227's "The Chili' Game!" Boise State vs. Michigan State | September 17, 2022 | Albertsons Stadium, Boise, ID | Chili' ESPN College Football!
227's JAMAAL Chili' AL-DIN, native of GRAND RAPIDS, MICHIGAN tributes the legendary
MICHIGAN STATE Chili' SPARTANS Alumni & Spicy' NBA Chili' GREAT - EARVIN "MAGIC" Chili' JOHNSON! MICHIGAN STATE Chili' SPARTANS - ROSE BOWL CHAMPIONS 2014!
227's GRAND RAPIDS, MICHIGAN native JAMAAL Chili' AL-DIN salutes FLOYD 'MONEY' Chili' MAYWEATHER, Jr., MICHIGAN FAB 5, ESPN's JALEN Chili' ROSE, CHRIS Chili' WEBBER
& MICHIGAN Chili' WOLVERINES Alumni!
227's BIG TEN CONFERENCE
Jamaal Al-Din's Hoops 227 (227's YouTube "Chili"), in Boise, Idaho
- Home of the 2007 & 2010 Tostitos Fiesta Bowl Champions - Boise State Chili' Broncos!
227's YouTube Chili' "KAREEM!" The Spicy' NBA's All-Time Leading Scorer! 38,387 Points!
227's YouTube Chili' "JORDAN!"
227's YouTube Chili' "KOBE!"
227's YouTube Chili' "LEBRON!"
Black Sabbath From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search This article is about the band. For other uses, see Black Sabbath (disambiguation). Black Sabbath Black Sabbath onstage in 1999 Background information Origin Birmingham, England Genre(s) Heavy metal Years active 1968–present Label(s) Vertigo, Warner Bros, Sanctuary, IRS, Reprise, Epic Associated acts Heaven and Hell, GZR, Dio Website Official website Members Ozzy Osbourne Tony Iommi Geezer Butler Bill Ward Former members See: List of Black Sabbath band members Black Sabbath are an English rock band, formed in Birmingham in 1968 by Ozzy Osbourne (lead vocals), Tony Iommi (guitar), Geezer Butler (bass), and Bill Ward (drums and percussion). The band has since experienced multiple lineup changes, with a total of twenty-two former members. Originally formed as a heavy blues-rock band named Earth, the band began incorporating occult- and horror-inspired lyrics with tuned-down guitars, changing their name to Black Sabbath and releasing multiple gold and platinum records in the 1970s. They have sold over fifteen million records in the United States alone. As one of the first and most influential heavy metal bands of all time, Black Sabbath helped define the genre with releases such as 1970's quadruple-platinum Paranoid. They were ranked by MTV as the Greatest Metal Band of all time. Ozzy Osbourne was fired from the band in 1979, and while initially replaced by former Rainbow vocalist Ronnie James Dio, Black Sabbath would see a revolving lineup in the 1980s and 1990s that included vocalists Ian Gillan, Glenn Hughes, Ray Gillen and Tony Martin. The original lineup reunited with Osbourne in 1997 and released a live album, Reunion, which spawned the Grammy Award-winning single "Iron Man" in 2000, thirty years after the song's initial release on the album Paranoid. The early 1980s line-up featuring Iommi, Butler, Dio, and Vinny Appice reformed in 2006 under the moniker Heaven and Hell, a title taken from the 1980 Black Sabbath song and album of the same name. In February 2009, Heaven and Hell announced that they are recording a new album, The Devil You Know, with a release date of April 28, 2009. Contents [hide] 1 History 1.1 Formation and early days (1968–1969) 1.2 Black Sabbath and Paranoid (1970–1971) 1.3 Master of Reality and Volume 4 (1971–1973) 1.4 Sabbath, Bloody Sabbath and Sabotage (1973–1976) 1.5 Technical Ecstasy and Never Say Die! (1976–1979) 1.6 Heaven and Hell and Mob Rules (1979–1982) 1.7 Born Again (1983–1984) 1.8 Hiatus (1984-1985) 1.9 Seventh Star (1985-1986) 1.10 The Eternal Idol, Headless Cross, and Tyr (1986–1990) 1.11 Dehumanizer (1990–1993) 1.12 Cross Purposes and Forbidden (1993–1996) 1.13 Reunion (1997–present) 1.14 The Dio Years and Heaven and Hell 2 Musical style 3 Legacy 3.1 Influence 4 Members 5 Discography 6 See also 7 References 8 Notes 9 External links  History  Formation and early days (1968–1969) Following the breakup of their previous band Mythology in 1968, guitarist Tony Iommi and drummer Bill Ward sought to form a heavy blues band in Aston, Birmingham. The group enlisted bassist Geezer Butler and vocalist Ozzy Osbourne, who had played together in a band called Rare Breed, Osbourne having placed an advertisement in a local music shop: "Ozzy Zig requires gig- has own PA". The new group was initially named The Polka Tulk Blues Company, after an Indian clothes emporium, and also featured slide guitarist Jimmy Phillips and saxophonist Alan "Aker" Clarke. After shortening the name to Polka Tulk, the band changed their name to Earth, and continued as a four-piece without Phillips and Clarke. Earth played club shows in England, Denmark, and Germany; their set-list consisted of cover songs by Jimi Hendrix, Blue Cheer, and Cream, as well as lengthy improvised blues jams. In December 1968, Iommi abruptly left Earth to join Jethro Tull. Although his stint with the band would be short-lived, Iommi made an appearance with Jethro Tull on the The Rolling Stones Rock and Roll Circus TV show. Unsatisfied with the direction of Jethro Tull, Iommi returned to Earth in January 1969. "It just wasn't right, so I left", Iommi said. "At first I thought Tull were great, but I didn't much go for having a leader in the band, which was Ian Anderson's way. When I came back from Tull, I came back with a new attitude altogether. They taught me that to get on you got to work for it." While playing shows in England in 1969, the band discovered they were being mistaken for another English group named Earth, and decided to change their name again. A movie theatre across the street from the
band's rehearsal room was showing the 1963 Boris Karloff horror film Black Sabbath. While watching people line up to see the film, Butler noted that it was "strange that people spend so much money to see scary movies". Butler wrote a song called "Black Sabbath" after reading a book by occult writer Dennis Wheatley, and seeing a black-hooded figure standing at the foot of his bed. Making use of the musical tritone, also known as "The Devil's Interval", the song's ominous sound and dark lyrics pushed the band in a darker direction, a stark contrast to the popular music of the late 1960s, which was dominated by flower power, folk music, and hippie culture. Inspired by the new sound, the band changed their name to Black Sabbath in August 1969, and made the decision to focus on writing similar material, in an attempt to create the musical equivalent of horror films.  Black Sabbath and Paranoid (1970–1971) Black Sabbath were signed to Philips Records in December 1969, and released their first single, "Evil Woman" through Philips subsidiary Fontana Records in January 1970. Later releases were handled by Philips' newly formed progressive rock label, Vertigo Records. Although the single failed to chart, the band were afforded two days of studio time in late January to record their debut album with producer Rodger Bain. Iommi recalls recording live: "We thought 'We have two days to do it and one of the days is mixing.' So we played live. Ozzy was singing at the same time, we just put him in a separate booth and off we went. We never had a second run of most of the stuff." The eponymous Black Sabbath was released on Friday the 13th, February 1970. The album reached number 8 in the UK, and following its US release in May 1970 by Warner Bros. Records, the album reached number 23 on the Billboard 200, where it remained for over a year, selling a million copies. While the album was a commercial success, it was widely panned by critics, with Lester Bangs of Rolling Stone dismissing the album as "discordant jams with bass and guitar reeling like velocitised speedfreaks all over each other's musical perimeters, yet never quite finding synch". It has since been certified Platinum in the US and Gold in Canada. To capitalise on their chart success in the US, the band quickly returned to the studio in June 1970, just four months after Black Sabbath was released. The new album was initially set to be named War Pigs after the song "War Pigs", which was critical of the Vietnam War. However Warner changed the title of the album to Paranoid, fearing backlash by supporters of the Vietnam War. The album's lead-off single "Paranoid" was written in the studio at the last minute. As Bill Ward explains: "We didn't have enough songs for the album, and Tony just played the (Paranoid) guitar lick and that was it. It took twenty, twenty-five minutes from top to bottom." The single was released ahead of the album in September 1970 and reached number four on the UK charts, remaining Black Sabbath's only top ten hit. Black Sabbath released their second full-length album, Paranoid in the UK in October 1970. Pushed by the success of the "Paranoid" single, the album hit number one in the UK. The US release was held until January 1971, as the Black Sabbath album was still on the charts at the time of Paranoid's UK release. The album broke into the top ten in the US in March 1971, and would go on to sell four million copies in the US, with virtually no radio airplay. The album was again panned by rock critics of the era, but modern-day reviewers such as AllMusic's Steve Huey cite Paranoid as "one of the greatest and most influential heavy metal albums of all time", which "defined the sound and style of heavy metal more than any other record in rock history". Paranoid's chart success allowed the band to tour the US for the first time in December 1970, which spawned the release of the album's second single "Iron Man". Although the single failed to reach the top 40, "Iron Man" remains one of Black Sabbath's most popular songs, as well as the bands highest charting US single until 1998's "Psycho Man".  