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Beijing From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search "Peking" redirects here. For other uses, see Peking (disambiguation). Municipality of Beijing 北京市 From top: Tiananmen, the Bird's Nest stadium, the Temple of Heaven, and the Beijing CBD Location of the Municipality of Beijing within China Coordinates: 39°54′50″N 116°23′30″E / 39.91389°N 116.39167°E / 39.91389; 116.39167 Country China Settled c. 473 BC Divisions - County-level - Township-level 16 districts, 2 counties 289 towns and villages Government - Type Municipality - CPC Ctte Secretary Liu Qi - Mayor Guo Jinlong Area (ranked 29th) - Municipality 16,801.25 km2 (6,487 sq mi) Elevation 43.5 m (143 ft) Population (2007) - Municipality 17,430,000 - Metro 11,940,000 - Density rank (4th) (26th) Major ethnic groups - Han 96% - Manchu 2% - Hui 2% - Mongolian 0.3% Time zone China Standard Time (UTC+8) Postal code 100000 - 102629 Area code(s) 10 GDP 2008 estimate - Total CNY 1.0488 trillion (10th) - Per capita CNY 63,029 (2nd) HDI (2006) 0.897 (2nd) License plate prefixes 京A, C, E, F, H, J, K, L, M, N 京B (taxis) 京G, Y (outside urban area) 京O (police and authorities) 京P (Olympics) 京V (military headquarters, central government) City trees Chinese arborvitae (Platycladus orientalis) Pagoda tree (Sophora japonica) City flowers Chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium) Chinese rose (Rosa chinensis) Website www.beijing.gov.cn This article contains Chinese text. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Chinese characters. Beijing Chinese: 北京 [show]Transliterations Mandarin - Hanyu Pinyin: Běijīng [Listen] (help·info) - Postal Map: Peking Beijing (help·info) (pronounced /beɪˈdʒɪŋ/ or /beɪˈʒɪŋ/ in English; Chinese: 北京; pinyin: Běijīng; IPA: [pèitɕíŋ]; Wade-Giles: Peiching or Pei-ching) (also formerly known in English as Peking (/piːˈkɪŋ/listen (info) or /peɪˈkɪŋ/)) is a metropolis in northern China and the capital of the People's Republic of China. It is one of the four municipalities of the PRC, which are equivalent to provinces in China's administrative structure. The municipality of Beijing borders Hebei Province to the north, west, south, and for a small section in the east, and Tianjin Municipality to the southeast. Beijing is one of the Four Great Ancient Capitals of China. Beijing is China's second largest city, after Shanghai. Beijing is a major transportation hub, with dozens of railways, roads and motorways passing through the city. It is also the focal point of many international flights to China. Beijing is recognised as the political, educational, and cultural center of the People's Republic of China, while Shanghai and Hong Kong predominate in economic fields. The city hosted the 2008 Olympic Games. Few cities in the world besides Beijing have served as the political and cultural centre of an area as immense as China for so long. The Encyclopædia Britannica describes it as, "One of the world's great cities," and declares that the city has been an integral part of China’s history for centuries, and there is scarcely a major building of any age in Beijing that doesn't have at least some national historical significance. Beijing is renowned for its opulent palaces, temples, and huge stone walls and gates. Its art treasures and universities have long made the city a centre of culture and art in China. Contents [hide] 1 Names 2 History 2.1 Early history 2.2 Medieval period 2.3 Ming and Qing period 2.4 Republican era 2.5 People's Republic 3 Geography and climate 3.1 Air quality 3.2 Dust storms 4 Cityscape 4.1 Administrative divisions 4.2 Architecture 5 Politics and government 6 Economy 7 Demographics 8 Culture 8.1 Places of interest 8.2 Media 8.2.1 Television and radio 8.2.2 Press 8.3 Sports 9 Transportation 9.1 Rail 9.2 Roads and expressways 9.3 Air 9.4 Public transit 10 Education 10.1 Primary school 10.2 Middle school 10.3 Universities and colleges 11 City and regional partnerships 12 See also 13 Notes and references 14 Further reading 15 External links  Names Beijing or Peking (北京) means "northern capital", in line with the common East Asian tradition whereby capital cities are explicitly named as such. Other cities that are similarly named include Nanjing (南京), China, meaning "southern capital"; Tokyo (東京), Japan, and Đông Kinh (Chinese: 東京, now Hanoi), Vietnam, both meaning "eastern capital"; as well as Kyoto (京都), Japan, and Gyeongseong (京城; now Seoul), Korea, both meaning simply "capital". Peking is the name of the city according to Chinese Postal Map Romanization, and the traditional customary name for Beijing in English (passports issued by the British Embassy are still printed as being issued by the "British Embassy, Peking"). The term Peking originated with French missionaries four hundred years ago and corresponds to an older pronunciation predating a subsequent sound change in Mandarin from [kʲ] to [tɕ] ([tɕ] is represented in pinyin as j, as in Beijing). It is still used in many languages.
The pronunciation "Peking" is also closer to the Fujianese dialect of Amoy or Min Nan spoken in the city of Xiamen, a port where European traders first landed in the 16th century, while "Beijing" more closely approximates the Mandarin dialect's pronunciation. The city has been renamed several times. During the Jin Dynasty, the city was known as Zhongdu (中都) , and then later under the Mongol Yuan Dynasty as Dadu (大都) in Chinese and Daidu to Mongols (also recorded as Cambuluc by Marco Polo). Twice in the city's history, the name was changed from Beijing (Peking) to Beiping (Peiping) (北平 Pinyin: Beiping; Wade-Giles: Pei-p'ing), literally "Northern Peace". This occurred first under the Hongwu Emperor of the Ming Dynasty, and again in 1928 with the Kuomintang (KMT) government of the Republic of China. On each occasion, the name change removed the element meaning "capital" (jing or king, Chinese: 京) to reflect the fact the national capital had changed to Nanjing. The city's name was also twice changed from Beiping (Peiping) to Beijing (Peking). This occurred first under the Yongle Emperor of the Ming Dynasty, who moved the capital from Nanjing back to Beijing, and again in 1949, when the Communist Party of China restored Beijing as China's capital after the founding of the People's Republic of China. Yanjing (燕京; Pinyin: Yānjīng; Wade-Giles: Yen-ching) is and has been another popular informal name for Beijing, a reference to the ancient State of Yan that existed here during the Zhou Dynasty. This name is reflected in the locally brewed Yanjing Beer as well as Yenching University, an institution of higher learning that was merged into Peking University. The history section below outlines other historical names of Beijing.  History Main article: History of Beijing  Early history ZhoukoudianThe earliest remnants of human habitation in the Beijing municipality are found in the caves of Dragon Bone Hill near the village of Zhoukoudian in Fangshan District, where the Peking Man lived. Homo erectus fossils from the caves date to 230,000 to 250,000 years ago. Paleolithic homo sapiens also lived there about 27,000 years ago. There were cities in the vicinities of Beijing by the 1st millennium BC, and the capital of the State of Yan, one of the powers of the Warring States Period (473-221 BC), Ji (薊/蓟), was established in present-day Beijing. After the fall of the Yan, the subsequent Qin, Han, and Jin dynasties set up local prefectures in the area. During the fall of the Han, it was the seat of the warlord Gongsun Zan. In Tang Dynasty it became the headquarters for Fanyang jiedushi, the virtual military governor of current northern Hebei area. The An Shi Rebellion was also launched from here in 755 AD.  Medieval period The Pagoda of Tianning Temple, at 13 stories and 57.8 m (189 ft) in height, built in 1120 during the Liao DynastyIn 936, the Later Jin Dynasty (936-947) of northern China ceded a large part of its northern frontier, including modern Beijing, to the Khitan Liao Dynasty. In 938, the Liao Dynasty set up a secondary capital in what is now Beijing, and called it Nanjing (the "Southern Capital"). In 1125, the Jurchen Jin Dynasty conquered Liao, and in 1153 moved its capital to Liao's Nanjing, calling it Zhongdu (中都), the "central capital." Zhongdu was situated in what is now the area centered around Tianningsi, slightly to the southwest of central Beijing. Some of the oldest existing relics in Beijing, such as the Tianning Temple, date to the Liao era. Mongol forces burned Zhongdu to the ground in 1215. Later in 1264, in preparation for the conquest of all of China to establish the Yuan Dynasty, Kublai Khan decided to rebuild it slightly north to the center of the Jin capital, and in 1272, he made this city his capital as Dadu (大都, Chinese for "great capital"), or Daidu to the Mongols, otherwise spelled as Cambaluc or Cambuluc in Marco Polo's accounts. Construction of Dadu finished in 1293. The decision of Kublai Khan greatly enhanced the status of a city that had been situated on the northern fringe of China proper. The center of Dadu was situated slightly north of modern central Beijing. It centered on what is now the northern stretch of the 2nd Ring Road, and stretched northwards to between the 3rd and 4th Ring Roads. There are remnants of the Yuan-era wall still standing, and they are known as the Tucheng (土城 literally, the 'earth wall').  Ming and Qing period An Italian map applying both the names of "Peking" (Beijing) and "Xuntieu" (Shuntian) to the city, published in 1682In 1368, Zhu Yuanzhang, the founder of the Ming Dynasty and future Hongwu Emperor, made his imperial ambitions known by sending an army toward the Yuan capital. The last Yuan emperor fled north to Shangdu and Zhu declared the founding of the Ming Dynasty after razing the Yuan palaces in Dadu to the ground. The city was renamed to Beiping (北平), or "northern peace" in the same year, and Shuntian (順天) prefecture was established in the area around the city. In 1403, the new (and third) Ming emperor - the Yongle Emperor - renamed this city to Beijing (北京), or "northern capital", and designated Beijing to be the co-capital alongside the (then) current capital of Nanjing. Beijing was the subject of a major construction project for a new Imperial residence, the Forbidden City that lasted nearly 15 years (1406 to 1420). When the palace was finished, the Yongle Emperor ceremoniously took up residence. From 1421 onwards, Beijing, also known as Jingshi (京师), was the "official" capital of the Ming Dynasty while Nanjing was demoted to the status of "secondary" capital. This system of dual capitals (with Beijing being vastly more important) continued for the duration of the Ming Dynasty. Thirteen of the sixteen Ming Emperors are buried in elaborate tombs near Beijing. A corner tower of the Forbidden CityBy the 15th century, Beijing had essentially taken its current shape, and the Ming-era city wall served as the Beijing city wall until modern times, when it was pulled down and the 2nd Ring Road was built in its place. It is believed that Beijing was the largest city in the world from 1425 to 1650 and from 1710 to 1825. Other notable buildings constructed during the Ming period include the Temple of Heaven (built by 1420). The Tiananmen Gate, now a state symbol of the People's Republic of China and featured on its emblem, was first built in 1420, and rebuilt several times later. Tiananmen Square was built in 1651 and enlarged in 1958. Jesuits finished building the first Beijing-area Roman Catholic church in 1652 at the Xuanwu Gate, where Italian Jesuit Matteo Ricci (1552–1610) had lived; the modern Nantang (南堂, Southern Cathedral) has been built over the original cathedral. The end of the Ming came in 1644 when, for 40 days, Li Zicheng's peasant army captured Beijing and overthrew the Ming government. When the powerful Manchu army arrived at the outskirts of the city, Li and his followers abandoned the city and as a result the Manchu forces, under Prince Dorgon, captured Beijing without a fight. Prince Dorgon established the Qing Dynasty as a direct successor to the Ming, and Beijing remained China's capital. The Qing Emperors made some modifications to the Imperial residence, but in large part, the Ming buildings and the general layout remained unchanged. Beijing at this time was also known as Jingshi, which corresponded to the Manchu Gemun Hecen with the same meaning. The classic Chinese novel Dream of the Red Chamber is set in Beijing during the early years of Qing rule (the end of the 1600s). Beijing's Temple of Heaven as photographed in the early 20th centuryAt the end of Qing period, Beijing was the scene of the siege of the foreign legations during the Boxer Rebellion in 1900. Some important Imperial structures in the city were destroyed during the fighting, including the Hanlin Academy and the Summer Palace.  