc.gov/cgi-bin/bdquery/z?d109:SN02125:. Retrieved on 2008-01-14. ^ Obama Asks Rice to Address Violence Against Women in the Congo | U.S. Senator Barack Obama ^ Obama Calls for Limits on Tourism to Antarctica, Fox News, April 6, 2009 ^ Statement to Armenians for Obama ^ Barack Obama on the Importance of US-Armenia Relations, Official site, January 19, 2008 ^ Sen. Obama Reaffirms Commitment to U.S. Armenian Genocide Recognition, ANCA Press Release, June 19, 2008 ^ Obama’s clear thinking on Cuba bodes well for future foreign policy ^ Obama Promises To Maintain Cuban Embargo ^ Questions for the Record | Senator John Kerry | Nomination of Hillary Rodham Clinton, Department of State, Secretary of State ^ Full Text of Obama’s Speech “The Cost of War”, by Mark Halperin, TIME ^ President Hu Jintao and US President-elect Barack Obama Discuss over Telephone ^ Hunt, Kasie (May 1, 2006). "Celebrities, Activists Rally Against Darfur Genocide". USA Today. http://www.usatoday.com/news/washington/2006-04-30-darfurrally_x.htm. Retrieved on 2008-01-14. For excerpts from Obama's speech, see: "More Must Be Done in Darfur". The Hill. April 30, 2006. http://blog.thehill.com/2006/04/30/more-must-be-done-in-darfur/. Retrieved on 2008-01-14. ^ Obama, Barack; Sam Brownback (December 27, 2005). "Policy Adrift on Darfur". Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2005/12/26/AR2005122600547.html. Retrieved on 2008-01-14. Doyle, Jim (May 1, 2006). "Tens of Thousands Rally for Darfur". San Francisco Chronicle. http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/c/a/2006/05/01/MNGFBIIFOA1.DTL. Retrieved on 2008-01-14. ^ Kuhnhenn, Jim (May 17, 2007). "Giuliani, Edwards Have Sudan Holdings". Associated Press (SFGate.com). http://sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/n/a/2007/05/17/politics/p171906D95.DTL. Retrieved on 2008-01-14. Obama, Barack (August 30, 2007). "Hit Iran Where It Hurts". New York Daily News. http://www.nydailynews.com/opinions/2007/08/30/2007-08-30_hit_iran_where_it_hurts.html. Retrieved on 2008-01-14. ^ Obama, Barack (July-August 2007). "Renewing American Leadership". Foreign Affairs. http://www.foreignaffairs.org/20070701faessay86401/barack-obama/renewing-american-leadership.html. Retrieved on 2008-01-14. ^ Jeff Mason, Obama says Europe must do more in Afghanistan, Reuters ^ Obama pledges partnership with India, MSN India - News ^ India will be my top priority: Barack Obama, Express Buzz, October 23, 2008 ^ Obama would consider missile strikes on Iran Chicago Tribune, September 25, 2004. ^ Barack Obama: 9/11 fever has broken Countdown with Keith Olbermann, MSNBC, 2006 ^ "Barack Obama, Democrat". Haaretz.com. 2006-10-23. http://www.haaretz.com/hasen/pages/ShArt.jhtml?itemNo=756712. ^ Obama, Barack (March 2, 2007). "AIPAC Policy Forum Remarks". Barack Obama U.S. Senate Office. http://obama.senate.gov/speech/070302-aipac_policy_forum_remarks/index.html. Retrieved on 2007-07-22. For Obama's 2004 Senate campaign remarks on possible missile strikes against Iran, see: Mendell, David (September 25, 2004). "Obama Would Consider Missile Strikes on Iran". Chicago Tribune. http://www.chicagotribune.com/news/printedition/chi-0409250111sep25,1,4555304.story?ctrack=1&cset=true. Retrieved on 2007-07-22. ^ Transcript of remarks by Senator Barack Obama at the AIPAC Policy Forum, Chicago, Illinois, March 2, 2007, Israel Insider March 3, 2007 ^ Obama, Barack (March 2, 2007). "AIPAC Policy Forum Remarks". Barack Obama U.S. Senate Office. http://obama.senate.gov/speech/070302-aipac_policy_forum_remarks/index.html. Retrieved on 2008-01-14. ^ "Remarks of Senator Barack Obama: Turning the Page in Iraq", from Obama campaign website, September 12, 2007 (retrieved March 13, 2008) ^ "Obama: Iran Requires Direct Diplomacy". NPR. http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=15251928. Retrieved on 2007-12-10. ^ "Clinton’s Iran Vote: The Fallout". New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2007/10/14/weekinreview/14cooper.html. Retrieved on 2007-10-14. ^ Katharine Q. Seelye (October 25, 2007). "Clinton E-Mail Hits Obama on Iran". New York Times. http://thecaucus.blogs.nytimes.com/2007/10/25/clinton-e-mail-hits-obama-on-iran/. Retrieved on 2008-02-17. ^ NPR.org (June 4, 2008). "Transcript & Audio: Obama's Speech at AIPAC". National Public Radio. http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=91150432. Retrieved on 2008-11-16. ^ BarackObamadotcom You Tube Channel (June 4, 2008). "Barack Obama at AIPAC". YouTube. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0cOJNC2EuJw. Retrieved on 2008-11-16. ^ Obama: Iran a threat to Israel: World: US Elections, News24 ^ Obama: Iraq war jeopardized Israel, Jewish Telegraphic Agency (JTA), June 4, 2008. ^ Obama strongly backs Israel in first speech since record win, CNN.com, June 4, 2008. ^ Zeleny, Jeff (2008-07-24). "On Mideast Tour, Obama Meeting Olmert and Abbas". http://www.nytimes.com/2008/07/24/us/politics/24obama.html?pagewanted=print. Retrieved on 2009-07-24. ^ Obama: Iranian threats against Israel ‘unacceptable’, Jewish Telegraphic Agency (JTA), December 7, 2008. ^ Obama, Barack (October 2, 2002). "Remarks of Illinois State Sen. Barack Obama Against Going to War with Iraq". BarackObama.com. http://www.barackobama.com/2002/10/02/remarks_of_illinois_state_sen.php. Retrieved on 2008-02-15. ^ Obama and Iraq - Fact Checker ^ MTP transcript for Nov. 11, 2007 - Meet the Press, online at MSNBC - MSNBC.com ^ Obama, Barack (November 20, 2006). "A Way Forward in Iraq" (in PDF and audio). Chicago Council on Global Affairs. http://www.thechicagocouncil.org/hottopics_details.php?hottopics_id=52. . Also available in text and video at Obama 2010 Re-Election Campaign. Retrieved on 2007-01-19. ^ Obama introduces Iraq Bill ^ Obama Calls For Withdrawal Of All Troops From Iraq By March 2008 ^ Floor Statement on Iraq War De-escalation Act of 2007. January 30, 2007 at Barack Obama: US Senator for Illinois. Retrieved on 2007-02-12 ^ "Obama Changed Position on War Funding". ABC News. 2007-03-21. http://abcnews.go.com/Politics/story?id=2970930. Retrieved on 2007-12-10. ^ "U.S. Senate Roll Call Votes 110th Congress - 1st Session". United States Senate. 