Master of Reality and Volume 4 (1971–1973) In February 1971, Black Sabbath returned to the studio to begin work on their third album. Following the chart success of Paranoid, the band were afforded more studio time, along with a "briefcase full of cash" to buy drugs. "We were getting into coke, bigtime", Ward explained. "Uppers, downers, Quaaludes, whatever you like. It got to the stage where you come up with ideas and forget them, because you were just so out of it." Production completed in April 1971, and in July the band released Master of Reality, just six months after the release of Paranoid. The album reached the top ten in both the US and UK, and was certified gold in less than two months, eventually receiving platinum certification in the 1980s and Double Platinum in the early 21st century. Master of Reality contained Black Sabbath's first acoustic songs, alongside fan favourites such as "Children of the Grave" and "Sweet Leaf". Critical response of the era was again unfavourable, with Lester Bangs of Rolling Stone dismissing Master of Reality as "naïve, simplistic, repetitive, absolute doggerel", although the very same magazine would later place the album at number 298 on their 500 Greatest Albums of All Time list, compiled in 2003. Following the Master of Reality world tour in 1972, Black Sabbath took its first break in three years. As Bill Ward explained: "The band started to become very fatigued and very tired. We'd been on the road non-stop, year in and year out, constantly touring and recording. I think Master of Reality was kind of like the end of an era, the first three albums, and we decided to take our time with the next album." In June 1972, the band reconvened in Los Angeles to begin work on their next album at the Record Plant. The recording process was plagued with problems, many as a result of substance abuse issues. While struggling to record the song "Cornucopia" after "sitting in the middle of the room, just doing drugs", Bill Ward was nearly fired from the band. "I hated the song, there were some patterns that were just... horrible" Ward said. "I nailed it in the end, but the reaction I got was the cold shoulder from everybody. It was like 'Well, just go home, you're not being of any use right now.' I felt like I'd blown it, I was about to get fired". The album was originally titled "Snowblind" after the song of the same name, which deals with cocaine abuse. The record company changed the title at the last minute to Black Sabbath, Vol 4, with Ward stating "There was no Volume 1, 2 or 3, so it's a pretty stupid title really". Black Sabbath's Volume 4 was released in September 1972, and while critics of the era were again dismissive of the album, it achieved gold status in less than a month, and was the band's fourth consecutive release to sell a million copies in the US. With more time in the studio, Volume 4 saw the band starting to experiment with new textures, such as strings, piano, orchestration and multi-part songs. The song "Tomorrow's Dream" was released as a single - the band's first since Paranoid - but failed to chart. Following an extensive tour of the US, the band travelled to Australia for the first time in 1973, and later mainland Europe. Black Sabbath also appeared on England's Top of the Pops in 1973, sharing the stage with such diverse acts as Engelbert Humperdinck and Diana Ross.  Sabbath, Bloody Sabbath and Sabotage (1973–1976) Following the Volume 4 world tour, Black Sabbath returned to Los Angeles to begin work on their next release. Pleased with the Volume 4 album, the band sought to recreate the recording atmosphere, and returned to the Record Plant studio in Los Angeles. With new musical innovations of the era, the band were surprised to find that the room they had used previously at the Record Plant was replaced by a "giant synthesiser". The band rented a house in Bel Air and began writing in the summer of 1973, but in part because of substance issues and fatigue, they were unable to complete any songs. "Ideas weren't coming out the way they were on Volume 4 and we really got discontent" Iommi said. "Everybody was sitting there waiting for me to come up with something. I just couldn't think of anything. And if I didn't come up with anything, nobody would do anything." Tony Iommi and Ozzy Osbourne on stage at the California Jam festival on 6 April 1974. Portions of the show were telecast on ABC in the US, exposing the band to a new audience.After a month in Los Angeles with no results, the band opted to return to England, where they rented Clearwell Castle in The Forest of Dean. "We rehearsed in the dungeons and it was really creepy but it had some atmosphere, it conjured up things, and stuff started coming out again". While working in the dungeon, Iommi stumbled onto the main riff of "Sabbath Bloody Sabbath", which set the tone for the new material. Recorded at Morgan Studios in London by Mike Butcher and building off the stylistic changes introduced on Volume 4, new songs incorporated synthesisers, strings, and complex arrangements. Yes keyboardist Rick Wakeman was brought in as a session player, appearing on "Sabbra Cadabra" . In November 1973, Black Sabbath released the critically acclaimed Sabbath, Bloody Sabbath. For the first time in their career, the band began to receive favourable reviews in the mainstream press, with Gordon Fletcher of Rolling Stone calling the album "an extraordinarily gripping affair", and "nothing less than a complete success". Later reviewers such as AllMusic's Ed Rivadavia cite the album as a "masterpiece, essential to any heavy metal collection," while also displaying "a newfound sense of finesse and maturity". The album marked the band's fifth consecutive platinum selling album in the US, reaching number four on the UK charts, and number eleven in the US. The band began a world tour in January 1974, which culminated at the California Jam festival in Ontario, California on 6 April 1974. Attracting over 200,000 fans, Black Sabbath appeared alongside such 70's pop giants as Emerson, Lake & Palmer, Deep Purple, Earth, Wind & Fire, Seals & Crofts, and The Eagles. Portions of the show were telecast on ABC Television in the US, exposing the band to a wider American audience. In 1974, the band shifted management, signing with notorious English manager Don Arden. The move caused a contractual dispute with Black Sabbath's former management, and while on stage in the US, Osbourne was handed a subpoena that led to two years of litigation. Black Sabbath began work on their sixth album in February 1975, again in England at Morgan Studios in Willesden, this time with a decisive vision to differ the sound from Sabbath, Bloody Sabbath. "We could've continued and gone on and on, getting more technical, using orchestras and everything else which we didn't particularly want to. We took a look at ourselves, and we wanted to do a rock album - Sabbath, Bloody Sabbath wasn't a rock album, really." Produced by Black Sabbath and Mike Butcher, Sabotage was released in July 1975. Again the album initially saw favourable reviews, with Rolling Stone stating "Sabotage is not only Black Sabbath's best record since Paranoid, it might be their best ever", although later reviewers such as Allmusic noted that "the magical chemistry that made such albums as Paranoid and Volume 4 so special was beginning to disintegrate". Sabotage reached the top 20 in both the US and the UK, but was the band's first release not to achieve Platinum status in the US, having only achieving Gold certification. Although the album's only single "Am I Going Insane (Radio)" failed to chart, Sabotage features fan favourites such as "Hole in the Sky", and "Symptom of the Universe". Black Sabbath toured in support of Sabotage with openers Kiss, but were forced to cut the tour short in November 1975, following a motorcycle accident in which Osbourne ruptured a muscle in his back. In December 1975, the band's record companies released a greatest hits record without input from the band, titled We Sold Our Soul for Rock 'n' Roll. The album charted throughout 1976, eventually selling two million copies in the US.  Technical Ecstasy and Never Say Die! (1976–1979) Black Sabbath began work for their next album at Criteria Studios in Miami, Florida, in June 1976. To expand their sound, the band added keyboard player Gerry Woodruffe, who also appeared to a lesser extent on Sabotage. Technical Ecstasy, released on 25 September 1976, was met with mixed reviews. For the first time the reviews did not become more favorable as time passed, two decades after its release AllMusic gave the album two stars, and noted that the band was "unravelling at an alarming rate". The album featured less of the doomy, ominous sound of previous efforts, and incorporated more synthesisers and uptempo rock songs. Technical Ecstasy failed to reach the top 50 in the US, and was the band's second consecutive release not to achieve platinum status, although it was later certified gold in 1997. The album included "Dirty Women", which remains a live staple, as well as Bill Ward's first lead vocal on the song "It's Alright". Touring in support of Technical Ecstasy began in November 1976, with openers Boston and Ted Nugent in the US, and completed in Europe with AC/DC in April 1977. In November 1977, while in rehearsal for their next album, and just days before the band was set to enter the studio, Ozzy Osbourne quit the band. "The last Sabbath albums were just very depressing for me", Osbourne said. "I was doing it for the sake of what we could get out of the record company, just to get fat on beer and put a record out." Former Fleetwood Mac and Savoy Brown vocalist Dave Walker was brought into rehearsals in October 1977 and the band began working on new songs. On 8 January 1978, Black Sabbath made their first and only appearance with Walker on vocals, playing an early version of the song "Junior's Eyes" on the BBC Television program "Look! Hear!". Tony Iommi in 2005.Osbourne initially set out to form a solo project, which featured ex-Dirty Tricks members John Frazer-Binnie, Terry Horbury, and Andy Bierne. As the new band were in rehearsals in January 1978, Osbourne had a change of heart and rejoined Black Sabbath. "Three days before we were due to go into the studio, Ozzy wanted to come back to the band," Iommi explained. "He wouldn't sing any of the stuff we'd written with the other guy, so it made it very difficult. We went into the studio with basically no songs. We'd write in the morning so we could rehearse and record at night. It was so difficult, like a conveyor belt, because you couldn't get time to reflect on stuff. 