Republican era The Xinhai Revolution of 1911, aimed at replacing Qing rule with a republic, originally intended to establish its capital at Nanjing. After high-ranking Qing official Yuan Shikai forced the abdication of the Qing emperor in Beijing and ensured the success of the revolution, the revolutionaries in Nanjing accepted that Yuan should be the president of the new Republic of China, and that the capital should remain at Beijing. Yuan gradually consolidated power and became by 1915 the new emperor but died less than a year into his reign. China then fell under the control of regional warlords, and the most powerful factions fought frequent wars (the Zhili-Anhui War, the First Zhili-Fengtian War, and the Second Zhili-Fengtian War) to take control of the capital at Beijing. Following the success of the Kuomintang (KMT)'s Northern Expedition, which pacified the warlords of the north, Nanjing was officially made the capital of the Republic of China in 1928, and Beijing was renamed Beiping (Peip'ing) (北平) on 28 June that year, in English meaning "northern peace" or "north pacified". During the Second Sino-Japanese War, Beiping fell to Japan on 29 July 1937, and was made the seat of the Provisional Government of the Republic of China, a puppet state that ruled the ethnic Chinese portions of Japanese-occupied northern China; the government was later merged into the larger Wang Jingwei Government based in Nanjing.  People's Republic Mao Zedong proclaiming the establishment of the People's Republic of China in 1949 A man stands before a column of tanks which were sent to Tiananmen Square earlier to suppress the Tiananmen Square protests of 1989On 31 January 1949, during the Chinese Civil War, Communist forces entered Beiping without a fight. On 1 October of the same year, the Communist Party of China, under the leadership of Mao Zedong, announced in Tiananmen the creation of the People's Republic of China and renamed the city back to Beijing. Just a few days earlier, the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference had decided that Beijing would be the capital of the new government. At the time of the founding of the People's Republic, Beijing Municipality consisted of just its urban area and immediate suburbs. The urban area was divided into many small districts inside what is now the 2nd Ring Road. The Beijing city wall was torn down to make way for the construction of the 2nd Ring Road, which was finished by 1981 in accord with the 1982 city plan. That road was the first of a series of new ring roads intended for automobiles rather than for bicycles. Following the economic reforms of Deng Xiaoping, the urban area of Beijing has expanded greatly. Formerly within the confines of the 2nd Ring Road and the 3rd Ring Road, the urban area of Beijing is now pushing at the limits of the recently constructed 5th Ring Road and 6th Ring Road, with many areas that were formerly farmland now developed residential or commercial districts. According to a 2005 newspaper report, the size of the newly developed Beijing land was one and a half times larger than the land of old Beijing within the 2nd Ring Road. Wangfujing and Xidan have developed into flourishing shopping districts, while Zhongguancun has become a major centre of electronics in China. In recent years, the expansion of Beijing has also brought to the forefront some problems of urbanization, such as heavy traffic, poor air quality, the loss of historic neighbourhoods, and significant influx of migrants from various regions of the country, especially rural areas. On 13 July 2001, the International Olympic Committee selected Beijing as the host for the 2008 Summer Olympics.  Geography and climate Main article: Geography of Beijing Beihai Park, an extensive imperial garden in the center of Beijing The Beijing Botanical GardenBeijing is situated at the northern tip of the roughly triangular North China Plain, which opens to the south and east of the city. Mountains to the north, northwest and west shield the city and northern China's agricultural heartland from the encroaching desert steppes. The northwestern part of the municipality, especially Yanqing County and Huairou District, are dominated by the Jundu Mountains, while the western part of the municipality is framed by the Xishan Mountains. The Great Wall of China, which stretches across the northern part of Beijing Municipality, made use of this rugged topography to defend against nomadic incursions from the steppes. Mount Dongling in the Xishan ranges and on the border with Hebei is the municipality's highest point, with an altitude of 2303 m. Major rivers flowing through the municipality include the Yongding River and the Chaobai River, part of the Hai River system, and flow in a southerly direction. Beijing is also the northern terminus of the Grand Canal of China which was built across the North China Plain to Hangzhou. Miyun Reservoir, built on the upper reaches of the Chaobai River, is Beijing's largest reservoir, and crucial to its water supply. The urban area of Beijing is situated in the south-central part of the municipality and occupies a small but expanding part of the municipality's area. It spreads out in bands of concentric ring roads, of which the fifth and outermost, the Sixth Ring Road (the numbering starts at 2), passes through several satellite towns. Tian'anmen (Gate of Heavenly Peace) and Tian'anmen Square are at the centre of Beijing, and are directly to the south of the Forbidden City, former residence of the emperors of China. To the west of Tian'anmen is Zhongnanhai, residence of the paramount leaders of the People's Republic of China. Running through central Beijing from east to west is Chang'an Avenue, one of Beijing's main thoroughfares. The city's climate is a monsoon-influenced humid continental climate (Koppen climate classification Dwa), characterised by hot, humid summers due to the East Asian monsoon, and generally cold, windy, dry winters that reflect the influence of the vast Siberian anticyclone. Average daytime high temperatures in January are at around 1 °C (33°F), while average temperatures in July are around 30°C (87 °F). The highest temperature ever recorded was 42 °C and the lowest recorded was -27 °C. In 2005, the total precipitation was 410.77 mm; the majority of it occurred in the summer. [hide] Weather averages for Beijing Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Average high °C (°F) 1 (33) 3 (38) 11 (52) 19 (67) 25 (78) 29 (85) 30 (86) 29 (85) 25 (78) 18 (66) 9 (49) 2 (37) 17 (63) Average low °C (°F) -8 (17) -5 (22) 0 (33) 8 (47) 13 (57) 18 (66) 22 (72) 20 (69) 15 (59) 8 (47) 0 (32) -5 (22) 7 (45) Precipitation cm (inches) 0 (0.2) 0 (0.2) 0 (0.3) 1 (0.7) 3 (1.3) 7 (3.1) 22 (8.8) 17 (6.7) 5 (2.3) 1 (0.7) 1 (0.4) 0 (0.1) 63.7 (25.1) Source: Weatherbase Feb 2007  Air quality Air pollution levels on an average day in Beijing are nearly five times above World Health Organization standards for safety. Joint research between United States and Chinese researchers in 2006 concluded that a lot of the city's pollution comes from surrounding cities and provinces. According to the research, 34% of PM2.5 and on average 35-60% of ozone can be traced to sources outside the city. Shandong Province and Tianjin Municipality have a "significant influence on Beijing's air quality." Heavy air pollution has resulted in widespread smog. This photo, taken in August 2005, shows the contrasting air quality in Beijing in days of differenceIn preparation for the 2008 Summer Olympics and after promising to cleanup the city's air, nearly US$17 billion was spent to clean the air, and Beijing had implemented a number of air improvement schemes for the duration of the games. This included stopping work on all construction sites, closing many factories both in and around Beijing, closing some gas stations, and cutting motor traffic by half. Two new subway lines were opened and thousands of old taxis and buses were replaced to encourage residents to use public transport. The Beijing government encouraged a discussion to keep the odd-even scheme in place after the Olympics, and although the scheme was eventually lifted on 21 September 2008, it was replaced by new restrictions on government vehicles and a new restriction making car owners use public transport once a week based on their license plate, coming into force in October. In addition to the vehicle restrictions, staggered office hours and retail opening times have been encouraged to avoid the rush hour, parking fees increased, and 357,000 "yellow label" vehicles — those that have too high emission levels — will be banned in Beijing altogether from January. According to the United Nations Environmental Program (UNEP), China has spent 17 billion[clarification needed] over the last three years on a large-scale green drive. Beijing has added 3,800 natural gas buses, the largest fleet in the world. Twenty percent of the Olympic venues' electricity comes from renewable energy sources. The city has also planted hundreds of thousands of trees and increased green space in an effort to make the city more livable.  Dust storms Dust from erosion of deserts in northern and northwestern China results in seasonal dust storms that plague the city; the Beijing Weather Modification Office sometimes artificially induces rainfall to fight such storms and mitigate their effects. In the first four months of 2006 alone, there were no fewer than eight such storms. In April 2002, one dust storm alone dumped nearly 50,000 tons of dust onto the city before moving on to Japan and Korea.  Cityscape  Administrative divisions The popular student hangout, Wudaokou, in northwestern Beijing at night Bookshops in the Xidan area Chaoyang Park in Beijing's Chaoyang District Shichahai, located in the Xicheng District, is traditionally one of Beijing's most beautiful and charming scenic areas A garden park near the Forbidden CityMajor neighbourhoods in urban Beijing include the following. Neighbourhoods may overlap across multiple districts (see below): Neighborhoods Qianmen 前门 Tian'anmen 天安门 Di'anmen 地安门 Chongwenmen 崇文门 Xuanwumen 宣武门 Fuchengmen 阜成门 Xizhimen 西直门 Deshengmen 德胜门 Andingmen 安定门 Sanlitun 三里屯 Dongzhimen 东直门 Chaoyangmen 朝阳门 Yongdingmen 永定门 Zuo'anmen 左安门 You'anmen 右安门 Guangqumen 广渠门 Guang'anmen 广安门 Dongbianmen 东便门 Xibianmen 西便门 Hepingmen 和平门 Fuxingmen 复兴门 Jianguomen 建国门 Gongzhufen 公主坟 Fangzhuang 方庄 Guomao 国贸 Hepingli 和平里 Ping'anli 平安里 Beixinqiao 北新桥 Jiaodaokou 交道口 Kuanjie 宽街 Wangjing 望京 Wangfujing 王府井 Dengshikou 灯市口 Wudaokou 五道口 Xidan 西单 Dongdan 东单 Zhongguancun 中关村 Panjiayuan 潘家园 Beijing CBD 北京商务中心区 Yayuncun 亚运村 Subdivisions See also: List of administrative divisions of Beijing Beijing Municipality comprises 18 administrative sub-divisions, county-level units governed directly by the municipality (second-level divisions). Of these, 16 are districts and 2 are counties. The urban and suburban areas of the city are divided into eight (8) districts: Dongcheng District 东城区 Xicheng District 西城区 Chongwen District 崇文区 Xuanwu District 宣武区 Chaoyang District 朝阳区 Haidian District 海淀区 Fengtai District 丰台区 Shijingshan District 石景山区 The following six districts encompass the more distant suburbs and satellite towns, constituting part of the metropolitan area: Mentougou District 门头沟区 Fangshan District 房山区 Tongzhou District 通州区 Shunyi District 顺义区 Changping District 昌平区 Daxing District 大兴区 Huairou District 怀柔区 Pinggu District 平谷区 The other two districts and the two counties located further out govern semirural and rural areas: Miyun County 密云县 Yanqing County 延庆县 Towns Towns within Beijing Municipality but outside the urban area include (but are not limited to): Changping 昌平 Huairou 怀柔 Miyun 密云 Liangxiang 良乡 Liulimiao 琉璃庙 Tongzhou 通州 Yizhuang 亦庄 Tiantongyuan 天通苑 Beiyuan 北苑 Xiaotangshan 小汤山 Several place names in Beijing end with mén (门), meaning "gate", as they were the locations of gates in the former Beijing city wall. Other place names end in cūn (村), meaning "village", as they were originally villages outside the city wall. Beijing's 18 districts and counties are further subdivided into 273 lower (third)-level administrative units at the township level: 119 towns, 24 townships, 5 ethnic townships and 125 subdistricts.  