2007-05-24. http://www.senate.gov/legislative/LIS/roll_call_lists/roll_call_vote_cfm.cfm?congress=110&session=1&vote=00181. Retrieved on 2008-03-02. ^ Barack Obama | Change We Can Believe In | Iraq ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/programmes/hardtalk/7281805.stm ^ http://www.bbc.co.uk/newsa/n5ctrl/progs/08/hardtalk/power_06mar.ram ^ US election: Barack Obama wobbles on withdrawing Iraq troops, telegraph.co.uk, July 4, 2008 ^ Obama says he could 'refine' Iraq policy, msnbc.com ^ Obama repeats message on black responsibility, msnbc.com ^ Obama to deliver speech on Iraq ahead of trip ^ Barack Obama and Joe Biden: The Change We Need | Iraq ^ Obama, Barack. Transcript of remarks by Senator Barack Obama: AIPAC Policy Forum (Chicago, Illinois) Transcript; PDF File. March 2, 2007 ^ Beth Fouhy, Obama reassures Jewish leaders on Hamas, Wright, Associated Press, April 16, 2008 ^ Abbas slams Obama for saying Jerusalem to stay Israel's undivided capital, Haaretz - Israel News ^ Israelis Not Taking Obama's Jerusalem Gesture Seriously, CNSNews.com ^ Political Punch ^ Biden reassures Florida Jews on Israel, Jewish Telegraph Agency (JTA), September 2, 2008. ^ Sen. Joe Biden reiterates support for Israel at two South Florida rallies by Mark Hollis and Juan Ortega, South Florida Sun-Sentinel, September 3, 2008. ^ U.S. pulling out of ‘Durban II’ conference by Ron Kampeas, Jewish Telegraphic Agency (JTA), February 27, 2009. ^ Jonathan Kay on the U.S. backing out of Durban II: So much for the idea that Obama is soft on the Israeli file by Jonathan Kay, National Post, February 27, 2009. ^ BBC News. "Hamas sweeps to election victory" January 26, 2006 ^ Associated Press. "Obama meets Shalom, offers support for Israel," Israel Insider, January 11, 2006 ^ Goudie, Chuck. Obama meets with Arafat's successor, ABC 7 News (Chicago), January 12, 2006 ^ "Iowans get an up-close view of Obama", USA Today, March 11, 2007 ^ Register Staff Writer. "Up-close Obama urges compassion in Mideast". Des Moines Register, March 12, 2007 ^ "THE SITUATION ROOM Special Edition: Sojourners Presidential Forum". CNN.com. June 4, 2007. ^ Palestinian Anti-Terrorism Act of 2006, The Library of Congress December 21, 2006 ^ Obama tells Muslims: Don’t vilify Israel by Ron Kampeas, Jewish Telegrapgic Agency (JTA), April 7, 2009. ^ Haaretz. "Barack Obama, Democrat" October 23, 2006. ^ http://my.barackobama.com/page/community/post/samgrahamfelsen/gGgG2W ^ http://www.setimes.com/cocoon/setimes/xhtml/en_GB/features/setimes/features/2009/02/27/feature-02 ^ Obama Voices Hope for Mideast Peace in Talk With Al-Arabiya TV ^ "Obama warns over Pakistan strike". BBC News. 2007-06-24. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/6926663.stm. Retrieved on 2007-08-01. ^ Paul Richter (2007-08-01). "Obama promises aggressive approach to terrorists". Los Angeles Times. http://www.latimes.com/news/nationworld/nation/la-na-obama2aug02,1,1165056.story?coll=la-headlines-nation&track=crosspromo. Retrieved on 2007-08-01. ^ Steve Holland (2007-08-01). "Tough talk on Pakistan from Obama". Reuters. http://www.boston.com/news/nation/articles/2007/08/01/obama_says_pakistan_must_act_against_taliban/. Retrieved on 2007-08-02. ^ Tough talk on Pakistan from Obama Reuters Aug 1 2007 ^ Media Matters - During NH debate, ABC's Gibson characterized Obama's Pakistan position as "essentially the Bush doctrine," ignoring Bush contradictions ^ Obama revisits Pakistan statement Sioux City Journal Aug 7 2007 ^ Thomas, Gary (December 16, 2008). "New US President to Face Volatile South Asia". Voice Of America (Voice Of America). http://www.voanews.com/english/2008-12-16-voa37.cfm. Retrieved on 2008-12-16. ^ a b Pak using US funds for war against India: Obama Rediff.com September 5, 2008 ^ McCain, Obama urge halt to fighting in Georgia ^ Russia, Georgia Risk Larger War as Attacks Continue Into Morning, FOXNews.com, August 8, 2008 ^ Georgia denies war plans in South Ossetia, August 5, 2008 ^ Georgia begins war to retake South Ossetia, August 8, 2008 ^ http://en.afrik.com/article15293.html ^ Michael Barone with Richard Cohen. Almanac of American Politics (2008). National Journal. p. 538. ^ Obama, Barack. "1998 Illinois State Legislative National Political Awareness Test", Project Vote Smart. Retrieved on 2007-01-21. ^ NARAL PRO-CHOICE AMERICA ENDORSES SEN. BARACK OBAMA ^ PLANNED PARENTHOOD ACTION FUND ENDORSEMENTS ^ "McCain and Obama on Abortion". TIME Magazine. August 17, 2008. http://www.time.com/time/nation/article/0,8599,1833496,00.html. Retrieved on 2009-1-05. ^ "Candidates' Abortion Views Not So Simple". Washington Post. August 20, 2008. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2008/08/19/AR2008081903228.html. Retrieved on 2008-08-20. ^ a b Obama faces new criticism on abortion, MSNBC, August 20, 2008 ^ a b OnTheIssues.org Barack Obama on Abortion ^ "Barack Obama on abortion". http://asp.usatoday.com/news/politics/election2008/issues.aspx?i=9&c=12. Retrieved on 2008-03-20. ^ Barack Obama on the Issues: Abortion ^ Safe, Legal, and Boring | Can Obama take the politics out of abortion? ^ Disability statement video, www.barackobama.com ^ a b c Barack, Obama (July 2007). "Energy and Environment" (html). subpage. http://www.barackobama.com/issues/environment. Retrieved on 2008-02-08. ^ US Senator Barack Obama: Environment Accessed May 6, 2008 ^ "Obama: Call for gas tax holiday pure politics" "Associated Press" April 29, 2008. Accessed May 6, 2008 ^ a b Obama Adopted by Native Americans - The Caucus - Politics - New York Times Blog ^ Obama opposes slavery reparations, USATODAY.com. Retrieved on 2008-12-30 ^ Obama notes 'tragic' US past, starbulletin.com, July 28, 2008 ^ http://blogs.abcnews.com/politicalradar/2008/11/obama-on-mtv-i.html ^ Obama Statement on Vote Against Constitutional Amendment to Ban Gay Marriage Barack Obama: US Senator for Illinois (Accessed March 2, 2007) ^ Philip Elliott. Obama’s N.H. visit brings little criticism, much love. Associated Press, printed in Rockford Register Star, February 13, 2007. (Accessed March 2, 2007) ^ a b "CNN/You Tube debate transcript". CNN. http://www.cnn.com/2007/POLITICS/07/23/debate.transcript/index.html. Retrieved on July 23 2007. ^ Obama changed views on gay marriage ^ "Obama Talks All Things LGBT With The Advocate". The Advocate. http://www.advocate.com/print_article_ektid53285.asp. Retrieved on 2008-04-21. ^ Thrush, Glenn. "Clinton, Obama: Gays not immoral" Newsday. March 15, 2007. ^ Barack Obama Barack Obama on LGBT RIGHTS: Barack Obama supports the LGBT community. Retrieved from http://www.barackobama.com May 30, 2008. ^ a b Ireland, Doug. (October 25, 2007) Obama's Anti-Gay Gamble Gay City News. Accessed October 30, 2007. ^ Hamby, Peter. (October 27, 2007) Obama's gospel concerts raise hornet's nest of a dilemma CNN. Accessed 30 October 2007. ^ Dems Offer Lackluster Marriage Remarks Queerty. Accessed January 29, 2009. ^ Obama rejects proposed California gay marriage ban. ^ Holan, Angie Drobnic (September 9, 2008). "An absurd claim about a bill that never passed". PolitiFact.com. http://www.politifact.com/truth-o-meter/statements/712/. Retrieved on 2008-09-13. ^ a b Rohter, Larry (September 11, 2008), "Ad on Sex Education Distorts Obama Policy", The New York Times: A22, http://www.nytimes.com/2008/09/11/us/politics/11checkpoint.html?ei=5070 ^ Kolawole, Emi (September 10, 2008). "Off Base on Sex Ed". FactCheck. http://www.factcheck.org/elections-2008/off_base_on_sex_ed.html. Retrieved on 2008-09-13. ^ Wangsness, Lisa (July 25, 2007), "Romney, Obama spar over sex education in public schools", The Boston Globe, http://www.boston.com/yourlife/health/children/articles/2007/07/25/romney_obama_spar_over_sex_education_in_public_schools/?page=1 ^ "2007 FactCheck: on Families & Children" ^ http://article.nationalreview.com/?q=NzI3ZDUzOTE0ZThlMTU3MTY0MDI4ZTY0MTZhY2I2MGY=&w=MA== ^ Lerner, Michael (2006-07-03). "U.S. Senator Barack Obama Critiques Democrats' Religiophobia". Tikkun Magazine. http://www.tikkun.org/rabbi_lerner/news_item.2006-07-02.3949597607. Retrieved on 2008-01-14. "Sen. Barack Obama: Call to Renewal Keynote Address". Beliefnet. 2006-06-28. http://www.beliefnet.com/News/2006/07/Sen-Barack-Obama-Revisiting-His-Historic-Speech-On-Faith-And-Politics.aspx. Retrieved on 2008-01-14. ^ Gibson, Manda (2006-06-28). "At Global AIDS Summit, Churches Challenged to Take the Lead". PurposeDriven.com. Archived from the original on 2008-01-16. http://web.archive.org/web/20080116135553/http://www.purposedriven.com/en-US/HIVAIDSCommunity/StartingAMinistry/churches_challenged_to_take_the_lead.htm. Retrieved on 2008-01-14. ^ "Screaming Crowds Welcome U.S. Senator 'Home'". CNN. 2006-08-27. http://edition.cnn.com/2006/WORLD/africa/08/26/kenya.obama/index.html. Retrieved on 2008-01-14. ^ Obama, Barack (2006-12-01). "Race Against Time—World AIDS Day Speech". Obama U.S. Senate Office. http://obama.senate.gov/speech/061201-race_against_time_-_world_aids_day_speech/index.html. Retrieved on 2008-01-14. ^ "Barack Obama: Faith Has Been 'Hijacked'". Associated Press via CBS News. 2007-06-24. http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2007/06/24/politics/main2971556.shtml. Retrieved on 2008-01-14. See also: Brody, David (2007-07-30). "Obama to CBN News: We're No Longer Just a Christian Nation". Christian Broadcasting Network. http://www.cbn.com/CBNnews/204016.aspx. Retrieved on 2008-01-14. ^ "Barack Obama on Gun Control - " ^ Barack Obama on Gun Control ^ Independent Voters of Illinois Independent Precinct Organization 1996 candidate questionnaire ^ Kenneth P. Vogel (2008-03-31). "Obama had greater role on liberal survey". Politico. http://dyn.politico.com/printstory.cfm?uuid=03FA375F-3048-5C12-00CC7D33B6E8E59E. Retrieved on 2008-03-31. ^ a b David Kopel (2008-04-17). "The Democrats and Gun Control". The Wall Street Journal: p. A19. http://online.wsj.com/article/SB120839466717921537.html?mod=opinion_main_commentaries. Retrieved on 2008-04-17. ^ "Obama Record May Be Gold Mine For Critics". CBS News. http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2007/01/17/politics/main2369157.shtml. Retrieved on 2007-04-10. ^ Kenneth P. Vogel (2008-04-20). "Obama linked to gun control efforts". Politico (Capitol News Company LLC). http://dyn.politico.com/printstory.cfm?uuid=66551746-3048-5C12-00921D2BE9528C54. Retrieved on 2008-04-21. ^ "2008 Presidential Candidates: Barack Obama". Washington Post. http://projects.washingtonpost.com/2008-presidential-candidates/barack-obama/. Retrieved on 2007-04-10. ^ "Keyes, Obama are far apart on guns". Chicago Tribune. September 15, 2004. http://www.chicagotribune.com/news/specials/elections/chi-0409150153sep15,1,7897647.story. Retrieved on 2007-04-10. ^ "Barack Obama on Gun Control" ^ "Senate Roll Call- S.Amdt. 4615 to H.R. 5441". U.S. Senate. http://www.senate.gov/legislative/LIS/roll_call_lists/roll_call_vote_cfm.cfm?congress=109&session=2&vote=00202work=. ^ Pickler, Nedra (2008-02-15). "Obama Supports Individual Gun Rights". Associated Press. http://www.breitbart.com/article.php?id=D8UQTAS80&show_article=1. Retrieved on 2008-02-18. ^ "Candidates' gun control positions may figure in Pa. vote". Pittsburgh Tribune-Review (Tribune-Review Publishing Company). 