'Is this right? Is this working properly?' It was very difficult for me to come up with the ideas and putting them together that quick." The band spent five months at Sounds Interchange Studios in Toronto, Canada, writing and recording what would become Never Say Die!. "It took quite a long time," Iommi said. "We were getting really drugged out, doing a lot of dope. We'd go down to the sessions, and have to pack up because we were too stoned, we'd have to stop. Nobody could get anything right, we were all over the place, everybody's playing a different thing. We'd go back and sleep it off, and try again the next day." The album was released in September 1978, reaching number twelve in the UK, and number 69 in the US. Press response was again unfavourable and again did not improve over time with Ed Rivadavia of AllMusic stating two decades after its release that the album's "unfocused songs perfectly reflected the band's tense personnel problems and drug abuse." The album featured the singles "Never Say Die" and "Hard Road", both of which cracked the top 40 in the UK, and the band made their second appearance on the Top of the Pops, performing "Never Say Die". It took nearly 20 years for the album to be certified Gold in the US. Touring in support of Never Say Die! began in May 1978 with openers Van Halen. Reviewers called Black Sabbath's performance "tired and uninspired", a stark contrast to the "youthful" performance of Van Halen, who were touring the world for the first time. The band filmed a performance at the Hammersmith Odeon in June 1978, which was later released on DVD as Never Say Die. The final show of the tour, and Osbourne's last appearance with the band (until later reunions) was in Albuquerque, New Mexico on 11 December. Following the tour, Black Sabbath returned to Los Angeles and again rented a house in Bel Air, where they spent nearly a year working on material for the next album. With pressure from the record label, and frustrations with Osbourne's lack of ideas coming to a head, Tony made the decision to fire Ozzy Osbourne in 1979. "At that time, Ozzy had come to an end", Iommi said. "We were all doing a lot of drugs, a lot of coke, a lot of everything, and Ozzy was getting drunk so much at the time. We were supposed to be rehearsing and nothing was happening. It was like 'Rehearse today? No, we'll do it tomorrow.' It really got so bad that we didn't do anything. It just fizzled out." Drummer Bill Ward, who was close with Osbourne, was chosen by Tony to break the news to the singer. "I hope I was professional, I might not have been, actually. When I'm drunk I am horrible, I am horrid," Ward said. "Alcohol was definitely one of the most damaging things to Black Sabbath. We were destined to destroy each other. The band were toxic, very toxic."  Heaven and Hell and Mob Rules (1979–1982) Sharon Arden, (later Sharon Osbourne) daughter of Black Sabbath manager Don Arden, suggested former Rainbow vocalist Ronnie James Dio to replace Ozzy Osbourne in 1979. Dio officially joined in June, and the band began writing their next album. With a notably different vocal style from Osbourne's, Dio's addition to the band marked a change in Black Sabbath's sound. "They were totally different altogether", Iommi explains. "Not only voice-wise, but attitude-wise. Ozzy was a great showman, but when Dio came in, it was a different attitude, a different voice and a different musical approach, as far as vocals. Dio would sing across the riff, whereas Ozzy would follow the riff, like in "Iron Man". Ronnie came in and gave us another angle on writing." Geezer Butler temporarily left the band in September 1979, and was initially replaced by Geoff Nicholls of Quartz on bass. The new lineup returned to Criteria Studios in November to begin recording work, with Butler returning to the band in January 1980, and Nicholls moving to keyboards. Produced by Martin Birch, Heaven and Hell, was released on 25 April 1980, to critical acclaim. Over a decade after its release AllMusic said the album was "one of Sabbath's finest records, the band sounds reborn and re-energised throughout". Heaven and Hell peaked at number 9 in the UK, and number 28 in the US, the band's highest charting album since Sabotage. The album would eventually sell a million copies in the US, and the band embarked on an extensive world tour, making their first live appearance with Dio in Germany on 17 April 1980. "Heaven and Hell" The opening verse of "Heaven and Hell" -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- "The Mob Rules" The opening riff and verse of "The Mob Rules" -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Problems listening to these files? See media help. Black Sabbath toured the US throughout 1980 with Blue Öyster Cult on the "Black and Blue" tour, with a show at Nassau Coliseum in Uniondale, New York filmed and released theatrically in 1981 as Black and Blue. On 26 July 1980, the band played at a sold out Memorial Coliseum in Los Angeles with Journey, Cheap Trick, and Molly Hatchet to 100,000 fans. The next day, the band appeared at the 1980 Day on the Green at Oakland Coliseum. While on tour, Black Sabbath's former label in England issued a live album culled from a seven-year old performance, entitled Live at Last without any input from the band. The album reached number five on the British charts, and saw the re-release of "Paranoid" as a single, which reached the top 20. Vocalist Ronnie James DioOn 18 August 1980, after a show in Minneapolis, Minnesota, Bill Ward was fired from Black Sabbath. "I was sinking very quickly", Ward later said. "I was an unbelievable drunk, I was drunk twenty-four hours a day. When I went on stage, the stage wasn't so bright. It felt like I was dying inside. The live show seemed so bare, Ron was out there doing his thing and I just went 'It's gone'. I like Ronnie, but musically, he just wasn't for me." Concerned with Ward's declining health, Iommi brought in drummer Vinny Appice, without informing Ward. "They didn't talk to me, they booted me from my chair and I wasn't told about that. I knew they'd have to bring in a drummer to save the (tour), but I'd been with the band for years and years, since we were kids. And then Vinny was playing and it was like 'What the fuck?' It hurt a lot." The band completed the Heaven and Hell world tour in February 1981, and returned to the studio to begin work on their next album. Again produced by Martin Birch, and recorded at John Lennon's old house in Ascot, England, Black Sabbath's second album with Dio, Mob Rules was well received by fans, but less so by the critics.Rolling Stones J.D. Considine gave the album one star, claiming "Mob Rules finds the band as dull-witted and flatulent as ever". Like most of the band's earlier work, time helped to improve the opinions of the music press, a decade after its release, AllMusic's Ed Rivadavia called Mob Rules "a magnificent record". The album was certified gold, and reached the top 20 on the UK charts. The album's title track "The Mob Rules" was also featured in the 1981 animated film Heavy Metal, although the film version is an alternate take, and differs from the album version. The chart success of the unauthorised live album Live at Last prompted the band to record their first official live album titled Live Evil on the Mob Rules world tour, in Dallas, Texas, San Antonio, Texas, and Seattle, Washington, in May, 1982. During the mixing process for the album, Iommi and Butler had a falling out with Dio. Iommi and Butler accused Dio of sneaking into the studio at night to raise the volume of his vocals. In addition, Dio was not satisfied with the pictures of him in the artwork. "Ronnie wanted more say in things," Iommi said. "And Geezer would get upset with him and that is where the rot set in. Live Evil is when it all fell apart. Ronnie wanted to do more of his own thing, and the engineer we were using at the time in the studio didn't know what to do, because Ronnie was telling him one thing and we were telling him another. At the end of the day, we just said, 'That's it, the band is over'". "When it comes time for the vocal, nobody tells me what to do. Nobody! Because they're not as good as me, so I do what I want to do," Dio later said. "I refuse to listen to Live Evil, because there are too many problems. If you look at the credits, the vocals and drums are listed off to the side. Open up the album and see how many pictures there are of Tony, and how many there are of me and Vinny". Ronnie James Dio left Black Sabbath in November 1982 to start his own band, and took drummer Vinny Appice with him. Live Evil was released in January 1983, but was overshadowed by Ozzy Osbourne's Speak of the Devil, a platinum selling live album that contained only Black Sabbath songs, released five months earlier.  