Architecture Inside the Forbidden CityThree styles of architecture predominate in urban Beijing. First, the traditional architecture of imperial China, perhaps best exemplified by the massive Tian'anmen (Gate of Heavenly Peace), which remains the People's Republic of China's trademark edifice, the Forbidden City, the Imperial Ancestral Temple and the Temple of Heaven. Next there is what is sometimes referred to as the "Sino-Sov" style, built between the 1950s and the 1970s, with structures tending to be boxy, bland, and poorly made. Finally, there are much more modern architectural forms — most noticeably in the area of the Beijing CBD and Beijing Financial Street. Beijing of the early 21st century has witness tremendous growth of new building constructions, showing various modern styles from international designers. A mixture of both old and new styles of architecture can be seen at the 798 Art Zone, which mixes 1950s design with a blend of the new.  Politics and government Main article: Politics of Beijing Municipal government is regulated by the local Chinese Communist Party (CCP) in issuing administrative orders, collecting taxes, and operating the economy. The local party authority is headed by the Beijing CPC Secretary (北京市委书记). The local CCP also directs a standing committee of the Municipal People's Congress in making policy decisions and overseeing local government. Local government figures include a mayor, vice-mayor, and numerous bureaus focusing on law, public security, and other affairs. Additionally, as the capital of China, Beijing houses all the important national governmental and political institutions, including the National People's Congress.  Economy Beijing's CBD with Jianwai SOHO, Yintai, CCTV Headquarters, Jingguang Beijing Financial Street, the economic centre of Beijing Wangfujing Street is one of the busiest streets in Beijing, with nearly 100,000 visitors daily (August 2008). Zhongguancun is a technology hub in Haidian DistrictBeijing is amongst the most developed cities in China with tertiary industry accounting for 73.2% of its GDP, making it the first post industrial city in mainland China. Finance is one of the most important industries of Beijing. By the end of 2007, there are 751 financial organizations in Beijing that generated 128.6 billion RMB revenue accounting for 11.6% of the total financial industry revenue of the entire country. It is also accounts for 13.8% of Beijing's GDP, the highest percentage of that of all Chinese cities.  In 2008, Beijing's nominal GDP was 1.0488 trillion RMB (150 billion USD), a year-on-year growth of 9% from the previous year. Its GDP per capita was 63,029 RMB (9,075 USD), an increase of 5.2% from the previous year. In 2008, Beijing's primary, secondary, and tertiary industries were worth 11.28 billion RMB, 269.32 billion RMB, and 768.2 billion RMB. Urban disposable income per capita was 24,725 yuan, a real increase of 12.4% from the previous year. Per capita pure income of rural residents was 10,747 RMB, a real increase of 12.4%. Per capita disposable income of the 20% low-income residents increased 16.7%, 11.4 percentage points higher than the growth rate of the 20% high-income residents. The Engel's coefficient of Beijing's urban residents reached 31.8% in 2005 and that of the rural residents was 32.8%, declining 4.5 percentage points and 3.9 percentage points, respectively, compared with 2000. Beijing's real estate and automobile sectors have continued to boom in recent years. In 2005, a total of 28.032 million square metres of housing real estate was sold, for a total of 175.88 billion RMB. The total number of cars registered in Beijing in 2004 was 2,146,000, of which 1,540,000 were privately owned (a year-on-year increase of 18.7%). The Beijing CBD, centred at the Guomao area, has been identified as the city's new central business district, and is home to a variety of corporate regional headquarters, shopping precincts, and high-end housing. The Beijing Financial Street, in the Fuxingmen and Fuchengmen area, is a traditional financial centre. The Wangfujing and Xidan areas are major shopping districts. Zhongguancun, dubbed "China's Silicon Valley", continues to be a major centre in electronics- and computer-related industries, as well as pharmaceuticals-related research. Meanwhile, Yizhuang, located to the southeast of the urban area, is becoming a new centre in pharmaceuticals, IT, and materials engineering. Urban Beijing is also known for being a centre of pirated goods and anything from the latest designer clothing to the latest DVDs can be found in markets all over the city, often marketed to expatriates and international visitors. Major industrial areas include Shijingshan, located on the western outskirts of the city. Agriculture is carried out outside the urban area of Beijing, with wheat and maize (corn) being the main crops. Vegetables are also grown in the regions closer to the urban area in order to supply the city. Beijing is increasingly becoming known for its innovative entrepreneurs and high-growth start-ups. This culture is backed by a large community of both Chinese and foreign venture capital firms, such as Sequoia Capital, whose head office in China resides in Chaoyang, Beijing. Though Shanghai is seen as the economic centre of China, this is typically based on the numerous large corporations based there, rather than as a centre for Chinese entrepreneurship. The development of Beijing continues to proceed at a rapid pace, and the vast expansion of Beijing has created a multitude of problems for the city. Beijing is known for its smog as well as the frequent "power-saving" programmes instituted by the government. Citizens of Beijing as well as tourists frequently complain about the quality of the water supply and the cost of the basic services such as electricity and natural gas. To reduce air pollution, a number of major industries have been ordered to reduce emissions or leave the city. Beijing Capital Steel, once one of the city's largest employers and its single biggest polluter, has been moving most of its operations to Tangshan. Specially designated industrial parks in Beijing include: Zhongguancun Science Park, Yongle Economic Development Zone, Beijing Economic-technological Development Area, and Tianzhu Airport Industrial Zone. See also: List of economic and technological development zones in Beijing  Demographics Wangfujing CathedralThe population of Beijing Municipality, defined as the total number of people who reside in Beijing for 6 months or more per year, was 17.4 million at the end of 2007. There were 12.04 million people in Beijing Municipality who had Beijing hukou (permanent residence), and the remainder were on temporary residence permits. In 2006, a study by the Beijing Statistics Bureau estimated the total of all people living in Beijing (permanent, temporary, unregistered and others) to be "close to 20 million." Recent statistics cited by China Daily put the number of migrant workers in the service and construction industries in Beijing at "more than 5.1 million." In addition, there is a large number of migrant workers (min gong) who live illegally in Beijing without any official residence permit (or unregistered people). The population of Beijing's urban core (city proper) is around 7.7 million. After Chongqing and Shanghai, Beijing is the third largest of the four municipalities of the PRC, which are equivalent to provinces in China's administrative structure. Most of Beijing's residents belong to the Han Chinese majority. Other ethnic minorities include the Manchu, Hui, and Mongol. A Tibetan-language high school exists for youth of Tibetan ancestry, nearly all of whom have come to Beijing from Tibet expressly for their studies. A sizable international community exists in Beijing, many attracted by the highly growing foreign business and trade sector, others by the traditional and modern culture of the city. Much of this international community lives in the areas around the Beijing CBD, Sanlitun, and Wudaokou. In recent years there has also been an influx of South Koreans who live in Beijing predominantly for business and study purpose. Many of them live in the Wangjing and Wudaokou areas. Ethnic groups in Beijing, 2000 census Nationality Population Percentage Han 12,983,696 95.69% Manchu 250,286 1.84% Hui 235,837 1.74% Mongols 37,464 0.28% Koreans 20,369 0.15% Tujia 8372 0.062% Zhuang 7322 0.054% Miao 5291 0.039% Uyghur 3129 0.023% Tibetan 2920 0.022% Excludes members of the People's Liberation Army in active service.  Culture The National Centre for the Performing Arts The Old Beijing Observatory A scene from a Beijing opera A Chinese cloisonné dish from the Qing dynastyPeople native to urban Beijing speak the Beijing dialect, which belongs to the Mandarin subdivision of spoken Chinese. Beijing dialect is the basis for Standard Mandarin, the language used in mainland China, Taiwan, and Singapore. Rural areas of Beijing Municipality have their own dialects akin to those of Hebei province, which surrounds Beijing Municipality. Beijing opera, or Peking opera (Jingju 京剧), is well-known throughout the national capital. Commonly lauded as one of the highest achievements of Chinese culture, Beijing opera is performed through a combination of song, spoken dialogue, and codified action sequences, such as gestures, movement, fighting and acrobatics. Much of Beijing opera is carried out in an archaic stage dialect quite different from modern Standard Mandarin and from the Beijing dialect. Siheyuans line hutongs (胡同), or alleys, which connect the interior of Beijing's old city. They are usually straight and run east to west so that doorways can face north and south for Feng Shui reasons. They vary in width — some are very narrow, enough for only a few pedestrians to pass through at a time. Once ubiquitous in Beijing, siheyuans and hutongs are now rapidly disappearing, as entire city blocks of hutongs are leveled and replaced with high-rise buildings. Residents of the hutongs are entitled to live in the new buildings, in apartments of at least the same size as their former residences. Many complain, however, that the traditional sense of community and street life of the hutongs cannot be replaced. Residents, however, have limited control over their own property, as the government usually owns it. Some particularly historic or picturesque neighbourhoods of hutongs are being preserved and restored by the government, especially for the 2008 Olympics. Mandarin cuisine is the local style of cooking in Beijing. The Peking Roast Duck is perhaps the most well-known dish. The Manhan Quanxi ("Manchu-Han Chinese full banquet") is a rare traditional banquet originally intended for the ethnic-Manchu emperors of the Qing Dynasty; it remains very prestigious and expensive. The Fuling Jiabing is a traditional Beijing snack food, a pancake (bing) resembling a flat disk with filling, made from fu ling (Poria cocos (Schw.) Wolf, or "tuckahoe"), an ingredient common in traditional Chinese medicine. Teahouses are also common in Beijing. Chinese tea comes in many varieties and some rather expensive types of Chinese tea are said to cure an ailing body extraordinarily well. The cloisonné (or Jingtailan, literally "Blue of Jingtai") metalworking technique and tradition is a specialty of Beijing's cultural art, and is one of the most revered traditional crafts in China. Cloisonné making requires elaborate and complicated processes which includes: base-hammering, copper-strip inlay, soldering, enamel-filling, enamel-firing, surface polishing and gilding. Beijing's lacquerware is also well known for its sophisticated and intrinsic patterns and images carved into its surface, and the various decoration techniques of lacquer includes "carved lacquer" and "engraved gold". Younger residents of Beijing have become more attracted to the nightlife, which has flourished in recent decade, breaking prior cultural traditions that practically restricted it to the upper class.  