2008-04-02. http://www.pittsburghlive.com/x/pittsburghtrib/news/s_560181.html. Retrieved on 2008-04-04. "He differs with McCain and Clinton about whether people should be allowed to carry concealed guns. Clinton and McCain oppose outlawing it. "I am not in favor of concealed weapons," Obama said." ^ "Gun control: Election Center 2008". CNN. http://www.cnn.com/ELECTION/2008/issues/issues.gun.html. Retrieved on 2008-04-17. "Supports national law against carrying concealed weapons, with exceptions for retired police and military personnel." ^ "Democratic hopefuls vary a bit on death penalty". Chicago Tribune. 2004-02-20. http://pqasb.pqarchiver.com/chicagotribune/access/547611941.html?dids=547611941:547611941&FMT=ABS&FMTS=ABS:FT&type=current&date=Feb+20%2C+2004&author=David+Mendell%2C+Tribune+staff+reporter&pub=Chicago+Tribune&edition=&startpage=1&desc=Democratic+hopefuls+vary+a+bit+on+death+penalty. Retrieved on 2008-04-17. "Obama says, "National legislation will prevent other states' flawed concealed-weapons laws from threatening the safety of Illinois residents."" ^ "Campaign Notebook: Obama on Guns and Crime". Chicago Public Radio. 2004-09-13. http://www.chicagopublicradio.org/audio_library/848_rasep04.asp#13. Retrieved on 2008-11-01. "I continue to support a ban on concealed carry laws" ^ Obama supports supreme court reversal of gun ban | World news | The Guardian ^ Obama's Supreme Move to the Center, Time magazine, June 26, 2008 ^ "Urban Policy". Change.gov - Office of the President-Elect. Obama-Biden Transition Project. http://www.change.gov/agenda/urbanpolicy_agenda/. Retrieved on 2008-11-07. "They also support making the expired federal Assault Weapons Ban permanent" ^ Religion and Politics 2008: Death Penalty Profile ^ "The NewsHour with Jim Lehrer". transcrip. June 10, 2002. http://www.pbs.org/newshour/bb/law/jan-june02/deathpenalty_6-10.html. Retrieved on 2007-08-23. ^ The Audacity of Hope, by Barack Obama, p. 58 Oct 1, 2006 ^ Obama Disagrees with High Court on Child Rape Case, ABC News ^ a b "Senator Obama - Voting Record". Project Vote Smart. http://www.vote-smart.org/voting_category.php?can_id=9490. Retrieved on 2007-12-10. ^ "U.S. Senate Roll Call Votes". http://www.senate.gov/legislative/LIS/roll_call_lists/roll_call_vote_cfm.cfm?congress=109&session=2&vote=00259#position. Retrieved on 2007-12-10. ^ "Guantanamo Bay puzzles candidates". USA Today. http://www.usatoday.com/news/politics/2007-06-18-gitmo-candidates_N.htm. Retrieved on 2007-12-10. ^ "Obama: Torture and secrecy betray core American values". BarackObama.com. http://www.barackobama.com/2007/10/04/obama_torture_and_secrecy_betr.php. Retrieved on 2007-12-10. ^ "Democrats assail wiretaps". Peoria Journal Star. http://obama.senate.gov/news/051220-democrats_assai/. Retrieved on 2007-12-10. ^ "Obama Statement on Flag Burning Amendment". Senate Office of Barack Obama. http://obama.senate.gov/press/060627-obama_statement_29/. Retrieved on 2007-12-10. ^ "ACLU Congressional Scorecard". http://action.aclu.org/site/VoteCenter?page=congScorecard. ^ VoteMatch: The Patriot Act harms civil liberties ^ Obama Voters Protest His Switch on Telecom Immunity, The New York Times, July 2, 2008 ^ Lerner, Michael (July 3, 2006). "U.S. Senator Barack Obama Critiques Democrats' Religiophobia". Tikkun Magazine. http://www.tikkun.org/rabbi_lerner/news_item.2006-07-02.3949597607. Retrieved on 2007-01-21. ^ "Sen. Barack Obama: Call to Renewal Keynote Address". Beliefnet. June 28, 2006. http://www.beliefnet.com/story/194/story_19473_1.html. Retrieved on 2007-01-21. ^ Fourth Democratic Debate ^ Obama Seeks Bigger Role for Religious Groups. New York Times, July 2, 2008. ^ Statement of Support for Stem Cell Research, Barack Obama, U.S. Senator for Illinois ^ NY Times Article on 2007 stem cell veto ^ http://www.archives.gov/federal-register/executive-orders/2009-obama.html#13505 ^ Washington Times - Obama: Decriminalize pot ^ Willamette Week | “Six Minutes With Barack” | May 14, 2008 ^ Obama tells Blacks: Shape up Chicago Sun-Times, February 29, 2008 ^ a b October 15, 2008: The Third McCain-Obama Presidential Debate ^ MSNBC, July 17, 2007 ^ “Violating Their Sacred Honor,” National Review (2009-02-23) ^ "Obama: D.C. Residents Deserve Voting Rights". U.S. Senator Barack Obama. 2007-09-18. http://obama.senate.gov/press/070918-obama_dc_reside/. Retrieved on 2008-11-12. ^ "District of Columbia House Voting Rights Act of 2007". Open Congress. http://www.opencongress.org/bill/110-s1257/show. Retrieved on 2008-11-12.  External links Find more about Barack Obama on Wikipedia's sister projects: Definitions from Wiktionary Textbooks from Wikibooks Quotations from Wikiquote Source texts from Wikisource Images and media from Commons News stories from Wikinews Learning resources from Wikiversity  Official sites BarackObama.com - Answer Center BarackObama.com - Issues Obama Senate.gov - Issues  Topic pages and databases  General Chicago Tribune - Candidate coverage On the Issues - Issue positions Project Vote Smart - Candidate information, including issue positions  Disability issues Obama answers questions on disability issues  Environment Obama & environmental issues: Comprehensive review from the League of Conservation Voters.  