Born Again (1983–1984) Left with just two original members, Tony Iommi and Geezer Butler began auditioning new singers for the band's next release. After failed attempts with the likes of Whitesnake's David Coverdale, Samson's Nicky Moore, and Lone Star's John Sloman, the band settled on former Deep Purple vocalist Ian Gillan to replace Ronnie James Dio in 1983. While the project was not initially set to be called Black Sabbath, pressures from the record label forced the group to retain the name. The band entered The Manor Studios in Shipton-on-Cherwell, Oxfordshire, England, in June 1983 with a returned and newly sober Bill Ward on drums. Born Again was met with mixed reviews from fans and critics alike. The album reached number four on the UK charts, and number 39 in the US. However, even a decade after its release AllMusic's Ed Rivadavia called the album "dreadful", noting that "Gillan's bluesy style and humorous lyrics were completely incompatible with the lords of doom and gloom". Although he performed on the album, drummer Bill Ward was unable to tour because of the pressures of the road, and quit the band in 1984. "I fell apart with the idea of touring," Ward later said. "I got so much fear behind touring, I didn’t talk about the fear, I drank behind the fear instead and that was a big mistake." Ward was replaced by former Electric Light Orchestra drummer Bev Bevan for the Born Again world tour, which began in Europe with Diamond Head, and later in the US with Quiet Riot and Night Ranger. The band headlined the 1983 Reading Festival, adding the Deep Purple song "Smoke on the Water" to their set list. The tour in support of Born Again included a giant set of the Stonehenge monument. In a move that would be later parodied in the mockumentary This is Spinal Tap, the band made a mistake in ordering the set piece. As Geezer Butler later explained: “ We had Sharon Osbourne's dad, Don Arden, managing us. He came up with the idea of having the stage set be Stonehenge. He wrote the dimensions down and gave it to our tour manager. He wrote it down in meters but he meant to write it down in feet. The people who made it saw fifteen meters instead of fifteen feet. It was 45 feet high and it wouldn't fit on any stage anywhere so we just had to leave it in the storage area. It cost a fortune to make but there was not a building on earth that you could fit it into. ”  Hiatus (1984-1985) Following the completion of the Born Again tour in March 1984, vocalist Ian Gillan left Black Sabbath to re-join Deep Purple. The band enlisted Los Angeles vocalist David Donato. The new lineup wrote and rehearsed throughout 1984, and eventually recorded a demo with producer Bob Ezrin in October. Unhappy with the results, the band parted ways with Donato shortly after. Disillusioned with the band's revolving lineup, bassist Geezer Butler quit Black Sabbath in November 1984 to form a solo band. "When Ian Gillan took over that was the end of it for me", Butler later said. "I thought it was just a joke and I just totally left. When we got together with Gillan it was not supposed to be a Black Sabbath album. After we had done the album we gave it to Warner Bros. and they said they were going to put it out as a Black Sabbath album and we didn’t have a leg to stand on. I got really disillusioned with it and Gillan was really pissed off about it. That lasted one album and one tour and then that was it." Following Butler's exit, sole remaining original member Tony Iommi put Black Sabbath on hiatus, and began work on a solo album with keyboardist Geoff Nicholls. While working on new material, the original Black Sabbath lineup were offered a spot at Bob Geldof's Live Aid benefit concert on 13 July 1985. The band agreed, performing a three song set at the Philadelphia show. The event marked the first time the original lineup appeared on stage since 1978, and also featured reunions of The Who, Led Zeppelin and Neil Young with Crosby, Stills, and Nash. Although there were rumours of a full Black Sabbath reunion following Live Aid, Ozzy Osbourne was enjoying success as a solo artist, having released three top 20 albums, and selling nearly ten million albums since his firing from Black Sabbath.  Seventh Star (1985-1986) Returning to his solo work, Iommi enlisted bassist Dave Spitz and drummer Eric Singer, and initially intended to use multiple singers, including Rob Halford of Judas Priest, ex-Deep Purple and Trapeze vocalist Glenn Hughes, and ex-Black Sabbath vocalist Ronnie James Dio. "We were going to use different vocalists on the album, guest vocalists, but it was so difficult getting it together and getting releases from their record companies. Glenn Hughes came along to sing on one track and we decided to use him on the whole album." The band spent the remainder of the year in the studio, recording what would become Seventh Star. Warner Bros. refused to release the album as a Tony Iommi solo release, instead insisting on using the name Black Sabbath. Pressured by the band's manager, Don Arden, the two compromised and released the album as "Black Sabbath featuring Tony Iommi" in January 1986. "It opened up a whole can of worms really," Iommi explained, "because I think if we could have done it as a solo album, it would have been accepted a lot more." Seventh Star, which sounded little like a Black Sabbath album, incorporated more hard rock elements popularised by the 1980s Sunset Strip hard rock scene, and was panned by the critics of the era, although later reviewers such as AllMusic gave the album favourable reviews, calling the album "often misunderstood and underrated". The new lineup rehearsed for six weeks, preparing for a full world tour, although the band were again forced to use the Black Sabbath name. "I was into the 'Tony Iommi project', but I wasn't into the Black Sabbath moniker," Hughes said. "The idea of being in Black Sabbath didn't appeal to me whatsoever. Glenn Hughes singing in Black Sabbath is like James Brown singing in Metallica. It wasn't gonna work". Just four days before the start of the tour, vocalist Glenn Hughes got into a bar fight with the band's production manager John Downing which splintered the singer's orbital bone. The injury interfered with Hughes' ability to sing, and the band brought in vocalist Ray Gillen to continue the tour with W.A.S.P. and Anthrax, although nearly half of the US dates would eventually be cancelled because of poor ticket sales. One vocalist whose status is disputed, both inside and outside Black Sabbath, is Christian evangelist Jeff Fenholt. Fenholt has insisted that he was a singer in Black Sabbath during this era. Tony Iommi has never confirmed this, as he was working on a solo release that was later named as a Sabbath album. Fenholt gives a detailed account of his time with Iommi/Sabbath in Garry Sharpe-Young's book Sabbath Bloody Sabbath: The Battle For Black Sabbath. Much of what Fenholt says is confirmed in the same book by former Sabbath keyboardist Geoff Nicholls: "Why deny he was there? Just tell the truth. He was a bloody good singer and deserved to be there at the time." Bootlegs of demos from the Fenholt sessions have surfaced under the title Star Of India.  The Eternal Idol, Headless Cross, and Tyr (1986–1990) Black Sabbath began work on new material in October 1986 at Air Studios in Montserrat with producer Jeff Glixman. The recording was wrought with problems from the beginning, as Glixman left after the initial sessions, and was replaced by producer Vic Coppersmith-Heaven. Bassist Dave Spitz quit over "personal issues", and ex-Rainbow bassist Bob Daisley was brought in. Daisley re-recorded all of the bass tracks, and wrote the album's lyrics, but before the album was complete, he left to join Gary Moore's solo band, taking drummer Eric Singer with him. After problems with second producer Coppersmith-Heaven, the band returned to Morgan Studios in England in January 1987 to work with new producer Chris Tsangarides. While working in the UK, new vocalist Ray Gillen abruptly left Black Sabbath to form Blue Murder with John Sykes. The band enlisted ex-Alliance vocalist Tony Martin to re-record Gillen's tracks, and former drummer Bev Bevan to complete a few percussion overdubs. Before the release of the new album, Black Sabbath accepted an offer to play six shows at Sun City, South Africa during the apartheid. The band drew criticism from activists and artists involved with Artists United Against Apartheid, who had been boycotting South Africa since 1985. Drummer Bev Bevan refused to play the shows, and was replaced by Terry Chimes, formerly of The Clash. After nearly a year in production, The Eternal Idol was released on 8 December 1987 and ignored by contemporary reviewers. On-line internet era reviews were mixed. AllMusic said that "Martin's powerful voice added new fire" to the band, and the album contained "some of Iommi's heaviest riffs in years." Blender gave the album two stars, claiming the album was "Black Sabbath in name only". The album would stall at #66 in the UK, while peaking at 168 in the US. The band toured in support of Eternal Idol in Germany, Italy and for the first time, Greece. Unfortunately, in part because of a backlash from promoters over the South Africa incident, other European shows were cancelled. Bassist Dave