Places of interest “ ...the city remains an epicenter of tradition with the treasures of nearly 2,000 years as the imperial capital still on view—in the famed Forbidden City and in the city's lush pavilions and gardens... ” — National Geographic Classical gardens in BeijingAt the heart of Beijing's historical centre lies the Forbidden City, the enormous palace compound that was the home of the emperors of the Ming and Qing dynasties; the Forbidden City also hosts the Palace Museum, which contains imperial collections of Chinese art. Surrounding the Forbidden City are several former imperial gardens, parks and scenic areas, notably the Beihai, Houhai, Shichahai, Zhongnanhai, Jingshan and Zhongshan. These places, like the Beihai Park are described to be masterpieces of Chinese gardening art, and are popular tourist destinations with tremendous historical importance; Zhongnanhai during the modern era has also been the political heart of various Chinese governments and regimes and is now the headquarters of the Communist Party of China. From the Tiananmen Square, which is located right across the Forbidden City, there are several notable sites, such as the Tiananmen, Qianmen, the Great Hall of the People, National Museum of China, Monument to the People's Heroes, and Mausoleum of Mao Zedong. The Summer Palace and the Old Summer Palace both lie at the western part of the urban city of Beijing; the Summer Palace, a UNESCO World Heritage Site, displays a comprehensive collection of imperial gardens and palaces that functioned as the summer retreat for the Qing Dynasty emperors. Among the best known religious sites in the city is the Temple of Heaven (Tiantan), located in southeastern Beijing, also a UNESCO World Heritage Site, where emperors of the Ming and Qing dynasties made visits for annual ceremonies of prayer to Heaven for good harvest; located in the opposite direction of the Temple of Heaven at the northern part of the city are the Temple of Earth (Ditian), and the Temple of the Sun (Ritan) and Temple of the Moon (Yuetan), both respectively located in the eastern and western parts of the urban area. Other well-known temple sites located in Beijing include the Dongyue Temple, Tanzhe Temple, Miaoying Temple, White Cloud Temple, Yonghe Temple, Fayuan Temple, Wanshou Temple and the Big Bell Temple. The city also has its own Confucius Temple, and a Guozijian. The Cathedral of the Immaculate Conception was built in 1605, and is the oldest Catholic church in Beijing. The Niujie Mosque is also the oldest mosque in Beijing, with a history over a thousand years old. A German postcard of Beijing from 1900Beijing contains several well-preserved pagodas and stone pagodas, such as the towering Pagoda of Tianning Temple, which was built during the Liao Dynasty from 1100–1120, and the Pagoda of Cishou Temple, which was built in 1576 during the Ming Dynasty. Several historically important stone bridges are also located in Beijing, including the 12th century Lugou Bridge, the 17th century Baliqiao bridge and the 18th century Jade Belt Bridge. The Beijing Ancient Observatory displays pretelescopic spheres dating back to the Ming and Qing dynasties. The Fragrant Hills (Xiangshan) is a popular scenic public park that consists of natural landscape areas as well as traditional and cultural relics. The Beijing Botanical Garden exhibits over 6,000 species of plants, including a variety of trees, bushes and flowers, and an extensive peony garden. The Taoranting Park, Chaoyang Park, Haidian Park and Zizhu Yuan are all popular recreational parks that consist of a variety of natural landscapes. The Beijing Zoo is a center of zoological research that also contains rare animals from various continents, including the giant panda of China. Beijing is also known for its siheyuan (courtyard houses) and hutong (alleys), although they are increasingly disappearing due to the growth of city constructions and are giving way to high-rises. The city has several well-preserved neighborhoods of shiheyuan, including some of the more grand courtyard houses, such as the Prince Gong Mansion. There are over hundreds of museums in Beijing, and aside from the Palace Museum in the Forbidden City and the National Museum of China, other major museums include the National Art Museum of China, the Capital Museum, the Beijing Art Museum, the Military Museum of the Chinese People's Revolution, the Geological Museum of China, the Beijing Museum of Natural History and the Paleozoological Museum of China. Located at the outskirts of urban Beijing but within its municipality are the Thirteen Tombs of the Ming Dynasty, the lavish and elaborate burial sites of thirteen Ming emperors, which have been designated as part of the UNESCO World Heritage Site "Imperial Tombs of the Ming and Qing Dynasties". The archaeological Peking Man site at Zhoukoudian is another World Heritage Site within the Beijing municipality, and it contains a wealth of discoveries, including one of the first specimens of Homo erectus, and an assemblage of bones of the gigantic hyena Pachycrocuta brevirostris. There are several sections of the UNESCO World Heritage Site Great Wall of China that are on the outskirts of the municipality, most notably Badaling, Jinshanling, Simatai and Mutianyu.  Media  Television and radio The CCTV Headquarters under construction (April 2008)See also: Beijing Radio Stations Beijing Television (BTV) broadcasts on numbered channels 1 through 10. Three radio stations feature programmes in English: Hit FM on FM 88.7, Easy FM by China Radio International (CRI) on FM 91.5, and the newly launched Radio 774 on AM 774. Beijing Radio Stations is the family of radio stations serving the city audience; its stations include the music station on 97.4 FM as well as a series of other stations focused on news, sports, educational programming, and others.  Press The well-known Beijing Evening News (Beijing Wanbao) newspaper is distributed every afternoon, covering news about Beijing in Chinese. Other newspapers include The Beijing News (Xin Jing Bao), the Beijing Star Daily, the Beijing Morning News, and the Beijing Youth Daily (Beijing Qingnian Bao), as well as English-language weeklies Beijing Weekend and Beijing Today (the English-language edition of Youth Daily). People's Daily and China Daily (English) are published in Beijing as well. Nationally circulated Chinese newspapers are also available in Beijing. Publications primarily aimed at international visitors and the expatriate community include the English-language periodicals City Weekend, Beijing This Month, Beijing Talk, That's Beijing and MetroZine. The international press, including English and Japanese-language newspapers and magazines, are available in major international hotels and friendship stores, and content often appears complete.  Sports Beijing hosted the 2008 Summer Olympics and the 2008 Summer Paralympics. City officials relocated 350,000 people for the construction of the Beijing National Stadium, which was completed on 28 June 2008. Professional sports teams based in Beijing include: Chinese Super League Beijing Guoan Chinese Football Association Jia League Beijing Hongdeng Beijing Institute of Technology FC Chinese Basketball Association Beijing Ducks Women's Chinese Basketball Association Beijing Shougang Asia League Ice Hockey China Sharks China Baseball League Beijing Tigers The Beijing Olympians of the ABA, formerly a CBA team, kept their name and maintained a roster of primarily Chinese players after moving to Maywood, California in 2005.  Transportation Main article: Transportation in Beijing With the growth of the city following economic reforms, Beijing has evolved as the most important transportation hub in the People's Republic of China, and within the larger East Asian region. Encircling the city are five ring roads, nine expressways and city express routes, eleven China National Highways, several railway routes, and an international airport. The Beijing Railway Station  Rail Beijing has long been the largest railway hub in China. There are railway lines from Beijing to Shanghai, Guangzhou, Kowloon, Harbin, Qinhuangdao, Baotou, Yuanping, Chengde, and Tianjin. As of 1 August 2006, Beijing Railway Station has 167 trains stopping daily, while Beijing West Railway Station has 176 trains. These two railway stations serve as major transportation nodes in the city. The state-of-the-art Beijing South Railway Station opened in August 2008, and serves as the Beijing terminus for the Beijing-Tianjin high-speed train, the fastest regular passenger train service in the world, as well as all other high-speed CRH trains. International trains to cities in Mongolia, Russia, and North Korea, all run through Beijing. Several other railway stations in urban Beijing handle regular passenger traffic: Beijing North, Beijing East, Fengtai and other smaller stations. There are also a number of other stations serving suburban areas. Passenger trains in China are numbered according to their direction in relation to Beijing.  Roads and expressways See: Ring Roads of Beijing, Expressways of Beijing and China National Highways of Beijing for more related information. An air-conditioned articulated bus operating on Beijing Bus Rapid Transit Line 1Beijing is connected via road links from all parts of China as part of the National Trunk Road Network. Nine expressways of China (with six wholly new expressways under projection or construction) connect with Beijing, as do eleven China National Highways. Within Beijing itself, an elaborate network of five ring roads has developed, but they appear more rectangular than ring-shaped. Due partly to its design as an ancient capital, roads in Beijing often are in one of the four compass directions. Beijing's urban transport is dependent upon the five "ring roads" (Chinese: 环路) that successively surround the city, with the Forbidden City area marked as the geographical centre for the ring roads. The 1st Ring road is not officially defined. The 2nd Ring Road is fully located in Beijing's inner city areas. Ring roads tend to resemble expressways progressively as they extend outwards, with the 5th Ring Road and 6th Ring Road being full-standard National expressways - linked to other roads only with interchanges. Expressways to other regions of China are generally accessible from the 3rd Ring Road outward. One of the biggest concerns with traffic in Beijing involves its apparently ubiquitous traffic jams, although in recent years ITS has been implemented in many areas in attempts to alleviate the problem. Traffic in the city centre is often gridlocked, especially around rush hour. Even outside of rush hour, several roads still remain clogged up with traffic. Urban area ring roads and major thoroughfares, especially near Chang'an Avenue, are normally cited as high-congestion areas. Exacerbating Beijing's traffic problems is its relatively underdeveloped mass transit system. Frequently cited is the city's subway system which has 8 lines for its 17 million citizens. In comparison, New York City has 26 lines for its 8 million citizens. Beijing's urban design layout further complicates the situation of the transportation system. Compounding the problem is patchy enforcement of traffic regulations, and road rage. Beijing authorities claim that traffic jams may be a thing of a past come the 2008 Olympics. The authorities have introduced several bus lanes where, during rush hour, all vehicles except for public buses must keep clear. Chang'an Avenue runs east-west through the centre of Beijing, past Tian'anmen. It is a major through route and is often called the "First Street in China" by authorities.  