Foreign affairs "Renewing American Leadership" - detailed article article by Barack Obama in Foreign Affairs Barack Obama's positions on top foreign policy issues - extensive material documented by the Council on Foreign Relations  Health care 2008 Presidential Candidate Health Plan Report Card issued by the National Physicians Alliance 2008 Presidential Candidates' Health Reform Proposals from The Commonwealth Fund  Israel and the Middle East conflict Obama on Zionism and Hamas - extensive interview with Jeffrey Goldberg Speech by Senator Barack Obama McCain, Obama positions on Mideast issues Associated Press June 6, 2008 [show]v • d • eBarack Obama Presidency Transition · Inauguration · Timeline · Judiciary (Supreme Court candidates) · Foreign policy · First 100 days Early life and political career Public image · Illinois Senate career · 2004 Democratic National Convention · U.S. Senate election in Illinois · U.S. Senate career · Presidential primary campaign · Obama–Biden 2008 · Electoral history · Political positions Books Dreams from My Father · The Audacity of Hope Speeches The Audacity of Hope · A More Perfect Union · Change Has Come to America · 2009 speech to joint session of Congress · 2009 speech to the Muslim world Family Michelle Obama · Barack Obama, Sr. · Ann Dunham · Lolo Soetoro (stepfather) · Maya Soetoro-Ng (half-sister) · Marian Robinson (mother-in-law) · Stanley Armour Dunham (grandfather) · Madelyn Dunham (grandmother) · Bo (dog) · Extended family · Family tree [show]v • d • e2008 United States presidential election United States elections, 2008 · Candidates (Comparison) · Debates · Congressional support · Fundraising · Ballot access · Timeline · Super Tuesday · Potomac primary · Super Tuesday II · General polls · Statewide general polls · International polls · International reaction Democratic Party Convention • Primary polls • General polls • Debates • Primaries • Primary results • Superdelegates Nominee: Barack Obama (campaign, positions) VP nominee: Joe Biden (positions) Candidates: Evan Bayh • Joe Biden (campaign) • Hillary Rodham Clinton (campaign) • Chris Dodd (campaign) • John Edwards (campaign) • Mike Gravel (campaign) • Dennis Kucinich (campaign) • Dal LaMagna • Bill Richardson (campaign) • Tom Vilsack (campaign) Republican Party Convention • Primary polls • General polls • Debates • Primaries • Primary results Nominee: John McCain (campaign, positions) VP nominee: Sarah Palin (positions) Candidates: Sam Brownback • Hugh Cort • John Cox • Dan Gilbert • Jim Gilmore (campaign) • Rudy Giuliani (campaign) • Mike Huckabee (campaign) • Duncan Hunter (campaign) • Alan Keyes (campaign) • Ray McKinney • Ron Paul (campaign) • Mitt Romney (campaign) • Tom Tancredo (campaign) • Fred Thompson (campaign) • Tommy Thompson (campaign) Draft movements Democratic Party: Al Gore • Mark Warner (movement) • Republican Party: Newt Gingrich • Condoleezza Rice (movement) • Independent: Michael Bloomberg (movement) [show]v • d • eThird Party candidates Constitution Party Convention Nominee: Chuck Baldwin (campaign) VP Nominee: Darrell Castle Candidates: Daniel Imperato • Alan Keyes (campaign) Green Party Convention Nominee: Cynthia McKinney (campaign, positions) VP Nominee: Rosa Clemente Candidates: Elaine Brown • Jesse Johnson • Kent Mesplay • Kat Swift Libertarian Party Convention Nominee: Bob Barr (campaign, positions) VP Nominee: Wayne Allyn Root Candidates: Mike Gravel (campaign) • Daniel Imperato • Steve Kubby • George Phillies • Wayne Allyn Root • Mary Ruwart • Doug Stanhope Peace and Freedom Party Nominee: Ralph Nader (campaign) VP Nominee: Matt Gonzalez America's Independent Party Ticket: Alan Keyes/Brian Rohrbough Boston Tea Party Ticket: Charles Jay/Thomas Knapp Prohibition Party Ticket: Gene Amondson/Leroy Pletten Socialism and Liberation Party Ticket: Gloria La Riva/Eugene Puryear Reform Party Ticket: Ted Weill/Frank McEnulty Socialist Party Ticket:Brian Moore/Stewart Alexander Socialist Workers Party Ticket: Róger Calero/Alyson Kennedy Independents John Taylor Bowles • Jonathon Sharkey Those listed following the "/" are the party's vice presidential nominee Other 2008 elections: House • Senate • Gubernatorial Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Political_positions_of_Barack_Obama" Categories: Barack Obama | Political positions of United States presidential candidates, 2008 | Political positions of United States Senators
227's YouTube "Chili" - STOMP THE YARD (BLACK COLLEGE STEP SHOW MOVIE) Starring Columbus Short, Meagan Good, Ne-Yo, Darrin Henson, Chris Brown, Brian White, Las Alonso, Valerie Pettiford & Harry Lennix (NBA Mix)!
Beyonce * Maxwell * Mario ft. Gucci Mane & sean Garrett * Drake ft. Lil Wayne * Ginuwine * Fabolous Featuring The-Dream * Keyshia Cole Duet With Monica * Jay-Z, Rihanna & Kanye West * Gucci Mane Featuring Plies * Mary Mary Featuring Kierra "KiKi" Sheard * Ice Cream Paint Job * Pleasure P * Mariah Carey * Trey Songz * Trey Songz Featuring Gucci Mane & Soulja Boy Tell'em * R. Kelly Featuring Keri Hilson * K'Jon * Young Money * Twista Featuring Erika Shevon * Yo Gotti * New Boyz * Jeremih * Keri Hilson Featuring Kanye West & Ne-Yo * Musiq Soulchild * Whitney Houston * Anthony Hamilton * Charlie Wilson * Chrisette Michele * Jamie Foxx Featuring T-Pain * Plies * LeToya Featuring Ludacris * Mary J. Blige Featuring Drake * Mullage * Charlie Wilson * Jamie Foxx Featuring Drake, Kanye West + The-Dream * Jamie Foxx Featuring Drake, Kanye West + The-Dream * Jeremih * Mishon * Jennifer Hudson * Clipse Featuring Pharrell Williams * Kid Cudi Featuring Kanye West & Common * Raphael Saadiq Featuring Stevie Wonder & CJ * Anthony Hamilton Featuring David Banner * Jazmine Sullivan * Trey Songz Featuring Drake * F.L.Y. (Fast Life Yungstaz) * Laura Izibor
Jamaal Al-Din's Hoops 227 (227's YouTube Chili")!