Spitz left the band shortly before the tour, and was replaced by Jo Burt, formerly of Virginia Wolf. Following the poor commercial performance of Eternal Idol, Black Sabbath were dropped by Vertigo Records and Warner Bros. Records, and signed with I.R.S. Records. The band took time off in 1988, returning in August to begin work on their next album. As a result of the recording troubles with Eternal Idol, Tony Iommi opted to produce the band's next album himself. "It was a completely new start", Iommi said. "I had to rethink the whole thing, and decided that we needed to build up some credibility again". Iommi enlisted ex-Rainbow drummer Cozy Powell, longtime keyboardist Nicholls and session bassist Laurence Cottle, and rented a "very cheap studio in England". Black Sabbath released Headless Cross in April 1989, and again ignored by contemporary reviewers. Eventualy, AllMusic would give the album four stars, calling Headless Cross "the finest non-Ozzy or Dio Black Sabbath album". Anchored by the number 62 charting single "Headless Cross", the album reached number 31 on the UK charts, and number 115 in the US. Queen guitarist Brian May, a friend of Iommi's, played a guest solo on the song "When Death Calls". Following the album's release, the band added touring bassist Neil Murray, formerly of Whitesnake. The ill-fated Headless Cross US tour began in May 1989 with openers Kingdom Come and Silent Rage, but because of poor ticket sales, the tour was cancelled after just eight shows. The European leg of the tour began in September, where the band were enjoying chart success. After a string of Japanese shows, the band embarked on a 23 date Russian tour with Girlschool. Black Sabbath was one of the first bands to tour Russia, after Mikhail Gorbachov opened the country to western acts for the first time in 1989. The band returned to the studio in February 1990 to record Tyr, the follow-up to Headless Cross. While not technically a concept album, some of the album's lyrical themes are loosely based on Norse mythology. Tyr was released on 6 August 1990, and reached number 24 on the UK albums chart, but was the first Black Sabbath release not to break the Billboard 200 in the US. The album again would receive mixed internet-era reviews, with AllMusic noting that the band "mix myth with metal in a crushing display of musical synthesis," while Blender gave the album just one star, claiming that "Iommi continues to besmirch the Sabbath name with this unremarkable collection". The band toured in support of Tyr with Circus of Power in Europe, but the final seven UK dates were cancelled because of poor ticket sales. For the first time in their career, the band's touring cycle did not include US dates.  Dehumanizer (1990–1993) Following a performance in 1990, both Ronnie James Dio and Geezer Butler (pictured) expressed interest in rejoining Black SabbathWhile on his own Lock Up The Wolves US tour in August 1990, former Black Sabbath vocalist Ronnie James Dio was joined on stage at the Minneapolis Forum by former Black Sabbath bassist Geezer Butler to perform "Neon Knights". Following the show, the two expressed interest in rejoining Black Sabbath. Butler convinced Iommi, who in turn broke up the current lineup, dismissing vocalist Tony Martin and bassist Neil Murray. "I do regret that in a lot of ways", Iommi said. "We were at a good point then. We decided to [reunite with Dio] and I don't even know why, really. There's the financial aspect, but that wasn't it. I seemed to think maybe we could recapture something we had". Ronnie James Dio and Geezer Butler joined Tony Iommi and Cozy Powell in the fall of 1990 to begin working on the next Black Sabbath release. While rehearsing in November, Powell suffered a broken hip when his horse died, falling on the drummer's legs. Unable to complete work on the album, Powell was replaced by former drummer Vinny Appice, and the band entered the studio with producer Reinhold Mack. The year-long recording process was plagued with problems, primarily stemming from writing tension between Tony Iommi and Ronnie James Dio, as some songs were re-written multiple times. "Dehumanizer took a long time, it was just hard work", Iommi said. "We took too long on it, that album cost us a million dollars, which is bloody ridiculous". Dio later recalled the album as difficult, but worth the effort. "It was something we had to really wring out of ourselves, but I think that's why it works", he said. "Sometimes you need that kind of tension, or else you end up making the Christmas album". The resulting album, Dehumanizer was released on 22 June 1992. In the US, the album was released on 30 June 1992 by Reprise Records, as Ronnie James Dio and his namesake band were still under contract with the label at the time. While the album received mixed reviews, it was the band's biggest commercial success in ten years. Anchored by the top 40 rock radio single "TV Crimes" ( sample (help·info)), the album peaked at number 44 on the Billboard 200. The album also featured the song "Time Machine", a version of which had been recorded for the 1992 film Wayne's World. Black Sabbath began touring in support of Dehumanizer in July 1992 with Testament, Danzig, Prong, and Exodus. While on tour, former vocalist Ozzy Osbourne announced his first retirement, and invited Black Sabbath to open for his solo band at the final two shows of his No More Tours tour in Costa Mesa, California. The band agreed, aside from vocalist Ronnie James Dio, who said: “ I was told in the middle of the tour that we would be opening for Ozzy in Los Angeles. And I said, "No. Sorry, I have more pride than that." A lot of bad things were being said from camp to camp, and it created this horrible schism. So by [the band] agreeing to play the shows in L.A. with Ozzy, that, to me, spelled out reunion. And that obviously meant the doom of that particular project. ” Dio quit Black Sabbath following a show in Oakland, California on 13 November 1992, one night before the band were set to appear at Osbourne's retirement show. Judas Priest vocalist Rob Halford stepped in at the last minute, performing two nights with the band. Iommi and Butler also joined Osbourne and former drummer Bill Ward on stage for the first time since 1985's Live Aid concert, performing a brief set of Black Sabbath songs.  Cross Purposes and Forbidden (1993–1996) Drummer Vinny Appice left the band following the reunion show to join Ronnie James Dio's solo band, later appearing on Dio's Strange Highways and Angry Machines. Iommi and Butler enlisted former Rainbow drummer Bobby Rondinelli, and reinstated former vocalist Tony Martin. The band returned to the studio to work on new material, again not originally intended to be released under the Black Sabbath name. As Geezer Butler explains: “ It wasn't even supposed to be a Sabbath album; I wouldn't have even done it under the pretence of Sabbath. That was the time when the original band were talking about getting back together for a reunion tour. Tony and myself just went in with a couple of people, did an album just to have, while the reunion tour was (supposedly) going on. It was like an Iommi/Butler project album. ” Under pressure from their record label, the band released their seventeenth studio album, Cross Purposes, on 8 February 1994, under the Black Sabbath name. The album again received mixed reviews, with Blender giving the album two stars, calling Soundgarden's 1994 album Superunknown "a far better Sabbath album than this by-the-numbers potboiler". Allmusic's Bradley Torreano called Cross Purposes "the first album since Born Again that actually sounds like a real Sabbath record". The album just missed the Top 40 in the UK reaching number 41, and also reached 122 on the Billboard 200 in the US. Cross Purposes contained the song "Evil Eye", which was co-written by Van Halen guitarist Eddie Van Halen, although uncredited because of record label restrictions. Touring in support of Cross Purposes began in February with Morbid Angel and Motörhead in the US. The band filmed a live performance at the Hammersmith Apollo on 13 April 1994, which was released on VHS accompanied by a CD, entitled Cross Purposes Live. After the European tour with Cathedral and Godspeed in June 1994, drummer Bobby Rondinelli quit the band and was replaced by original Black Sabbath drummer Bill Ward for five shows in South America. Following the touring cycle for Cross Purposes, bassist Geezer Butler again quit the band. "I finally got totally disillusioned with the last Sabbath album, and I much preferred the stuff I was writing to the stuff Sabbath were doing". Butler formed a solo project called GZR, and released Plastic Planet in 1995. The album contained the song "Giving Up the Ghost", which was critical of Tony Iommi for carrying on with the Black Sabbath name, with the lyrics: You plagiarized and parodied / the magic of our meaning / a legend in your own mind / left all your friends behind / you can't admit that you're wrong / the spirit is dead and gone. Following Butler's departure, newly returned drummer Bill Ward once again left the band. Iommi reinstated former members Neil Murray on bass, and Cozy Powell on drums, effectively reuniting the Tyr lineup. The band enlisted Body Count guitarist Ernie C to produce the new album, which was recorded in London in the fall of 1994. The album featured a guest vocal on "Illusion of Power" by Body Count vocalist Ice T. The resulting Forbidden, was released on 8 June 1995, but failed to chart in the US or the UK. The album was widely panned by critics; Allmusic's Bradley Torreano