Air Beijing Capital International Airport's new Terminal 3Beijing's primary airport is the Beijing Capital International Airport (IATA: PEK; Chinese: 北京首都国际机场) near Shunyi, which is about 20 km northeast of city centre. With renovations for the 2008 Olympics, the airport now boasts three terminals, with Terminal 3 being one of the largest in the world. Most domestic and nearly all international flights arrive at and depart from Capital Airport. Capital Airport is the main hub for Air China. The capital links Beijing with almost every other Chinese city with regular air passenger service. It is linked to central Beijing by the Airport Expressway and is a roughly 40-minute drive from the city centre during good traffic hours. Prior to the 2008 Olympics, another expressway, the 2nd Airport Expressway, was built to the Airport, as well as a light rail system, which is now connected to the Beijing Subway. Other airports in the city include Beijing Liangxiang Airport, Beijing Nanyuan Airport, Beijing Xijiao Airport, Beijing Shahe Airport and Beijing Badaling Airport. Nanyuan serves as the hub for only one passenger airline, and these airports are primarily for military use and less well-known to the public.  Public transit Line 5 platform at Dongdan station, with platform screen doorsThe Beijing Subway system opened in 1971, and only consisted of two lines until the opening of the northern arc Line 13 in 2002. Due to recent expansion, the evolving system now has nine lines, four of which are underground, and five are above ground. Line 1, along with its new eastern expansion known as the Batong Line crosses almost all of urban Beijing from east to west. Line 5 serves as the north-south axial line. Fare is 2 yuan flat throughout. There is an extensive system nearly 700 bus and trolleybus routes in Beijing as of 2008, including three bus rapid transit routes. All public transportation can be accessed with the Yikatong card, which uses radio frequencies to be scanned at subway stations and on public transit buses. Registered taxis can be found throughout Beijing, although a large number of unregistered taxis also exist. As of 30 June 2008, all fares on legal taxis start at 10 Renminbi for the first 3 km and 2.00 Renminbi per additional kilometer, not counting idling fees. Most taxis are Hyundai Elantras, Hyundai Sonatas, Peugeot Citroëns and Volkswagen Jettas. After 15 km, the base fare is increased by 50% (but only applied to the portion of the distance over 15 km, so that the passenger is not retroactively charged extra for the first 15 km). Between 11 pm and 5 am, the fee is increased by 20%, starting at 11 RMB and increasing at a rate of 2.4 RMB per km. Rides over 15 km and between 11 pm and 6 am apply both charges, for a total increase of 80% (120%*150%=180%).  Education Tsinghua University is a top university in mainland ChinaBeijing is home to a great number of colleges and universities, including several well-regarded universities of international stature, such as Peking University and Tsinghua University. Owing to Beijing's status as the political and cultural capital of China, a larger proportion of tertiary-level institutions are concentrated here than in any other city in China, reaching at least 59 in number. Many international students from Japan, Korea, North America, Europe, Southeast Asia, and elsewhere come to Beijing to study every year. The institutions listed here are administered by China's Ministry of Education.  Primary school There are many famous primary schools in the urban area of Beijing. Beijing Jingshan School (北京景山学校) Beijing First Experiment Primary School (北京第一实验小学) Beijing Second Experiment Primary School (北京第二实验小学) Beijing Fuxue Primary School (北京府学小学) Zhong Guan Cun No.1 Primary School (中关村第一小学) Zhong Guan Cun No.2 Primary School (中关村第二小学) Beijing Primary School (北京小学) The Elementary School Affiliated to Renmin University of China (中国人民大学附属小学) The Experimental Primary School Attached to Beijing Normal University (北京师范大学附属实验小学)  Middle school Famous middle schools in Beijing are: Beijing 101 Middle School (北京一零一中学) Beijing Chenjinlun High School (北京市陈经纶中学) Beijing Huiwen Middle School (北京汇文中学) Beijing No.2 Middle School (北京市第二中学) Beijing No.4 Middle School (北京市第四中学) Beijing No.5 Middle School (北京市第五中学) Beijing No.8 Middle School (北京市第八中学) Beijing No.8 Middle School YiHai branch(北京市第八中学怡海分校) Beijing No.80 Middle School (北京市第八十中学) Beijing Xicheng Foreign Language School (北京市西城区外国语学校) High School attached to Tsinghua University (清华大学附属中学) The Affiliated High School of Peking University (北京大学附属中学) The Experimental High School Attached to Beijing Normal University (北京师范大学附属实验中学) The High School Affiliated to Renmin University of China (中国人民大学附属中学) The High School Attached to Beijing Normal University (北京师范大学附属中学) The Second High School Attached to Beijing Normal University (北京师范大学第二附属中学)  Universities and colleges Main article: List of universities and colleges in Beijing  City and regional partnerships Beijing maintains 42 "sister city" partnerships with the following cities. Paris and Rome are "partner cities" due to an exclusive agreement between those two cities. Tehran, Iran (1979) Tokyo, Japan (1979) Belgrade, Serbia (1980) New York City, United States (1980) Lima, Peru (1983) Washington D.C., United States (1984) Madrid, Spain (1985) Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (1986) Ile-de-France (Paris), France (1987) Köln, Germany (1987) Amman, Jordan (1990) Ankara, Turkey (1990) Cairo, Egypt (1990) Islamabad, Pakistan (1992) Jakarta, Indonesia (1992) Bangkok, Thailand (1993) Buenos Aires, Argentina (1993) Kiev, Ukraine (1993) Seoul, South Korea (1993) Amsterdam, Netherlands (1994) Berlin, Germany (1994) Brussels, Belgium (1994) Hanoi, Vietnam (1994) Moscow, Russia (1995) Paris, France (1997) Gauteng, South Africa (1998) Rome, Italy (1998) Ottawa, Canada (1999) Canberra, Australia (2000) Athens, Greece (2005) Bucharest, Romania (2005) Budapest, Hungary (2005) Havana, Cuba (2005) Manila, Philippines (2005) Addis Ababa, Ethiopia (2006) Astana, Kazakhstan (2006) Helsinki, Finland (2006) London, United Kingdom (2006) Tel Aviv, Israel (2006) Wellington, New Zealand (2006) Lisbon, Portugal (2007) Tirana, Albania (2007) Doha, Qatar (2008) Santiago, Chile (2008) Mexico City, Mexico  See also Cosmological city Large Cities Climate Leadership Group List of hospitals in Beijing List of mayors of Beijing Tourist attractions of Beijing 2045 Peking - the name of an asteroid List of economic and technological development zones in Beijing  Notes and references ^ a b c d e "Township divisions". the Official Website of the Beijing Government. http://www.ebeijing.gov.cn/Government/Administration_region/t930369.htm. ^ a b "Beijing's population exceeds 17.4 million". 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China Daily. 2008-09-16. http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/bizchina/2008-09/16/content_7030195.htm. ^ a b Post-Olympics Beijing car restrictions to take effect next month ^ Muqbil, IMTIAZ, Golden effort maligned,Bangkok Post, 8/17/2008, from http://0-proquest.umi.com.alpha.stpaul.lib.mn.us:80/pqdweb?did=1533631451&sid=2&Fmt=3&clientId=24006&RQT=309&VName=PQD, accessed 8/21/2008 ^ "China says it made rain to wash off sand". MSNBC. 2006-05-05. http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/12644965/from/RSS/. ^ "Beijing hit by eighth sandstorm". BBC News. 2006-04-17. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/world/asia-pacific/4915690.stm. ^ Weaver, Lisa Rose (2002-04-04). "More than a dust storm in a Chinese teacup". CNN. http://cnnstudentnews.cnn.com/2002/WEATHER/04/03/dust.storm/. Retrieved on 2008-02-07. ^ "Geohive". http://geohive.com/cntry/subs/cn-11.aspx. ^ Business Buide to Beijing and North-East China (2006-2007 ed.). p. 108. ISBN 9889867338. http://books.google.com/books?id=M2TvFN9DmqkC&pg=PA108&lpg=PA108&dq=%22sino-sov%22+%2Barchitecture&source=web&ots=Ei9NtnrmZT&sig=HWSTtiM-I2vG7rMQdwYH3XJpE2A&hl=en&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=9&ct=result#PPA108,M1. ^ "Beijing - Administration and society - Government". Britannica Online Encyclopedia. 2008. http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/448956/Beijing/232381/Administration-and-society#toc=toc232382. ^ "北京已率先进入后工业经济时代". china.com.cn. 2008-03-20. http://www.china.com.cn/economic/txt/2008-03/20/content_13178335.htm. Retrieved on 2008-10-01. ^ "Beijing’s Bankosphere". bankosphere.com. 2008-08-11. http://bankosphere.com/2008/08/11/beijing-bankosphere. Retrieved on 2008-10-01. ^ "北京市金融业发展新闻发布会". zhengwu.beijing.gov.cn. 2008-07-27. http://zhengwu.beijing.gov.cn/xwfbh/bmqxfbh/t989438.htm. Retrieved on 2008-10-01. ^ "Beijing annual GDP per capita hit $6,000". Beijing2008.cn. 2007-04-03. http://en.beijing2008.cn/54/97/article214029754.shtml. Retrieved on 2008-06-27. ^ "Urban Construction". Beijing Municipal Bureau of Statistics. 2006. http://www.bjstats.gov.cn/esite/bjsq/csjs/. Retrieved on 2008-03-15. ^ Statistical Communique on the 2003 National Economic and Social Development of the City of Beijing. Beijing Municipal Bureau of Statistics. 2004-02-12. http://www.bjstats.gov.cn/esite/tjgb/200611/t20061121_77051.html. Retrieved on 2008-03-15. ^ "Pirates weave tangled web on 'Spidey'". The Hollywood Reporter (Reuters). 2007-04-27. http://www.hollywoodreporter.com/hr/content_display/film/news/e3i1ea868cbfd17e7ac48b8fbc3fcc3473c. Retrieved on 2008-03-15. ^ "ShiJingShan". Beijing Economic Information Center. http://www.bjinvest.gov.cn/english/dac/sjs/. Retrieved on 2008-06-22. ^  &  ^ http://www.china-embassy.org/eng/xw/t240941.htm ^ http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/cndy/2008-04/16/content_6619720.htm ^ Dempster, Tyra (2008-05-09). "Hard lessons for Beijing migrant workers". Reuters UK. http://uk.reuters.com/article/topNews/idUKPEK22242120080509?sp=true. Retrieved on 2008-06-22. ^ "Praying for peace in their hometown, Tibetan students in Beijing speak out". People's Daily (Xinhua). 2008-03-24. http://english.peopledaily.com.cn/90001/90776/90785/6379112.html. Retrieved on 2008-06-22. ^ Ding, Ying (2008-03-04). "The Korean Mergence". Beijing Review. http://www.bjreview.com.cn/quotes/txt/2008-03/04/content_102173.htm. Retrieved on 2008-06-15. ^ Ye Jun (2008). "Got to have Seoul". China Daily: 5. http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/cndy/2008-03/01/content_6498250.htm. ^ Department of Population, Social, Science and Technology Statistics of the National Bureau of Statistics of China (国家统计局人口和社会科技统计司) and Department of Economic Development of the State Ethnic Affairs Commission of China (国家民族事务委员会经济发展司), eds. Tabulation on Nationalities of 2000 Population Census of China (《2000年人口普查中国民族人口资料》). 2 vols. Beijing: Nationalities Publishing House (民族出版社), 2003. (ISBN 7-105-05425-5) ^ "Jingxi". Britannica Online Encyclopedia. 2008. http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/112926/jingxi. ^ Shen, Wei (2004-02-16). "Chorography to record rise and fall of Beijing's Hutongs". China Daily. http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/english/doc/2004-02/16/content_306506.htm. Retrieved on 2008-06-27. ^ Li, Dray-Novey & Kong 2007, p. 253 ^ Gallagher, Sean (2006-12-06). "Beijing's urban makeover: the 'hutong' destruction". Open Democracy. http://www.opendemocracy.net/arts-photography/hutong_destruction_3632.jsp. Retrieved on 2008-06-27. ^ "Beijing Olympics - City gets an Olympic facelift". 