Beyonce * Shakira * Jordin Sparks * Mariah Carey * New Boyz * Jason DeRulo * Mario ft. Gucci Mane & Sean Garrett * Katy Perry * The Black Eyed Peas * Colby Caillat * Fabolous ft. The Dream * Jason Aldean * Daughtry * Lady Gaga * Michael Franti & Spearhead Featuring Cherine Anderson * Boys Like Girls * Flo Rida Featuring Ne-Yo * Dorrough * Green Day * Linkin Park * Pink * Justin Bieber * Rob Thomas * Maxwell * Jason Mraz * Young Money * The Fray * Rascal Flatts * Zac Brown Band * Shinedown * Disney's Friends For Change * Toby Keith * Darius Rucker * Cascada * Billy Currington * Justin Moore * Kid Cudi Featuring Kanye West & Common * Keith Urban * Randy Houser * Drake Featuring Lil Wayne * Jeremih * Pearl Jam * Kelly Clarkson * George Strait * LMFAO * Twista Featuring Erika Shevon * Uncle Kracker * Eric Church * Jack Ingram * Love And Theft * Parachute * Chris Young * Theory Of A Deadman * Tim McGraw * Sean Paul * Gloriana * Creed * Ginuwine * Keyshia Cole Duet With Monica * Blake Shelton * Iyaz
2009 NCAA Basketball Tournament! List of NCAA Division 1 Teams & Coaches at 227!
America East Conference Albany - Will Brown Binghamton - Kevin Broadus Boston University - Dennis Wolff Hartford - Dan Leibovitz Maine - Ted Woodward New Hampshire - Bill Herrion Stony Brook - Steve Pikiell UMBC - Randy Monroe Vermont - Mike Lonergan 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! America East Conference
Atlantic 10 Conference Charlotte - Bobby Lutz Dayton - Brian Gregory Duquesne - Ron Everhart Fordham - Dereck Whittenburg George Washington - Karl Hobbs La Salle - John Giannini Rhode Island - Jim Baron Richmond - Chris Mooney St. Bonaventure - Mark Schmidt Saint Joseph's - Phil Martelli Saint Louis - Rick Majerus Temple - Fran Dunphy UMass - Derek Kellogg Xavier - Sean Miller 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Atlantic 10 Conference
Atlantic Coast Conference Boston College - Al Skinner Clemson - Oliver Purnell Duke - Mike Krzyzewski Florida State - Leonard Hamilton Georgia Tech - Paul Hewitt Maryland - Gary Williams Miami (Florida) - Frank Haith North Carolina - Roy Williams North Carolina State - Sidney Lowe Virginia - Dave Leitao Virginia Tech - Seth Greenberg Wake Forest - Dino Gaudio 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Atlantic Coast Conference
Atlantic Sun Conference Belmont - Rick Byrd Campbell - Robbie Laing East Tennessee State - Murry Bartow Florida Gulf Coast - Dave Balza Jacksonville - Cliff Warren Kennesaw State - Tony Ingle Lipscomb - Scott Sanderson Mercer - Bob Hoffman North Florida - Matt Kilcullen Stetson - Derek Waugh USC Upstate - Eddie Payne 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Atlantic Sun Conference
Big 12 Conference Baylor - Scott Drew Colorado - Jeff Bzdelik Iowa State - Greg McDermott Kansas - Bill Self Kansas State - Frank Martin Missouri - Mike Anderson Nebraska - Doc Sadler Oklahoma - Jeff Capel III Oklahoma State - Travis Ford Texas - Rick Barnes Texas A&M - Mark Turgeon Texas Tech - Pat Knight 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Big 12 Conference
Big East Conference Cincinnati - Mick Cronin Connecticut - Jim Calhoun DePaul - Jerry Wainwright Georgetown - John Thompson III Louisville - Rick Pitino Marquette - Buzz Williams Notre Dame - Mike Brey Pittsburgh - Jamie Dixon Providence - Keno Davis Rutgers - Fred Hill St. John's - Norm Roberts Seton Hall - Bobby Gonzalez South Florida - Stan Heath Syracuse - Jim Boeheim Villanova - Jay Wright West Virginia - Bobby Huggins 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Big East Conference
Big Sky Conference Eastern Washington - Kirk Earlywine Idaho State - Joe O'Brien Montana - Wayne Tinkle Montana State - Brad Huse Northern Arizona - Mike Adras Northern Colorado - Tad Boyle Portland State - Ken Bone Sacramento State - Brian Katz Weber State - Randy Rahe 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Big Sky Conference
Big South Conference Charleston Southern - Barclay Radebaugh Coastal Carolina - Cliff Ellis Gardner-Webb - Rick Scruggs High Point - Bart Lundy Liberty - Ritchie McKay Presbyterian - Gregg Nibert Radford - Brad Greenberg UNC-Asheville - Eddie Biedenbach VMI - Duggar Baucom Winthrop - Randy Peele 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Big South Conference
Big Ten Conference Illinois - Bruce Weber Indiana - Tom Crean Iowa - Todd Lickliter Michigan - John Beilein Michigan State - Tom Izzo Minnesota - Tubby Smith Northwestern - Bill Carmody Ohio State - Thad Matta Penn State - Ed DeChellis Purdue - Matt Painter Wisconsin - Bo Ryan 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Big Ten Conference
Big West Conference Cal Poly - Kevin Bromley Cal State Fullerton - Bob Burton Cal State Northridge - Bobby Braswell Long Beach State - Dan Monson Pacific - Bob Thomason UC Davis - Gary Stewart UC Irvine - Pat Douglass UC Riverside - Jim Wooldridge UC Santa Barbara - Bob Williams 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Big West Conference
Colonial Athletic Association Delaware - Monte Ross Drexel - Bruiser Flint George Mason - Jim Larranaga Georgia State - Rod Barnes Hofstra - Tom Pecora James Madison - Matt Brady Northeastern - Bill Coen Old Dominion - Blaine Taylor Towson - Pat Kennedy UNC-Wilmington - Benny Moss Virginia Commonwealth - Anthony Grant William & Mary - Tony Shaver 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Colonial Athletic Association
Conference USA East Carolina - Mack McCarthy Houston - Tom Penders Marshall - Donnie Jones Memphis - John Calipari Rice - Ben Braun Southern Methodist - Matt Doherty Southern Mississippi - Larry Eustachy Tulane - Dave Dickerson Tulsa - Doug Wojcik UAB - Mike Davis UCF - Kirk Speraw UTEP - Tony Barbee 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Conference USA
Horizon League - Butler - Brad Stevens Cleveland State - Gary Waters Detroit - Ray McCallum Loyola (Chicago) - Jim Whitesell UIC - Jimmy Collins UW-Green Bay - Tod Kowalczyk UW-Milwaukee - Rob Jeter Valparaiso - Homer Drew Wright State - Brad Brownell Youngstown State - Jerry Slocum 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Horizon League