said "with boring songs, awful production, and uninspired performances, this is easily avoidable for all but the most enthusiastic fan"; while Blender magazine called Forbidden "an embarrassment ... the band’s worst album". Black Sabbath embarked on a world tour in July 1995 with openers Motörhead and Tiamat, but two months into the tour, drummer Cozy Powell left the band, citing health issues, and was replaced by former drummer Bobby Rondinelli. After completing Asian dates in December 1995, Tony Iommi put the band on hiatus, and began work on a solo album with former Black Sabbath vocalist Glenn Hughes, and former Judas Priest drummer Dave Holland. The album was not officially released following its completion, although a widely traded bootleg called Eighth Star surfaced soon after. The album was officially released in 2004 as The 1996 DEP Sessions, with Holland's drums re-recorded by session drummer Jimmy Copley. In 1997, Tony Iommi disbanded the current lineup to officially reunite with Ozzy Osbourne and the original Black Sabbath lineup. Vocalist Tony Martin claimed that an original lineup reunion had been in the works since the band's brief reunion at Ozzy Osbourne's 1992 Costa Mesa show, and that the band released subsequent albums to fulfill their record contract with I.R.S. records. Martin later recalled Forbidden as a "filler album that got the band out of the label deal, rid of the singer, and into the reunion. However I wasn’t privy to that information at the time". I.R.S. Records released a compilation album in 1996 to fulfill the band's contract, entitled The Sabbath Stones, which featured songs from Born Again to Forbidden.  Reunion (1997–present) Ozzy Osbourne in 2007.In the summer of 1997, Tony Iommi, Geezer Butler, and Ozzy Osbourne officially reunited to co-headline the Ozzfest festival tour along side Osbourne's solo band. The lineup featured Osbourne's drummer Mike Bordin filling in for Bill Ward, who was unable to participate because of previous commitments with his solo project, The Bill Ward Band. In December 1997, the group was joined by Ward, marking the first reunion of the original four members since Osbourne's 1992 "retirement show". The original lineup recorded two shows at the Birmingham NEC, which were released as the double live album Reunion on 20 October 1998. Reunion reached number eleven on the Billboard 200, and went platinum in the US. The album spawned the single "Iron Man", which won Black Sabbath its first Grammy award in 2000 for Best Metal Performance, 30 years after the song was originally released and was used in the film Iron Man, based on the Marvel Comics superhero. Reunion also featured two new studio tracks, "Psycho Man" and "Selling My Soul", both of which cracked the top 20 on the Billboard Mainstream Rock Tracks chart. Shortly before the band embarked on a European tour in the summer of 1998, drummer Bill Ward suffered a heart attack and was temporarily replaced by former drummer Vinny Appice. Ward returned in time for the US tour with openers Pantera, which began in January 1999 and continued through the summer, headlining the annual Ozzfest tour. Following the Ozzfest appearances, the band was put on hiatus while members worked on solo material. Tony Iommi released his first official solo album, Iommi, in 2000, while Osbourne continued work on his next solo release, Down to Earth. Black Sabbath returned to the studio to work on new material with all four original members and producer Rick Rubin in the spring of 2001, but the sessions were halted when Osbourne was called away to finish tracks for his solo album in the summer of 2001. "It just came to an end", Iommi said. "We didn't go any further, and it's a shame because [the songs] were really good". Iommi commented on the difficulty getting all of the band members together to work on material: “ It's quite different recording now. We've all done so much in between. In [the early] days there was no mobile phone ringing every five seconds. When we first started, we had nothing. We all worked for the same thing. Now everybody has done so many other things. It's great fun and we all have a good chat, but it's just different, trying to put an album together. ” In March 2002, Ozzy Osbourne's Emmy winning reality TV show "The Osbournes" debuted on MTV, and quickly became a worldwide hit. The show introduced Osbourne to a broader audience and to capitalise, the band's back catalogue label, Sanctuary Records released a double live album Past Lives, which featured concert material recorded in the 70's, including the previously unofficial Live at Last album. The band remained on hiatus until the summer of 2004 when they returned to headline Ozzfest 2004 and 2005. In November 2005, Black Sabbath were inducted into the UK Music Hall of Fame, and in March 2006, after eleven years of eligibility, the band were inducted into the US Rock and Roll Hall of Fame. At the awards ceremony Metallica played two Black Sabbath songs, "Hole in the Sky" and "Iron Man" in tribute to the band.  The Dio Years and Heaven and Hell For more details on this topic, see Heaven and Hell (band). Vinnie Appice performing a drum solo with Heaven and Hell at Katowice, 2007While Ozzy Osbourne was working on new solo material in 2006, Rhino Records released The Dio Years, a compilation of songs culled from the four Black Sabbath releases featuring Ronnie James Dio. For the release, Iommi, Butler, Dio and Appice reunited to write and record three new songs. The Dio Years was released on 3 April 2007, reaching number 54 on the Billboard 200, while the single "The Devil Cried" reached number 37 on the Mainstream Rock Tracks chart. Pleased with the results, Iommi and Dio decided to reunite the Heaven and Hell era lineup for a world tour. While the lineup of Osbourne, Butler, Iommi and Ward were still officially called Black Sabbath, the new lineup opted to call themselves Heaven and Hell, after the album of the same name, to avoid confusion. Drummer Bill Ward was initially set to participate, but dropped out before the tour began, and was replaced by former drummer Vinny Appice, effectively reuniting the lineup that had featured on the Mob Rules and Dehumanizer albums. Heaven and Hell toured the US with openers Megadeth and Machine Head, and recorded a live album and DVD in New York on 30 March 2007, entitled Live from Radio City Music Hall. In November 2007, Dio confirmed that the band have plans to record a new studio album in 2008. In April 2008 the band announced the upcoming release of a new box set and their participation in The Metal Masters Tour, alongside Judas Priest, Motörhead and Testament. The box set, The Rules of Hell, featuring remastered versions of all the Dio fronted Black Sabbath albums, is set to be supported by the Metal Masters Tour. In 2009, the band announced the name of their new album, The Devil You Know, and release date of April 28.  Musical style Although Black Sabbath have gone through many lineups and stylistic changes, their original sound focused on ominous lyrics and doomy music, often making use of the musical tritone, also called the "devil's interval". Standing in stark contrast to popular music of the early 1970s, Black Sabbath's dark sound was dismissed by rock critics of the era. Much like many of their early heavy metal contemporaries, the band received virtually no airplay on rock radio. As the band's primary songwriter, Tony Iommi wrote the majority of Black Sabbath's music, while Osbourne would write vocal melodies, and bassist Geezer Butler would write lyrics. The process was sometimes frustrating for Iommi, who often felt pressured to come up with new material. "If I didn't come up with anything, nobody would do anything." On Iommi's influence, Osbourne later said: “ Black Sabbath never used to write a structured song. There'd be a long intro that would go into a jazz piece, then go all folky... and it worked. Tony Iommi - and I have said this a zillion times - should be up there with the greats. He can pick up a guitar, play a riff, and you say, 'He's gotta be out now, he can't top that.' Then you come back and I bet you a billion dollars, he'd come up with a riff that'd knock your fucking socks off. ” Early Black Sabbath albums feature tuned-down guitars, which contributed to the dark feel of the music. In 1966, before forming Black Sabbath, guitarist Tony Iommi suffered an accident while working in a sheet metal factory, losing the tips of two fingers on his right hand. Iommi almost gave up music, but was urged by a friend to listen to Django Reinhardt, a jazz guitarist who lost the use of two fingers. Inspired by Reinhardt, Iommi created two thimbles made of plastic and leather to cap off his missing fingers. The guitarist began using lighter strings, and detuning his guitar, to better grip the strings with his prosthetics, a move which inadvertently gave the music a darker feel". Early in the band's history Iommi experimented with different tuning, including 3 semi-tuning, or C tuning, before settling on semi-tune down, or half-step tuning.  