938 Live. MediaCorp. 2008-03-07. http://938live.sg/portal/site/938Live/menuitem.43735da1634c4377d21b2910618000a0/?vgnextoid=de751c923a888110VgnVCM1000001f0aa8c0RCRD&mcParam=9d73638896593110VgnVCM100000e101000aRCRD. Retrieved on 2008-06-27. ^ a b "Cloisonné. Beijing Touree". http://www.beijingtouree.com/index.php/culturalbeijing-mainmenu-32/handcrafts-mainmenu-58/39-arts-a-crafts/109-cloisonne. ^ "Beijing - Chinese Cloisonné Enamelware.". http://www.khulsey.com/travel/china_beijing_crafts_cloisonne.html. ^ Levin, Dan (2008-06-15). "Beijing Lights Up the Night". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2008/06/15/fashion/15beijing.html?_r=1&oref=slogin&partner=rssnyt&emc=rss&pagewanted=all. Retrieved on 2008-06-15. ^ "Beijing, Places of a Lifetime". National Geographic Society. http://www.nationalgeographic.com/places/places-of-a-lifetime/beijing.html. Retrieved on 2008-08-03. ^ "The Imperial Palace of the Ming and Qing Dynasties" (PDF). UNESCO World Heritage Centre. 1986-12-29. http://whc.unesco.org/archive/advisory_body_evaluation/439.pdf. ^ Beihai Park. UNECO World Heritage Tentative Lists ^ "Summer Palace, an Imperial Garden in Beijing". UNESCO World Heritage Centre. http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/880. Retrieved on 2008-08-04. ^ "Temple of Heaven: an Imperial Sacrificial Altar in Beijing". UNESCO World Heritage Centre. http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/881. Retrieved on 2008-08-04. ^ "About Beijing". http://firstname.lastname@example.org. ^ a b "Beijing's Museums & Galleries". http://www.china.org.cn/english/features/museums/116909.htm. ^ "Imperial Tombs of the Ming and Qing Dynasties". UNESCO World Heritage Centre. 2003-12-10. http://whc.unesco.org/archive/decrec03.htm#dec8-c-39. ^ "Peking Man Site at Zhoukoudian". UNESCO World Heritage Centre. http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/449. Retrieved on 2008-08-04. ^ "The Great Wall". UNESCO World Heritage Centre. http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/438. Retrieved on 2008-08-04. ^ Davis 2006, p. 106 ^ "Beijing Olympics Bird's Nest ready". BBC News. 2008-06-28. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/7478923.stm. Retrieved on 2008-06-28. ^ "Beijingers spend lives on road as traffic congestion worsens". China Daily (Xinhua News Agency). 2003-10-06. http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/en/doc/2003-10/06/content_269518.htm. ^ "Minzu Hotel Beijing". Sino Hotel Guide. http://www.sinohotelguide.com/beijing/minzu/index.html. Retrieved on 2008-02-06. ^ "Beijing Bus Rapid Transit". http://beijing.dazhao.net/brt/. Retrieved on 2009-01-09. ^ "Sister Cities". Beijing Municipal Government. http://www.ebeijing.gov.cn/Sister_Cities/Sister_City/. Retrieved on 2008-09-23. ^ "Le jumelage avec Rome" (in French). Municipalité de Paris. http://www.paris.fr/portail/accueil/Portal.lut?page_id=6587&document_type_id=5&document_id=16467&portlet_id=14974. Retrieved on 2008-07-09.  Further reading Cotterell, Arthur. (2007). The Imperial Capitals of China - An Inside View of the Celestial Empire. London: Pimlico. ISBN 9781845950095. Elliott, Mark C. (2001), The Manchu Way: The Eight Banners and Ethnic Identity in Late Imperial China, Palo Alto, California, United States: Stanford University Press, ISBN 0804746842, http://books.google.com/books?id=_qtgoTIAiKUC&printsec=frontcover Li, Lillian; Dray-Novey, Alison; Kong, Haili (2007), Beijing: From Imperial Capital to Olympic City, New York, New York, United States: Palgrave Macmillan, ISBN 1403964734 Harper, Damian, Beijing: City Guide, 7th Edition, Oakland, California: Lonely Planet Publications, 2007. Harper, Damian, Beijing: City Guide, 6th Edition, Oakland, California : Lonely Planet Publications, 2005. ISBN 1740597826. MacKerras, Colin; Yorke, Amanda (1991), The Cambridge Handbook of Contemporary China, Cambridge, England, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 05213875, http://books.google.com/books?id=yiq_f71uXboC&printsec=frontcover&dq=beiping+beijing&source=gbs_summary_r  External links Find more about Beijing on Wikipedia's sister projects: Definitions from Wiktionary Textbooks from Wikibooks Quotations from Wikiquote Source texts from Wikisource Images and media from Commons News stories from Wikinews Learning resources from WikiversityBeijing Government website (Chinese and English) Beijing travel guide from Wikitravel Economic profile for Beijing at HKTDC Beijing Highlights Preceded by Lin'an (Song Dynasty) Capital of China (as Dadu) 1264-1368 Succeeded by Nanjing (Ming Dynasty) Preceded by Nanjing (Ming Dynasty) Capital of China 1420-1928 Succeeded by Nanjing (ROC) Preceded by Nanjing (ROC) Capital of the People's Republic of China 1949-present Succeeded by present capital [show] Links to related articles [show]v • d • eBeijing Municipality History · Politics · Economy · Geography · Transportation · Tourism Districts Dongcheng · Xicheng · Chongwen · Xuanwu · Chaoyang · Haidian · Fengtai · Shijingshan · Mentougou · Fangshan · Tongzhou · Shunyi · Changping · Daxing · Huairou · Pinggu Counties Miyun · Yanqing Cuisine Peking Duck · Zhajiang mian Education Tsinghua University · Peking University See also: Township-level divisions of Beijing [show]v • d • eProvince-level divisions of the People's Republic of China Provinces Anhui • Fujian • Gansu • Guangdong • Guizhou • Hainan • Hebei • Heilongjiang • Henan • Hubei • Hunan • Jiangsu • Jiangxi • Jilin • Liaoning • Qinghai • Shaanxi • Shandong • Shanxi • Sichuan • Yunnan • Zhejiang Autonomous regions Guangxi • Inner Mongolia • Ningxia • Tibet • Xinjiang Municipalities Beijing • Chongqing • Shanghai • Tianjin Special Administrative Regions Hong Kong • Macau Territorial Dispute Paracel Islands • Senkaku Islands • Spratly Islands • Taiwan (see Legal status of Taiwan) [show]v • d • eMajor cities of Greater China People's Republic of China Direct-controlled municipalities Beijing · Chongqing · Shanghai · Tianjin Sub-provincial cities Changchun · Chengdu · Dalian · Guangzhou · Hangzhou · Jinan · Harbin · Nanjing · Ningbo · Qingdao · Shenyang · Shenzhen · Wuhan · Xi'an · Xiamen Provincial capitals (not included above) Changsha · Fuzhou · Guiyang · Haikou · Hefei · Hohhot · Kunming · Lanzhou · Lhasa · Nanchang · Nanning · Shijiazhuang · Taiyuan · Ürümqi · Xining · Yinchuan · Zhengzhou Special administrative regions Hong Kong · Macau Republic of China Direct-controlled municipalities Taipei · Kaohsiung Provincial cities Chiayi · Hsinchu · Keelung · Taichung · Tainan [show]v • d • eMost populous cities in the People's Republic of China Shanghai · Beijing · Tianjin · Chengdu · Wuhan · Harbin · Shenzhen · Nanjing · Qingdao · Shenyang · Hong Kong · Chongqing · Changchun · Zhengzhou · Guangzhou · Kunming · Dalian · Taiyuan · Fuzhou · Hangzhou · Fushun · Jinan · Ningbo · Xiamen · Suzhou · Hefei · Nanchang · Lanzhou · Hohhot · Guiyang · Ürümqi · Xining [show]v • d • eNational Capital Region Beijing Beijing (Chaoyang • Haidian • Fengtai) Hebei Province Baoding • Langfang • Shijiazhuang • Zhangjiakou • Chengde [show]v • d • eCapitals of Asia Central Asia South Asia Southeast Asia Southwest Asia Astana, Kazakhstan † Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan Dushanbe, Tajikistan Ashgabat, Turkmenistan Tashkent, Uzbekistan East Asia Beijing, People's Republic of China (PRC) Tokyo, Japan Pyongyang, North Korea Seoul, South Korea Ulan Bator, Mongolia 1 Taipei, Republic of China (ROC) 2 North Asia Moscow, Russia † Dhaka, Bangladesh Thimphu, Bhutan New Delhi, India Malé, Maldives Kathmandu, Nepal Islamabad, Pakistan Kotte3, Sri Lanka Bandar Seri Begawan, Brunei Phnom Penh, Cambodia Dili, East Timor Jakarta, Indonesia Vientiane, Laos Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia 4 Putrajaya, Malaysia 5 Naypyidaw, Myanmar Manila, Philippines Singapore, Singapore Bangkok, Thailand Hanoi, Vietnam Kabul, Afghanistan 6 Yerevan, Armenia ‡ Baku, Azerbaijan † Manama, Bahrain Nicosia, Cyprus ‡ Tbilisi, Georgia † Tehran, Iran Baghdad, Iraq Jerusalem, Israel 7‡ Amman, Jordan Kuwait City, Kuwait Beirut, Lebanon Muscat, Oman Doha, Qatar Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Damascus, Syria Ankara, Turkey † Abu Dhabi, UAE Sana'a, Yemen 1 Often considered part of Central Asia. 2 Commonly known as Taiwan. 3 Full name is Sri Jayawardenapura-Kotte. 4 Formal. 5 Administrative. 6 Often considered part of Central or South Asia. 7 See Positions on Jerusalem for details on Jerusalem's status as capital. † Transcontinental country. ‡ Entirely in Southwest Asia but having socio-political connections with Europe. [show]v • d • eSummer Olympic Games host cities 1896: Athens • 1900: Paris • 1904: St. Louis • 1908: London • 1912: Stockholm • 1920: Antwerp • 1924: Paris • 1928: Amsterdam • 1932: Los Angeles • 1936: Berlin • 1948: London • 1952: Helsinki • 1956: Melbourne • 1960: Rome • 1964: Tokyo • 1968: Mexico City • 1972: Munich • 1976: Montreal • 1980: Moscow • 1984: Los Angeles • 1988: Seoul • 1992: Barcelona • 1996: Atlanta • 2000: Sydney • 2004: Athens • 2008: Beijing • 2012: London 2016: TBA 2020: TBA [show]v • d • eWorld's twenty most populous metropolitan areas 1 Tokyo-Yokohama 2 Seoul-Incheon 3 Mexico City 4 New York (Tri-State Region) 5 Mumbai 6 Jakarta 7 São Paulo 8 Delhi 9 Keihanshin 10 Shanghai 11 Manila 12 Hong Kong-Shenzhen 13 Los Angeles 14 Kolkata 15 Moscow 16 Cairo 17 Buenos Aires 18 London 19 Beijing 20 Karachi [show]v • d • eWorld's fifty most-populous urban areas Tokyo – Yokohama New York Seoul – Incheon Mumbai Jakarta Delhi Mexico City São Paulo Manila Osaka – Kobe – Kyoto Cairo Los Angeles Kolkata Shanghai Moscow Buenos Aires Beijing Shenzhen Rio de Janeiro Istanbul Paris Lagos Karachi Nagoya Chicago London Bangkok Ho Chi Minh City Kinshasa Lima Tehran Dhaka Bogotá Ruhr Area (Essen–Düsseldorf) Chennai Guangzhou Hong Kong Lahore Bangalore Taipei Johannesburg – East Rand Hyderabad Dongguan Baghdad Toronto – Hamilton Santiago Miami San Francisco – San Jose Philadelphia St. Petersburg Coordinates: 39°54′N 116°24′E / 39.9°N 116.4°E / 39.9; 116.4 Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Beijing" Categories: Capitals in Asia | Host cities of the Summer Olympic Games | Beijing | Cities in China | Independent cities | Metropolitan areas of China | Municipalities of the People's Republic of China | North China Plain | Settlements established in the 5th century BC
227's YouTube "Chili" - STOMP THE YARD (BLACK COLLEGE STEP SHOW MOVIE) Starring Columbus Short, Meagan Good, Ne-Yo, Darrin Henson, Chris Brown, Brian White, Las Alonso, Valerie Pettiford & Harry Lennix (NBA Mix)!
Beyonce * Maxwell * Mario ft. Gucci Mane & sean Garrett * Drake ft. Lil Wayne * Ginuwine * Fabolous Featuring The-Dream * Keyshia Cole Duet With Monica * Jay-Z, Rihanna & Kanye West * Gucci Mane Featuring Plies * Mary Mary Featuring Kierra "KiKi" Sheard * Ice Cream Paint Job * Pleasure P * Mariah Carey * Trey Songz * Trey Songz Featuring Gucci Mane & Soulja Boy Tell'em * R. Kelly Featuring Keri Hilson * K'Jon * Young Money * Twista Featuring Erika Shevon * Yo Gotti * New Boyz * Jeremih * Keri Hilson Featuring Kanye West & Ne-Yo * Musiq Soulchild * Whitney Houston * Anthony Hamilton * Charlie Wilson * Chrisette Michele * Jamie Foxx Featuring T-Pain * Plies * LeToya Featuring Ludacris * Mary J. Blige Featuring Drake * Mullage * Charlie Wilson * Jamie Foxx Featuring Drake, Kanye West + The-Dream * Jamie Foxx Featuring Drake, Kanye West + The-Dream * Jeremih * Mishon * Jennifer Hudson * Clipse Featuring Pharrell Williams * Kid Cudi Featuring Kanye West & Common * Raphael Saadiq Featuring Stevie Wonder & CJ * Anthony Hamilton Featuring David Banner * Jazmine Sullivan * Trey Songz Featuring Drake * F.L.Y. (Fast Life Yungstaz) * Laura Izibor
Jamaal Al-Din's Hoops 227 (227's YouTube Chili")!