Independents Bryant - Tim O'Shea Cal State Bakersfield - Keith Brown Chicago State - Benjy Taylor Houston Baptist - Ron Cottrell Longwood - Mike Gillian New Jersey Institute of Technology - Jim Engles North Carolina Central - Henry Dickerson Savannah State - Horace Broadnax SIU-Edwardsville - Lennox Forrester Texas-Pan American - Tom Schuberth Utah Valley - Dick Hunsaker 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! NCAA Division I independent schools (basketball)
Ivy League Brown - Jesse Agel Columbia - Joe Jones Cornell - Steve Donahue Dartmouth - Terry Dunn Harvard - Tommy Amaker Penn - Glen Miller Princeton - Sydney Johnson Yale - James Jones 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Ivy League
Metro Atlantic Athletic Conference Canisius - Tom Parrotta Fairfield - Ed Cooley Iona - Kevin Willard Loyola (Maryland) - Jimmy Patsos Manhattan - Barry Rohrssen Marist - Chuck Martin Niagara - Joe Mihalich Rider - Tommy Dempsey St. Peter's - John Dunne Siena - Fran McCaffery 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Mid-American Conference
Mid-American Conference Akron – Keith Dambrot Ball State – Billy Taylor Bowling Green – Louis Orr Buffalo – Reggie Witherspoon Central Michigan – Ernie Ziegler Eastern Michigan – Charles Ramsey Kent State – Geno Ford Miami – Charlie Coles Northern Illinois – Ricardo Patton Ohio – John Groce Toledo – Gene Cross Western Michigan – Steve Hawkins 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Mid-American Conference
Mid-Eastern Athletic Conference Bethune-Cookman - Clifford Reed Coppin State - Ron Mitchell Delaware State - Greg Jackson Florida A&M - Mike Gillespie Hampton - Kevin Nickelberry Howard - Gil Jackson Maryland-Eastern Shore - Meredith Smith Morgan State - Todd Bozeman Norfolk State - Anthony Evans North Carolina A&T - Jerry Eaves South Carolina State - Tim Carter Winston-Salem State - Bobby Collins 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Mid-Eastern Athletic Conference
Missouri Valley Conference Bradley - Jim Les Creighton - Dana Altman Drake - Mark Phelps Evansville - Marty Simmons Illinois State - Tim Jankovich Indiana State - Kevin McKenna Missouri State - Cuonzo Martin Northern Iowa - Ben Jacobson Southern Illinois - Chris Lowery Wichita State - Gregg Marshall 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Missouri Valley Conference
Mountain West Conference Air Force - Jeff Reynolds Brigham Young - Dave Rose Colorado State - Tim Miles New Mexico - Steve Alford San Diego State - Steve Fisher Texas Christian - Neil Dougherty UNLV - Lon Kruger Utah - Jim Boylen Wyoming - Heath Schroyer 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Mountain West Conference
Northeast Conference Central Connecticut State - Howie Dickenman Fairleigh Dickinson - Tom Green LIU-Brooklyn - Jim Ferry Monmouth - Dave Calloway Mount St. Mary's - Milan Brown Quinnipiac - Tom Moore Robert Morris - Mike Rice Jr. Sacred Heart - Dave Bike St. Francis (PA) - Don Friday St. Francis (NY) - Brian Nash Wagner - Mike Deane 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Northeast Conference
Ohio Valley Conference Austin Peay - Dave Loos Eastern Illinois - Mike Miller Eastern Kentucky - Jeff Neubauer Jacksonville State - James Green Morehead State - Donnie Tyndall Murray State - Billy Kennedy Southeast Missouri - Zac Roman Tennessee-Martin - Bret Campbell Tennessee State - Cy Alexander Tennessee Tech - Mike Sutton 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Ohio Valley Conference
Pacific-10 Conference Arizona - Russ Pennell Arizona State - Herb Sendek California - Mike Montgomery Oregon - Ernie Kent Oregon State - Craig Robinson Stanford - Johnny Dawkins UCLA - Ben Howland USC - Tim Floyd Washington - Lorenzo Romar Washington State - Tony Bennett 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Pacific-10 Conference
Patriot League American - Jeff Jones Army - Jim Crews Bucknell - Dave Paulsen Colgate - Emmett Davis Holy Cross - Ralph Willard Lafayette - Fran O'Hanlon Lehigh - Brett Reed Navy - Billy Lange 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Patriot League
Southeastern Conference Alabama - Philip Pearson Arkansas - John Pelphrey Auburn - Jeff Lebo Florida - Billy Donovan Georgia - Pete Herrmann Kentucky - Billy Gillispie LSU - Trent Johnson Mississippi - Andy Kennedy Mississippi State - Rick Stansbury South Carolina - Darrin Horn Tennessee - Bruce Pearl Vanderbilt - Kevin Stallings 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Southeastern Conference
Southern Conference Appalachian State - Houston Fancher Chattanooga - John Shulman The Citadel - Ed Conroy College of Charleston - Bobby Cremins Davidson - Bob McKillop Elon - Ernie Nestor Furman - Jeff Jackson Georgia Southern - Jeff Price Samford - Jimmy Tillette UNC-Greensboro - Mike Dement Western Carolina - Larry Hunter Wofford - Mike Young 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Southern Conference
Southland Conference Central Arkansas - Rand Chappell Lamar - Steve Roccaforte McNeese State - Dave Simmons Nicholls State - J. P. Piper Northwestern State - Mike McConathy Sam Houston State - Bob Marlin Southeastern Louisiana - Jim Yarbrough Stephen F. Austin - Danny Kaspar Texas A&M-Corpus Christi - Perry Clark Texas-Arlington - Scott Cross Texas-San Antonio - Brooks Thompson Texas State - Doug Davalos 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Southland Conference
Southwestern Athletic Conference Alabama A&M - L. Vann Pettaway Alabama State - Lewis Jackson Alcorn State - Samuel West Arkansas-Pine Bluff - George Ivory Grambling State - Larry Wright Jackson State - Tevester Anderson Mississippi Valley State - Sean Woods Prairie View A&M - Byron Rimm II Southern - Rob Spivery Texas Southern - Tony Harvey 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Southwestern Athletic Conference
The Summit League Centenary - Greg Gary IPFW - Dane Fife IUPUI - Ron Hunter North Dakota State - Saul Phillips Oakland - Greg Kampe Oral Roberts - Scott Sutton South Dakota State - Scott Nagy Southern Utah - Roger Reid UMKC - Matt Brown Western Illinois - Derek Thomas 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! The Summit League