Legacy Black Sabbath are arguably the most influential heavy metal band of all time. The band helped to create the genre with ground breaking releases such as Paranoid, an album that Rolling Stone magazine said "changed music forever", and called the band "the Beatles of heavy metal". Time Magazine called Paranoid "the birthplace of heavy metal", placing it in their Top 100 Albums of All Time. MTV placed Black Sabbath at number one on their Top Ten Heavy Metal Bands and VH1 placed them at number two on their list of the 100 Greatest Artists of Hard Rock. VH1 ranked Black Sabbath's "Iron Man" the number one song on their 40 Greatest Metal Songs countdown. Allmusic's William Ruhlmann said: “ Black Sabbath has been so influential in the development of heavy metal rock music as to be a defining force in the style. The group took the blues-rock sound of late '60s acts like Cream, Blue Cheer, and Vanilla Fudge to its logical conclusion, slowing the tempo, accentuating the bass, and emphasising screaming guitar solos and howled vocals full of lyrics expressing mental anguish and macabre fantasies. If their predecessors clearly came out of an electrified blues tradition, Black Sabbath took that tradition in a new direction, and in so doing helped give birth to a musical style that continued to attract millions of fans decades later. ”  Influence Black Sabbath's influence on heavy metal is almost unparalleled, the band are cited as highly influential by countless bands, including Metallica, Iron Maiden, Anthrax, Iced Earth, Opeth, Pantera, Megadeth, The Smashing Pumpkins, Slipknot, the Foo Fighters, Fear Factory, and Godsmack. Two gold selling tribute albums have been released, Nativity in Black Volume 1 & 2, including songs by Sepultura, White Zombie, Type O Negative, Faith No More, Machine Head, System of a Down and Monster Magnet. Metallica's Lars Ulrich, who, along with bandmate James Hetfield inducted Black Sabbath into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 2006, said "Black Sabbath is and always will be synonymous with heavy metal", while Hetfield said "Sabbath got me started on all that evil-sounding shit, and it's stuck with me. Tony Iommi is the king of the heavy riff." Ex-Guns N' Roses guitarist Slash said of the Paranoid album: "There's just something about that whole record that, when you're a kid and you're turned onto it, it's like a whole different world. It just opens up your mind to another dimension...Paranoid is the whole Sabbath experience; very indicative of what Sabbath meant at the time. Tony's playing style — doesn’t matter whether it's off 'Paranoid' or if it's off 'Heaven and Hell' — it's very distinctive." Anthrax guitarist Scott Ian said "I always get the question in every interview I do, 'What are your top five metal albums?' I make it easy for myself and always say the first five Sabbath albums." Lamb of God's Chris Adler said "If anybody who plays heavy metal says that they weren't influenced by Black Sabbath's music, then I think that they're lying to you. I think all heavy metal music was, in some way, influenced by what Black Sabbath did."  Members Main article: List of Black Sabbath band members Current line-up Ozzy Osbourne – lead vocals (1968–1979, 1985, 1997–present) Tony Iommi – guitars (1968–present) Geezer Butler – bass (1968–1985, 1990–1994, 1997–present) Bill Ward – drums, percussion (1968–1980, 1983, 1984, 1994, 1997–1998, 1998–present)  Discography For a more comprehensive list, see Black Sabbath discography Black Sabbath (1970) Paranoid (1970) Master of Reality (1971) Black Sabbath Vol. 4 (1972) Sabbath Bloody Sabbath (1973) Sabotage (1975) Technical Ecstasy (1976) Never Say Die! (1978) Heaven and Hell (1980) Mob Rules (1981) Born Again (1983) Seventh Star (1986) The Eternal Idol (1987) Headless Cross (1989) Tyr (1990) Dehumanizer (1992) Cross Purposes (1994) Forbidden (1995)  See also List of honorific titles in popular music  References Rosen, Steven (1996), The Story of Black Sabbath: Wheels of Confusion, Castle Communications, ISBN 1-86074-149-5 Sharpe-Young, Garry (2006), Sabbath Bloody Sabbath: The Battle for Black Sabbath, Zonda Books, ISBN 0-9582684-2-8  Notes ^ "The Rest/Mythology/Polka Tulk Blues Band/Earth/Black Sabbath". http://www.btinternet.com/~fenderstrat/Sabbath.htm. Retrieved on March 3, 2009. ^ "RIAA Top Selling Artists". http://www.riaa.com/goldandplatinumdata.php?resultpage=2&table=tblTopArt&action=. Retrieved on February 7, 2009. ^ "Rolling Stone review of Sabbath Bloody Sabbath 1974". http://www.rollingstone.com/artists/blacksabbath/albums/album/227113/review/5946174/sabbath_bloody_sabbath. Retrieved on 1-24-2009. ^ a b Huey, Steve. "AMG Paranoid Review". Allmusic.com. http://www.allmusic.com/cg/amg.dll?p=amg&sql=10:wifoxql5ldte. Retrieved on 2008-02-11. ^ "Greatest Metal Artists of All Time". MTV. http://www.mtv.com/bands/m/metal/greatest_metal_bands/071406/index2.jhtml. Retrieved on 2008-03-29. ^ a b Cohen, Jonathan (February 10, 2009). ""Heaven & Hell Feeling Devilish On New Album"". Billboard. Howard Appelbaum. http://www.billboard.com/bbcom/news/heaven-hell-feeling-devilish-on-new-album-1003940100.story. Retrieved on February 13, 2009. ^ ""Heavy Metal"". Seven Ages of Rock. 2009-03-05. 8 minutes in. ^ Timeline "Black Sabbath Live Project - Beginnings". Sabbathlive.com. http://web.archive.org/web/20080120194400/http://www.sabbathlive.com/timelines.html Timeline. Retrieved on 2007-12-09. ^ Siegler, Joe. "Black Sabbath Online: Band Lineup History". Blacksabbath.com. http://www.black-sabbath.com/personnel/timeline.html. Retrieved on 2007-12-09. ^ "Melody Maker 1968-12-21". Melody Maker Magazine. Archived from the original on 2007-06-04. http://web.archive.org/web/20070604013639/http://www.sabbathlive.com/sabtours/earth/mm211268. Retrieved on 2008-02-14. ^ Rosen 1996, p. 34 ^ "Ozzy Osbourne: The Godfather of Metal". NYRock.com. http://www.nyrock.com/interviews/2002/ozzy_int.asp. Retrieved on 2008-02-14. ^ Ozzy Osbourne: Behind the Music by VH1; first aired 1998-04-19 ^ Rosen 1996, p. 38 ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q Ruhlmann, William. ""AMG Biography"". Allmusic. http://www.allmusic.com/cg/amg.dll?p=amg&sql=11:gifoxqw5ldse~T1. Retrieved on 2008-02-14. ^ a b c ""Rolling Stone Biography"". Roling Stone.com. http://www.rollingstone.com/artists/blacksabbath/biography. Retrieved on 2008-02-14. ^ Bangs, Lester (May 1970). "Black Sabbath Album Review". Roling Stone Magazine #66, May 1970. http://www.rollingstone.com/artists/blacksabbath/albums/album/321686/review/5945165/black_sabbath. Retrieved on 2008-02-14. ^ "RIAA Gold & Platinum database -Black Sabbath". http://www.riaa.com/goldandplatinumdata.php?resultpage=1&table=SEARCH_RESULTS&action=&title=black%20sabbath&artist=black%20sabbath&format=&debutLP=&category=&sex=&releaseDate=&requestNo=&type=&level=&label=&company=&certificationDate=&awardDescription=&catalogNo=&aSex=&rec_id=&charField=&gold=&platinum=&multiPlat=&level2=&certDate=&album=&id=&after=&before=&startMonth=1&endMonth=1&startYear=1958&endYear=2009&sort=Artist&perPage=25. Retrieved on February 22, 2009. ^ "CRIA certified awards-Black Sabbath". http://www.cria.ca/cert_db_search.php?page=1&wclause=WHERE+artist_name+like+%27%25black%25%27+ORDER+BY+cert_date%2C+cert_award+&rcnt=60&csearch=20&nextprev=1. Retrieved on February 22, 2009. ^ Rosen 1996, p. 57 ^ "RIAA Gold & Platinum database-Paranoid". http://www.riaa.com/goldandplatinumdata.php?resultpage=1&table=SEARCH_RESULTS&action=&title=paranoid&artist=black%20sabbath&format=&debutLP=&category=&sex=&releaseDate=&requestNo=&type=&level=&label=&company=&certificationDate=&awardDescription=&catalogNo=&aSex=&rec_id=&charField=&gold=&platinum=&multiPlat=&level2=&certDate=&album=&id=&after=&before=&startMonth=1&endMonth=1&startYear=1958&endYear=2009&sort=Artist&perPage=25. Retrieved on February 22, 2009. ^ Rosen 1996, p. 63 ^ Rosen 1996, p. 52 ^ a b c "RIAA Gold & Platinum database-Master of Reality". http://www.riaa.com/goldandplatinumdata.php?resultpage=1&table=SEARCH_RESULTS&action=&title=master%20of%20reality&artist=black%20sabbath&format=&debutLP=&category=&sex=&releaseDate=&requestNo=&type=&level=&label=&company=&certificationDate=&awardDescription=&catalogNo=&aSex=&rec_id=&charField=&gold=&platinum=&multiPlat=&level2=&certDate=&album=&id=&after=&before=&startMonth=1&endMonth=1&startYear=1958&endYear=2009&sort=Artist&perPage=25. Retrieved on February 22, 2009. ^ Erlewine, Stephen Thomas. "AMG Master of Reality Review". Allmusic.com. http://www.allmusic.com/cg/amg.dll?p=amg&sql=10:3ifpxqq5ld6e. Retrieved on 2008-02-18. ^ Levy, Joe; Steven Van Zandt (2006) . Rolling Stone The 500 Greatest Album of All Time (3rd edition ed.). London: Turnaround. ISBN 1932958614. OCLC 70672814. ^ Rosen 1996, p. 64-65 ^ Rosen 1996, p. 73 ^ Rosen 1996, p. 73-74 ^ Rosen 1996, p. 65 ^ a b "RIAA Gold & Platinum database-Vol. 4". http://www.riaa.com/goldandplatinumdata.php?resultpage=1&table=SEARCH_RESULTS&action=&title=BLACK%20SABBATH%20-%20VOL.