Beyonce * Shakira * Jordin Sparks * Mariah Carey * New Boyz * Jason DeRulo * Mario ft. Gucci Mane & Sean Garrett * Katy Perry * The Black Eyed Peas * Colby Caillat * Fabolous ft. The Dream * Jason Aldean * Daughtry * Lady Gaga * Michael Franti & Spearhead Featuring Cherine Anderson * Boys Like Girls * Flo Rida Featuring Ne-Yo * Dorrough * Green Day * Linkin Park * Pink * Justin Bieber * Rob Thomas * Maxwell * Jason Mraz * Young Money * The Fray * Rascal Flatts * Zac Brown Band * Shinedown * Disney's Friends For Change * Toby Keith * Darius Rucker * Cascada * Billy Currington * Justin Moore * Kid Cudi Featuring Kanye West & Common * Keith Urban * Randy Houser * Drake Featuring Lil Wayne * Jeremih * Pearl Jam * Kelly Clarkson * George Strait * LMFAO * Twista Featuring Erika Shevon * Uncle Kracker * Eric Church * Jack Ingram * Love And Theft * Parachute * Chris Young * Theory Of A Deadman * Tim McGraw * Sean Paul * Gloriana * Creed * Ginuwine * Keyshia Cole Duet With Monica * Blake Shelton * Iyaz
2009 NCAA Basketball Tournament! List of NCAA Division 1 Teams & Coaches at 227!
America East Conference Albany - Will Brown Binghamton - Kevin Broadus Boston University - Dennis Wolff Hartford - Dan Leibovitz Maine - Ted Woodward New Hampshire - Bill Herrion Stony Brook - Steve Pikiell UMBC - Randy Monroe Vermont - Mike Lonergan 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! America East Conference
Atlantic 10 Conference Charlotte - Bobby Lutz Dayton - Brian Gregory Duquesne - Ron Everhart Fordham - Dereck Whittenburg George Washington - Karl Hobbs La Salle - John Giannini Rhode Island - Jim Baron Richmond - Chris Mooney St. Bonaventure - Mark Schmidt Saint Joseph's - Phil Martelli Saint Louis - Rick Majerus Temple - Fran Dunphy UMass - Derek Kellogg Xavier - Sean Miller 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Atlantic 10 Conference
Atlantic Coast Conference Boston College - Al Skinner Clemson - Oliver Purnell Duke - Mike Krzyzewski Florida State - Leonard Hamilton Georgia Tech - Paul Hewitt Maryland - Gary Williams Miami (Florida) - Frank Haith North Carolina - Roy Williams North Carolina State - Sidney Lowe Virginia - Dave Leitao Virginia Tech - Seth Greenberg Wake Forest - Dino Gaudio 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Atlantic Coast Conference
Atlantic Sun Conference Belmont - Rick Byrd Campbell - Robbie Laing East Tennessee State - Murry Bartow Florida Gulf Coast - Dave Balza Jacksonville - Cliff Warren Kennesaw State - Tony Ingle Lipscomb - Scott Sanderson Mercer - Bob Hoffman North Florida - Matt Kilcullen Stetson - Derek Waugh USC Upstate - Eddie Payne 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Atlantic Sun Conference
Big 12 Conference Baylor - Scott Drew Colorado - Jeff Bzdelik Iowa State - Greg McDermott Kansas - Bill Self Kansas State - Frank Martin Missouri - Mike Anderson Nebraska - Doc Sadler Oklahoma - Jeff Capel III Oklahoma State - Travis Ford Texas - Rick Barnes Texas A&M - Mark Turgeon Texas Tech - Pat Knight 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Big 12 Conference
Big East Conference Cincinnati - Mick Cronin Connecticut - Jim Calhoun DePaul - Jerry Wainwright Georgetown - John Thompson III Louisville - Rick Pitino Marquette - Buzz Williams Notre Dame - Mike Brey Pittsburgh - Jamie Dixon Providence - Keno Davis Rutgers - Fred Hill St. John's - Norm Roberts Seton Hall - Bobby Gonzalez South Florida - Stan Heath Syracuse - Jim Boeheim Villanova - Jay Wright West Virginia - Bobby Huggins 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Big East Conference
Big Sky Conference Eastern Washington - Kirk Earlywine Idaho State - Joe O'Brien Montana - Wayne Tinkle Montana State - Brad Huse Northern Arizona - Mike Adras Northern Colorado - Tad Boyle Portland State - Ken Bone Sacramento State - Brian Katz Weber State - Randy Rahe 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Big Sky Conference
Big South Conference Charleston Southern - Barclay Radebaugh Coastal Carolina - Cliff Ellis Gardner-Webb - Rick Scruggs High Point - Bart Lundy Liberty - Ritchie McKay Presbyterian - Gregg Nibert Radford - Brad Greenberg UNC-Asheville - Eddie Biedenbach VMI - Duggar Baucom Winthrop - Randy Peele 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Big South Conference
Big Ten Conference Illinois - Bruce Weber Indiana - Tom Crean Iowa - Todd Lickliter Michigan - John Beilein Michigan State - Tom Izzo Minnesota - Tubby Smith Northwestern - Bill Carmody Ohio State - Thad Matta Penn State - Ed DeChellis Purdue - Matt Painter Wisconsin - Bo Ryan 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Big Ten Conference
Big West Conference Cal Poly - Kevin Bromley Cal State Fullerton - Bob Burton Cal State Northridge - Bobby Braswell Long Beach State - Dan Monson Pacific - Bob Thomason UC Davis - Gary Stewart UC Irvine - Pat Douglass UC Riverside - Jim Wooldridge UC Santa Barbara - Bob Williams 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Big West Conference
Colonial Athletic Association Delaware - Monte Ross Drexel - Bruiser Flint George Mason - Jim Larranaga Georgia State - Rod Barnes Hofstra - Tom Pecora James Madison - Matt Brady Northeastern - Bill Coen Old Dominion - Blaine Taylor Towson - Pat Kennedy UNC-Wilmington - Benny Moss Virginia Commonwealth - Anthony Grant William & Mary - Tony Shaver 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Colonial Athletic Association
Conference USA East Carolina - Mack McCarthy Houston - Tom Penders Marshall - Donnie Jones Memphis - John Calipari Rice - Ben Braun Southern Methodist - Matt Doherty Southern Mississippi - Larry Eustachy Tulane - Dave Dickerson Tulsa - Doug Wojcik UAB - Mike Davis UCF - Kirk Speraw UTEP - Tony Barbee 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Conference USA
Horizon League - Butler - Brad Stevens Cleveland State - Gary Waters Detroit - Ray McCallum Loyola (Chicago) - Jim Whitesell UIC - Jimmy Collins UW-Green Bay - Tod Kowalczyk UW-Milwaukee - Rob Jeter Valparaiso - Homer Drew Wright State - Brad Brownell Youngstown State - Jerry Slocum 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Horizon League
Independents Bryant - Tim O'Shea Cal State Bakersfield - Keith Brown Chicago State - Benjy Taylor Houston Baptist - Ron Cottrell Longwood - Mike Gillian New Jersey Institute of Technology - Jim Engles North Carolina Central - Henry Dickerson Savannah State - Horace Broadnax SIU-Edwardsville - Lennox Forrester Texas-Pan American - Tom Schuberth Utah Valley - Dick Hunsaker 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! NCAA Division I independent schools (basketball)
Ivy League Brown - Jesse Agel Columbia - Joe Jones Cornell - Steve Donahue Dartmouth - Terry Dunn Harvard - Tommy Amaker Penn - Glen Miller Princeton - Sydney Johnson Yale - James Jones 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Ivy League
Metro Atlantic Athletic Conference Canisius - Tom Parrotta Fairfield - Ed Cooley Iona - Kevin Willard Loyola (Maryland) - Jimmy Patsos Manhattan - Barry Rohrssen Marist - Chuck Martin Niagara - Joe Mihalich Rider - Tommy Dempsey St. Peter's - John Dunne Siena - Fran McCaffery 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Mid-American Conference
Mid-American Conference Akron – Keith Dambrot Ball State – Billy Taylor Bowling Green – Louis Orr Buffalo – Reggie Witherspoon Central Michigan – Ernie Ziegler Eastern Michigan – Charles Ramsey Kent State – Geno Ford Miami – Charlie Coles Northern Illinois – Ricardo Patton Ohio – John Groce Toledo – Gene Cross Western Michigan – Steve Hawkins 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Mid-American Conference
Mid-Eastern Athletic Conference Bethune-Cookman - Clifford Reed Coppin State - Ron Mitchell Delaware State - Greg Jackson Florida A&M - Mike Gillespie Hampton - Kevin Nickelberry Howard - Gil Jackson Maryland-Eastern Shore - Meredith Smith Morgan State - Todd Bozeman Norfolk State - Anthony Evans North Carolina A&T - Jerry Eaves South Carolina State - Tim Carter Winston-Salem State - Bobby Collins 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Mid-Eastern Athletic Conference
Missouri Valley Conference Bradley - Jim Les Creighton - Dana Altman Drake - Mark Phelps Evansville - Marty Simmons Illinois State - Tim Jankovich Indiana State - Kevin McKenna Missouri State - Cuonzo Martin Northern Iowa - Ben Jacobson Southern Illinois - Chris Lowery Wichita State - Gregg Marshall 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Missouri Valley Conference
Mountain West Conference Air Force - Jeff Reynolds Brigham Young - Dave Rose Colorado State - Tim Miles New Mexico - Steve Alford San Diego State - Steve Fisher Texas Christian - Neil Dougherty UNLV - Lon Kruger Utah - Jim Boylen Wyoming - Heath Schroyer 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Mountain West Conference
Northeast Conference Central Connecticut State - Howie Dickenman Fairleigh Dickinson - Tom Green LIU-Brooklyn - Jim Ferry Monmouth - Dave Calloway Mount St. Mary's - Milan Brown Quinnipiac - Tom Moore Robert Morris - Mike Rice Jr. Sacred Heart - Dave Bike St. Francis (PA) - Don Friday St. Francis (NY) - Brian Nash Wagner - Mike Deane 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Northeast Conference
Ohio Valley Conference Austin Peay - Dave Loos Eastern Illinois - Mike Miller Eastern Kentucky - Jeff Neubauer Jacksonville State - James Green Morehead State - Donnie Tyndall Murray State - Billy Kennedy Southeast Missouri - Zac Roman Tennessee-Martin - Bret Campbell Tennessee State - Cy Alexander Tennessee Tech - Mike Sutton 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Ohio Valley Conference
Pacific-10 Conference Arizona - Russ Pennell Arizona State - Herb Sendek California - Mike Montgomery Oregon - Ernie Kent Oregon State - Craig Robinson Stanford - Johnny Dawkins UCLA - Ben Howland USC - Tim Floyd Washington - Lorenzo Romar Washington State - Tony Bennett 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Pacific-10 Conference