Sun Belt Conference Arkansas-Little Rock - Steve Shields Arkansas State - Dickey Nutt Denver - Joe Scott Florida Atlantic - Mike Jarvis Florida International - Sergio Rouco Louisiana-Lafayette - Robert Lee Louisiana-Monroe - Orlando Early Middle Tennessee - Kermit Davis New Orleans - Joe Pasternack North Texas - Johnny Jones South Alabama - Ronnie Arrow Troy - Don Maestri Western Kentucky - Ken McDonald 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Sun Belt Conference
West Coast Conference Gonzaga - Mark Few Loyola Marymount - Rodney Tention Pepperdine - Vance Walberg Portland - Eric Reveno Saint Mary's - Randy Bennett San Diego - Bill Grier San Francisco - Rex Walters Santa Clara - Kerry Keating 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! West Coast Conference
Western Athletic Conference Boise State - Greg Graham Fresno State - Steve Cleveland Hawai?i - Bob Nash Idaho - Don Verlin Louisiana Tech - Kerry Rupp Nevada - Mark Fox New Mexico State - Marvin Menzies San Jose State - George Nessman Utah State - Stew Morrill 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Western Athletic Conference
2Pac 50 Cent A Adam Tensta Akon Aaliyah Ashanti Andre 3000 B Bow Wow Bobby Valentino Beyonce Bone Thugs n Harmony Birdman (rapper) Busta Rhymes Bobby Fischer C Chris Brown Cherish Cassidy Chingy Chamillionaire Christina Milian Chrisette Michele Cashis Ciara Cypress Hill Calzone Mafia Cuban Link D Destiny's Child DJ Clue Demetri Montaque Danity Kane Day 26 Donnie D12 DJ Khaled Dr. Dre E E-40 Eminem Eazy-E F Fabolous Flo Rida Fat Joe Frankie J G G-Unit The Game H Hurricane Chris I Ice Cube J Jay-Z J.R. Rotem J Holiday Jordan Sparks K Kanye West Kelly Rowland keri hilson The Kreators L Lil' Kim Lil' Mo Lil Jon Lil Mama Lloyd Banks Lil Wayne Ludacris Lloyd Lil Mama Lil Eazy-E Leona lewis M MC Hammer Mike Shorey MF Doom Mariah Carey Mario Mary J. Blige N Ne-Yo Nate Dogg Niia N.W.A. Notorious B.I.G. Nas Nick Cannon Nelly Necro O Olivia Omarion Obie Trice Old Dirty Bastard P Public Enemy Plies P Diddy pink Pharcyde Q R Red Cafe Run DMC Ray J R Kelly Rihanna Rick Ross (rapper) S Sean Combs Sean Kingston Snoop Dogg Stargate Sean Garrett Suge Knight Soulja Boy Tell 'Em Stat Quo shakira T The Notorious B.I.G. Tupac Shakur Trina Tyrese T-Pain Three 6 Mafia T.I. Too Phat U Usher V V.I.C. W Warren G Wyclef Jean Wu Tang Clan will.i.am X Xzibit Y Young Jeezy Yung Berg Z
Michael Jackson Bing Crosby U.S. The Beatles AC/DC ABBA Alla Bee Gees Bob Marley Celine Dion Cliff Richard The Drifters Elton John Herbert von Karajan Julio Iglesias Led Zeppelin Madonna Mariah Carey Elvis Presley Nana Mouskouri Pink Floyd The Rolling Stones Tino Rossi Wei Wei
Adriano Celentano Aerosmith Backstreet Boys Barry White Billy Joel Bon Jovi Boney M. The Carpenters Charles Aznavour Cher Chicago Dave Clark Five David Bowie Deep Purple Depeche Mode Dire Straits Dolly Parton The Eagles Electric Engelbert Humperdinck Fats Domino Fleetwood Mac The Four Seasons Frank Sinatra Garth Brooks Genesis George Michael Guns N' Roses James Last The Jackson 5 Janet Jackson Johnny Hallyday Kenny Rogers Lionel Richie Luciano Pavarotti Metallica Michiya Mihashi Mireille Mathieu Modern Talking Neil Diamond Olivia Newton-John Patti Page Paul McCartney Perry Como Pet Shop Boys Phil Collins Prince Queen Ricky Nelson Roberto Carlos Rod Stewart Salvatore Adamo Status Quo Stevie Wonder Teresa Teng Tina Turner Tom Jones U2 Valeriya The Ventures Whitney Houston The Who
Annie Lennox B'z Britney Spears Carlos Santana Dalida Earth, Wind & Fire Eddy Arnold Eminem Eurythmics Gloria Estefan Hibari Misora Journey Scorpions Van Halen Ace of Base Alan Jackson Country Alice Cooper Hard rock Andrea Bocelli Opera The Andrews Sisters Swing Ayumi Hamasaki Pop Black Sabbath Heavy metal Barbra Streisand Pop / Adult contemporary Beach Boys Rock Pop Bob Dylan Folk / Rock Bob Seger Rock Boston Arena rock Boyz II Men R&B Bruce Springsteen Rock Bryan Adams Def Leppard Destiny's Child R&B / Pop Dreams Come True Pop / Jazz Duran Duran Enya Ireland Four Tops George Strait Glay Iron Maiden Jay-Z Hip hop Jean Michel Jarre Jethro Tull Johnny Cash Kazuhiro Moriuchi Kiss Hard rock Kenny G Kylie Minogue Luis Miguel Linkin Park Meat Loaf Michael Bolton Mills Brothers Mötley Crüe Mr.Children Nat King Cole New Kids on the Block Nirvana 'N Sync Oasis Orhan Gencebay Pearl Jam Petula Clark Red Hot Chili Peppers The Police Ray Conniff Reba McEntire R.E.M. Richard Clayderman Ricky Martin Robbie Williams Roxette Sweden Shakira Colombia
The Seekers Australia Spice Girls Tom Petty & The Heartbreakers Tony Bennett T.Rex UB40 Vicente Fernandez Village People Willie Nelson
Jamaal Al-Din, a native of Grand Rapids, Michigan and former leading scorer of Olympic Basketball and LSU great, Ed Palubinskas brings to you Michigan State University's and the NBA's Earvin "Magic" Johnson at 227's YouTube "MAGIC!" provided by Jamaal Al-Din's Hoops 227-the everything basketball website, featuring YouTube Videos and Wikipedia information on the legendary Earvin "Magic" Johnson, The Magic Johnson Foundation, Magic Johnson Enterprises, and everything including the magical phrase..."MAGIC!" 227's YouTube "MAGIC!"
As we look to expand basketball marketing, camps and clinics nationally, our basketball affiliate programs are scheduled to begin in March of 2008. Our affiliates, exciting, take a look at this list: ebay, StubHub.com, Yahoo Affiliate Program!, TickCo Premium Seating, RazorGator Affiliate Program, SightSell, VistaPrint.com, Pokeorder and WeHaveSeats.com. Jamaal Al-Din's Hoops 227 welcomes our affiliate partners for 2008. Among the items offered our NCAA & NBA basketball tickets both premium and discounted rates. Basketball shoes and apparel for kids, fans, players and coaches ranging from Air Jordans, LeBron James, NIKE, Adidas, AND1, hats, collectibles and memoralbilia! Jamaal Al-Din's Hoops 227- The everything basketball website!
?227's YouTube "Chili" features these exciting YouTube music and entertainment celebrities...click onto to these 227 YouTube "Chili" links, channels and articles for the most watched YouTube hip-hop music videos in the world!