Patriot League American - Jeff Jones Army - Jim Crews Bucknell - Dave Paulsen Colgate - Emmett Davis Holy Cross - Ralph Willard Lafayette - Fran O'Hanlon Lehigh - Brett Reed Navy - Billy Lange 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Patriot League
Southeastern Conference Alabama - Philip Pearson Arkansas - John Pelphrey Auburn - Jeff Lebo Florida - Billy Donovan Georgia - Pete Herrmann Kentucky - Billy Gillispie LSU - Trent Johnson Mississippi - Andy Kennedy Mississippi State - Rick Stansbury South Carolina - Darrin Horn Tennessee - Bruce Pearl Vanderbilt - Kevin Stallings 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Southeastern Conference
Southern Conference Appalachian State - Houston Fancher Chattanooga - John Shulman The Citadel - Ed Conroy College of Charleston - Bobby Cremins Davidson - Bob McKillop Elon - Ernie Nestor Furman - Jeff Jackson Georgia Southern - Jeff Price Samford - Jimmy Tillette UNC-Greensboro - Mike Dement Western Carolina - Larry Hunter Wofford - Mike Young 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Southern Conference
Southland Conference Central Arkansas - Rand Chappell Lamar - Steve Roccaforte McNeese State - Dave Simmons Nicholls State - J. P. Piper Northwestern State - Mike McConathy Sam Houston State - Bob Marlin Southeastern Louisiana - Jim Yarbrough Stephen F. Austin - Danny Kaspar Texas A&M-Corpus Christi - Perry Clark Texas-Arlington - Scott Cross Texas-San Antonio - Brooks Thompson Texas State - Doug Davalos 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Southland Conference
Southwestern Athletic Conference Alabama A&M - L. Vann Pettaway Alabama State - Lewis Jackson Alcorn State - Samuel West Arkansas-Pine Bluff - George Ivory Grambling State - Larry Wright Jackson State - Tevester Anderson Mississippi Valley State - Sean Woods Prairie View A&M - Byron Rimm II Southern - Rob Spivery Texas Southern - Tony Harvey 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Southwestern Athletic Conference
The Summit League Centenary - Greg Gary IPFW - Dane Fife IUPUI - Ron Hunter North Dakota State - Saul Phillips Oakland - Greg Kampe Oral Roberts - Scott Sutton South Dakota State - Scott Nagy Southern Utah - Roger Reid UMKC - Matt Brown Western Illinois - Derek Thomas 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! The Summit League
Sun Belt Conference Arkansas-Little Rock - Steve Shields Arkansas State - Dickey Nutt Denver - Joe Scott Florida Atlantic - Mike Jarvis Florida International - Sergio Rouco Louisiana-Lafayette - Robert Lee Louisiana-Monroe - Orlando Early Middle Tennessee - Kermit Davis New Orleans - Joe Pasternack North Texas - Johnny Jones South Alabama - Ronnie Arrow Troy - Don Maestri Western Kentucky - Ken McDonald 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Sun Belt Conference
West Coast Conference Gonzaga - Mark Few Loyola Marymount - Rodney Tention Pepperdine - Vance Walberg Portland - Eric Reveno Saint Mary's - Randy Bennett San Diego - Bill Grier San Francisco - Rex Walters Santa Clara - Kerry Keating 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! West Coast Conference
Western Athletic Conference Boise State - Greg Graham Fresno State - Steve Cleveland Hawai?i - Bob Nash Idaho - Don Verlin Louisiana Tech - Kerry Rupp Nevada - Mark Fox New Mexico State - Marvin Menzies San Jose State - George Nessman Utah State - Stew Morrill 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Western Athletic Conference
2Pac 50 Cent A Adam Tensta Akon Aaliyah Ashanti Andre 3000 B Bow Wow Bobby Valentino Beyonce Bone Thugs n Harmony Birdman (rapper) Busta Rhymes Bobby Fischer C Chris Brown Cherish Cassidy Chingy Chamillionaire Christina Milian Chrisette Michele Cashis Ciara Cypress Hill Calzone Mafia Cuban Link D Destiny's Child DJ Clue Demetri Montaque Danity Kane Day 26 Donnie D12 DJ Khaled Dr. Dre E E-40 Eminem Eazy-E F Fabolous Flo Rida Fat Joe Frankie J G G-Unit The Game H Hurricane Chris I Ice Cube J Jay-Z J.R. Rotem J Holiday Jordan Sparks K Kanye West Kelly Rowland keri hilson The Kreators L Lil' Kim Lil' Mo Lil Jon Lil Mama Lloyd Banks Lil Wayne Ludacris Lloyd Lil Mama Lil Eazy-E Leona lewis M MC Hammer Mike Shorey MF Doom Mariah Carey Mario Mary J. Blige N Ne-Yo Nate Dogg Niia N.W.A. Notorious B.I.G. Nas Nick Cannon Nelly Necro O Olivia Omarion Obie Trice Old Dirty Bastard P Public Enemy Plies P Diddy pink Pharcyde Q R Red Cafe Run DMC Ray J R Kelly Rihanna Rick Ross (rapper) S Sean Combs Sean Kingston Snoop Dogg Stargate Sean Garrett Suge Knight Soulja Boy Tell 'Em Stat Quo shakira T The Notorious B.I.G. Tupac Shakur Trina Tyrese T-Pain Three 6 Mafia T.I. Too Phat U Usher V V.I.C. W Warren G Wyclef Jean Wu Tang Clan will.i.am X Xzibit Y Young Jeezy Yung Berg Z
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Annie Lennox B'z Britney Spears Carlos Santana Dalida Earth, Wind & Fire Eddy Arnold Eminem Eurythmics Gloria Estefan Hibari Misora Journey Scorpions Van Halen Ace of Base Alan Jackson Country Alice Cooper Hard rock Andrea Bocelli Opera The Andrews Sisters Swing Ayumi Hamasaki Pop Black Sabbath Heavy metal Barbra Streisand Pop / Adult contemporary Beach Boys Rock Pop Bob Dylan Folk / Rock Bob Seger Rock Boston Arena rock Boyz II Men R&B Bruce Springsteen Rock Bryan Adams Def Leppard Destiny's Child R&B / Pop Dreams Come True Pop / Jazz Duran Duran Enya Ireland Four Tops George Strait Glay Iron Maiden Jay-Z Hip hop Jean Michel Jarre Jethro Tull Johnny Cash Kazuhiro Moriuchi Kiss Hard rock Kenny G Kylie Minogue Luis Miguel Linkin Park Meat Loaf Michael Bolton Mills Brothers Mötley Crüe Mr.Children Nat King Cole New Kids on the Block Nirvana 'N Sync Oasis Orhan Gencebay Pearl Jam Petula Clark Red Hot Chili Peppers The Police Ray Conniff Reba McEntire R.E.M. Richard Clayderman Ricky Martin Robbie Williams Roxette Sweden Shakira Colombia
The Seekers Australia Spice Girls Tom Petty & The Heartbreakers Tony Bennett T.Rex UB40 Vicente Fernandez Village People Willie Nelson
Jamaal Al-Din, a native of Grand Rapids, Michigan and former leading scorer of Olympic Basketball and LSU great, Ed Palubinskas brings to you Michigan State University's and the NBA's Earvin "Magic" Johnson at 227's YouTube "MAGIC!" provided by Jamaal Al-Din's Hoops 227-the everything basketball website, featuring YouTube Videos and Wikipedia information on the legendary Earvin "Magic" Johnson, The Magic Johnson Foundation, Magic Johnson Enterprises, and everything including the magical phrase..."MAGIC!" 227's YouTube "MAGIC!"
As we look to expand basketball marketing, camps and clinics nationally, our basketball affiliate programs are scheduled to begin in March of 2008. Our affiliates, exciting, take a look at this list: ebay, StubHub.com, Yahoo Affiliate Program!, TickCo Premium Seating, RazorGator Affiliate Program, SightSell, VistaPrint.com, Pokeorder and WeHaveSeats.com. Jamaal Al-Din's Hoops 227 welcomes our affiliate partners for 2008. Among the items offered our NCAA & NBA basketball tickets both premium and discounted rates. Basketball shoes and apparel for kids, fans, players and coaches ranging from Air Jordans, LeBron James, NIKE, Adidas, AND1, hats, collectibles and memoralbilia! Jamaal Al-Din's Hoops 227- The everything basketball website!
?227's YouTube "Chili" features these exciting YouTube music and entertainment celebrities...click onto to these 227 YouTube "Chili" links, channels and articles for the most watched YouTube hip-hop music videos in the world!
Sean Kingston, Justin Timberlake, M.I.A'"Paper Planes!" , Timbaland, 50 Cent, P-Diddy, Kanye West. Rihanna, Chris Brown, T.I.-"Big Things Poppin!" , Rihanna- Hate That I Love You (over 29 million views on YouTube)!, Leona Lewis, Soulja Boy, Britney Spears, Alicia Keys, Avril Lavigne, Alicia Keys- No One, Akon, NE-YO, LL Cool J, Dr. Dre, Snoop Dogg, Dmx, Jay-z, The Notorious B.I.G, 2PAC, Will Smith, Jonas Brothers, Pink "So What!" , Jordin Sparks feta. Chris Brown- "No Air" Official Music Video-over 33 million views on YouTube!), Lil Jon- get low music movie, Ludacris, Ice Cube, Flo Rida feat. T.Pain Music from the Movie Step Up 2 "Low," Chris Brown*Chris Brown feat. T.Pain- Kiss Kiss (over 51 million views on YouTube)!, Chris Brown-"With You," Chris Brown feat. Lil' Wayne (over 56 million views on YouTube!, Chris Brown "YO," Chris Brown-Run It, Chris Brown- Forever, Wu Tang Clan, The Fugees, Jordin Sparks-Tattoo, Rhianna- Cry, Rihanna- unfaithful, Rhianna- Umbrella (over 43 million views on YouTube/You Tube)!, Ashanti, Fergie Fergalicious, Fergie- Clumsy!, Rhianna- Dont' Stop The Music (over 62 million views on YouTube), Avril Lavign- Girlfriend (over 92 million views on YouTube)!, Clay Aiken, Akon, Christina Aguilera-Hurt, Clay Aiken-On My Way Here, All-American Rejects, All-American Rejects-Move Along, All-American Rejects-It Ends Tonight, Ashley Parker Angel, Michael Jackson ("Thriller"), Backstreet Boys, Augustana, Natasha Bedingfeild, Michael Jackson, Natasha Bedingfield feat. Sean Kingston-Love Like This, Natasha Bedingfield-Pocketful of Sunshine and lots more at 227's YouTube Chili!!! Your source for the world's most watched YouTube Music Videos at Jamaal Al-Din's Hoops 227- the everything basketball website!
Also: Jesse McCartney, Ray J,Usher,Elliott Yamin,Jonas Brothers,Fergie,Taylor Swift, Nelly Furtado, Jennifer Lopez, Flyleaf,Maroon 5,Kanye West,Keyshia Cole, The Pussycat Dolls,Colby O'Donis,Ashanti,R. Kelly,Girlicious, Colbi Calliat, Boy George,Mario,Three Days Grace,Beyonce', Gorillaz,Carrie Underwood,3 Doors Down,Finger Eleven, Ginuwine,Baby Bash,Kid Rock,Joe, Gwen Steffani, Billy Ray Cyrus, Danity Kane, Janel Parrish, Ciara, NLT, Fall Out Boy, Josh Turner, Fantasia and more!