%204&artist=black%20sabbath&format=&debutLP=&category=&sex=&releaseDate=&requestNo=&type=&level=&label=&company=&certificationDate=&awardDescription=&catalogNo=&aSex=&rec_id=&charField=&gold=&platinum=&multiPlat=&level2=&certDate=&album=&id=&after=&before=&startMonth=1&endMonth=1&startYear=1958&endYear=2009&sort=Artist&perPage=25. Retrieved on February 22, 2009. ^ Huey, Steve. "AMG Volume 4 Review". Allmusic.com. http://www.allmusic.com/cg/amg.dll?p=amg&sql=10:difpxqq5ld6e. Retrieved on 2008-04-10. ^ a b c d e f g h "Billboard Black Sabbath chart history". Billboard.com. http://www.billboard.com/bbcom/retrieve_chart_history.do?model.chartFormatGroupName=Albums&model.vnuArtistId=4105&model.vnuAlbumId=545105. Retrieved on 2008-03-17. ^ a b c Rosen 1996, p. 76 ^ Rosen 1996, p. 77 ^ Rosen 1996, p. 79 ^ Fletcher, Gordon (February 1974). "Sabbath, Bloody Sabbath Album Review". Roling Stone Magazine #154, 14 February 1974. http://www.rollingstone.com/artists/blacksabbath/albums/album/227113/review/5946174/sabbath_bloody_sabbath. Retrieved on 2008-02-25. ^ Rivadavia, Ed. "Sabbath, Bloody Sabbath AMG Review". Allmusic.com. http://www.allmusic.com/cg/amg.dll?p=amg&sql=10:fifpxqq5ld6e. Retrieved on 2008-02-25. ^ "RIAA Gold & Platinum database-Sabbath Bloddy Sabbath". http://www.riaa.com/goldandplatinumdata.php?resultpage=1&table=SEARCH_RESULTS&action=&title=SABBATH,%20BLOODY%20SABBATH&artist=Black%20Sabbath&format=&debutLP=&category=&sex=&releaseDate=&requestNo=&type=&level=&label=&company=&certificationDate=&awardDescription=&catalogNo=&aSex=&rec_id=&charField=&gold=&platinum=&multiPlat=&level2=&certDate=&album=&id=&after=&before=&startMonth=1&endMonth=1&startYear=1958&endYear=2009&sort=Artist&perPage=25. Retrieved on February 22, 2009. ^ Rosen 1996, p. 80 ^ Altman, Billy (September 1975). "Sabatoge Album Review". Roling Stone Magazine #196, 25 September 1975. http://www.rollingstone.com/artists/blacksabbath/albums/album/170807/review/5946986/sabotage. Retrieved on 2008-02-25. ^ a b Prato, Greg. "Sabotage AMG Album Review". Allmusic.com. http://www.allmusic.com/cg/amg.dll?p=amg&sql=10:gifpxqq5ld6e. Retrieved on 2008-03-20. ^ "RIAA Gold & Platinum database-Sabotage". http://www.riaa.com/goldandplatinumdata.php?resultpage=1&table=SEARCH_RESULTS&action=&title=sabotage&artist=black%20sabbath&format=&debutLP=&category=&sex=&releaseDate=&requestNo=&type=&level=&label=&company=&certificationDate=&awardDescription=&catalogNo=&aSex=&rec_id=&charField=&gold=&platinum=&multiPlat=&level2=&certDate=&album=&id=&after=&before=&startMonth=1&endMonth=1&startYear=1958&endYear=2009&sort=Artist&perPage=25. Retrieved on February 22, 2009. ^ "RIAA Gold & Platinum Database-We Sold Our Soul for Rock 'n' Roll". http://www.riaa.com/goldandplatinumdata.php?resultpage=1&table=SEARCH_RESULTS&action=&title=we%20sold%20our%20soul&artist=black%20sabbath&format=&debutLP=&category=&sex=&releaseDate=&requestNo=&type=&level=&label=&company=&certificationDate=&awardDescription=&catalogNo=&aSex=&rec_id=&charField=&gold=&platinum=&multiPlat=&level2=&certDate=&album=&id=&after=&before=&startMonth=1&endMonth=1&startYear=1958&endYear=2009&sort=Artist&perPage=25. Retrieved on February 22, 2009. ^ Prato, Greg. "Technical Ecstasy AMG Review". Allmusic.com. http://allmusic.com/cg/amg.dll?p=amg&sql=10:g8jgtq4ztu4a. Retrieved on 2008-03-17. ^ "RIAA Gold & Platinum database-Technical Ecstasy". http://www.riaa.com/goldandplatinumdata.php?resultpage=1&table=SEARCH_RESULTS&action=&title=Technical%20Ecstasy&artist=black%20sabbath&format=&debutLP=&category=&sex=&releaseDate=&requestNo=&type=&level=&label=&company=&certificationDate=&awardDescription=&catalogNo=&aSex=&rec_id=&charField=&gold=&platinum=&multiPlat=&level2=&certDate=&album=&id=&after=&before=&startMonth=1&endMonth=1&startYear=1958&endYear=2009&sort=Artist&perPage=25. Retrieved on February 22, 2009. ^ a b c Rosen 1996, p. 93-94 ^ Rivadavia, Ed. "Never Say Die! AMG Review". Allmusic.com. http://www.allmusic.com/cg/amg.dll?p=amg&sql=10:kifpxqq5ld6e. Retrieved on 2008-02-27. ^ "RIAA Gold & Platinum database-Never Say Die!". http://www.riaa.com/goldandplatinumdata.php?resultpage=1&table=SEARCH_RESULTS&action=&title=Never%20Say%20Die&artist=black%20sabbath&format=&debutLP=&category=&sex=&releaseDate=&requestNo=&type=&level=&label=&company=&certificationDate=&awardDescription=&catalogNo=&aSex=&rec_id=&charField=&gold=&platinum=&multiPlat=&level2=&certDate=&album=&id=&after=&before=&startMonth=1&endMonth=1&startYear=1958&endYear=2009&sort=Artist&perPage=25. Retrieved on February 22, 2009. ^ Sharpe-Young, Garry. "RockDetector.com Black Sabbath Biography 1978-1979". Rockdetector.com. Archived from the original on 2007-12-03. http://web.archive.org/web/20071203004734/http://www.rockdetector.com/officialbio,1104.sm. Retrieved on 2008-02-27. ^ Rosen 1996, p. 95 ^ Rosen 1996, p. 97 ^ Rosen 1996, p. 98 ^ Prato, Greg. "AMG Heaven and Hell Review". Allmusic.com. http://www.allmusic.com/cg/amg.dll?p=amg&sql=10:af17gjvrj6ib~T0. Retrieved on 2008-02-29. ^ "RIAA Gold & Platinum database-Heaven and Hell". http://www.riaa.com/goldandplatinumdata.php?resultpage=1&table=SEARCH_RESULTS&action=&title=heaven%20and%20hell&artist=black%20sabbath&format=&debutLP=&category=&sex=&releaseDate=&requestNo=&type=&level=&label=&company=&certificationDate=&awardDescription=&catalogNo=&aSex=&rec_id=&charField=&gold=&platinum=&multiPlat=&level2=&certDate=&album=&id=&after=&before=&startMonth=1&endMonth=1&startYear=1958&endYear=2009&sort=Artist&perPage=25. Retrieved on February 22, 2009. ^ Rosen 1996, p. 104 ^ Rosen 1996, p. 111 ^ Considine, J.D.. "Rolling Stone Mob Rules Review". RollingStone.com. http://www.rollingstone.com/artists/blacksabbath/albums/album/150404/review/5947023/mob_rules. Retrieved on 2008-02-29. ^ Rivadavia, Ed. "AMG Mob Rules review". Allmusic.com. http://www.allmusic.com/cg/amg.dll?p=amg&sql=10:aifpxqq5ld6e. Retrieved on 2008-02-29. ^ "RIAA Gold & Platinum database-Mob Rules". http://www.riaa.com/goldandplatinumdata.php?resultpage=1&table=SEARCH_RESULTS&action=&title=mob%20rules&artist=black%20sabbath&format=&debutLP=&category=&sex=&releaseDate=&requestNo=&type=&level=&label=&company=&certificationDate=&awardDescription=&catalogNo=&aSex=&rec_id=&charField=&gold=&platinum=&multiPlat=&level2=&certDate=&album=&id=&after=&before=&startMonth=1&endMonth=1&startYear=1958&endYear=2009&sort=Artist&perPage=25. Retrieved on February 22, 2009. ^ Goodman, Dean (2006-10-26). "Black Sabbath reunites without Ozzy". News Limited. http://www.news.com.au/story/0,23599,20648014-1702,00.html. Retrieved on 2008-05-13. ^ Rosen 1996, p. 118 ^ Rosen 1996, p. 107-108 ^ "RIAA Gold & Platinum database-Speak of the Devil". http://www.riaa.com/goldandplatinumdata.php?resultpage=1&table=SEARCH_RESULTS&action=&title=speak%20of%20the%20devil&artist=&format=&debutLP=&category=&sex=&releaseDate=&requestNo=&type=&level=&label=&company=&certificationDate=&awardDescription=&catalogNo=&aSex=&rec_id=&charField=&gold=&platinum=&multiPlat=&level2=&certDate=&album=&id=&after=&before=&startMonth=1&endMonth=1&startYear=1958&endYear=2009&sort=Artist&perPage=25. Retrieved on February 22, 2009. ^ Sharpe-Young, Garry. "RockDetector.com Black Sabbath Biography 1981-1982". Rockdetector.com. Archived from the original on 2007-12-03. http://web.archive.org/web/20071203004745/http://www.rockdetector.com/officialbio,1106.sm. Retrieved on 2008-03-20. ^ Rivadavia, Ed. "AMG Born Again Review". Allmusic.com. http://www.allmusic.com/cg/amg.dll?p=amg&sql=10:n9q8b5t4tsqf. Retrieved on 2008-03-04. ^ "From Jazz to Black Sabbath". AllAboutJazz.com. http://www.allaboutjazz.com/php/article.php?id=20215. Retrieved on 2008-03-02. ^ a b "Geezer Butler Interview". ClassicRockRevisited.com. Archived from the original on 2006-08-29. http://web.archive.org/web/20060829011113/http://classicrockrevisited.com/Interviews05/geezerbutler.htm. Retrieved on 2008-03-02. ^ a b Rosen 1996, p. 123 ^ Rosen 1996, p. 122 ^ Rivadavia, Ed. "AMG Seventh Star Review". Allmusic.com. http://www.allmusic.com/cg/amg.dll?p=amg&sql=10:fzfrxq95ldde. Retrieved on 2008-03-05. ^ Rosen 1996, p. 125 ^ "Sabbath Live Cancelled tourdates 1985". SabbathLive.com. Archived from the original on 2007-12-29. http://web.archive.org/web/20071229233848/http://www.sabbathlive.com/lists/CG83BA.html. Retrieved on 2008-03-05. ^ a b c Sharpe-Young, Garry. "Rock Detector bio 87-88". RockDetector.com. Archived from the original on 2007-11-23. http://web.archive.org/web/20071123043009/http://rockdetector.com/officialbio,1110.sm. Retrieved on 2008-03-10. ^ Rivadavia, Ed. "AMG Eternal Idol Review". Allmusic.com. http://www.allmusic.com/cg/amg.dll?p=amg&sql=10:qi6xlffe5cqq. Retrieved on 2008-03-10. ^ "Blender Eternal Idol Review". Blender.com. http://www.blender.com/guide/reviews.aspx?id=2225. Retrieved on 2008-03-10. ^ a b "Sabath Live Timeline 1980s". SabbathLive.com. Archived from the original on 2007-12-11. http://web.archive.org/web/20071211002803/http://www.sabbathlive.com/80s-timeline.html. Retrieved on 2008-03-10. ^ a b c Rosen 1996, p. 129 ^ Rivadavia, Ed. "Headless Cross AMG review". Allmusic.com. http://www.allmusic.com/cg/amg.dll?p=amg&sql=10:rtduak8k5m3p. Retrieved on 2008-03-10. ^ a b Sharpe-Young, Garry. "Rock Detector bio 89-91". RockDetector.com. Archived from the original on 2007-11-23. http://web.archive.org/web/20071123042930/http://rockdetector.com/officialbio,10298.sm. Retrieved on 2008-03-10. ^ Chrispell, James. "Tyr AMG review". Allmusic.com. http://www.allmusic.com/cg/amg.dll?p=amg&sql=10:0ifoxql5ldte. Retrieved on 2008-03-11. Chrispell, James. "Tyr AMG review". Allmusic.com. http://www.allmusic.com/cg/amg.dll?p=amg&sql=10:0ifoxql5ldte. Retrieved on 2008-03-11. ^ Mitchell, Ben. "Tyr Blender review". Blender.com. http://www.blender.com/guide/reviews.aspx?id=2228. Retrieved on 2008-03-11. ^ "Sabath Live Timeline 1990s Cancelled shows". SabbathLive.com. Archived from the original on 2005-12-19. http://web.archive.org/web/20051219022836/http://sabbathlive.com/lists/CG90TYR.html. Retrieved on 2008-03-11. ^ "Sabath Live Timeline 1990s". SabbathLive.com. Archived from the original on 2006-01-16. http://web.archive.org/web/20060116055140/http://www.sabbathlive.com/lists/90TYR.html. Retrieved on 2008-03-11. ^ a b "Blender Dehumanizer Review". Blender.com. http://www.blender.com/guide/reviews.aspx?id=2229. Retrieved on 2008-03-17. ^ Rosen 1996, p. 128 ^ Rosen 1996, p. 129 ^ a b Wiederhorn, Jon. "Interview with Ronnie James Dio and Tony Iommi". Blabbermouth.net. http://www.roadrunnerrecords.com/blabbermouth.net/news.aspx?mode=Article&newsitemID=65255. Retrieved on 2008-03-17. ^ "Revelation Z Magazine DehumanizerReview". RevolutionZ.net. http://www.revelationz.net/index.asp?ID=2381e. Retrieved on 2008-03-17. ^ Henderson, Tim. "Rob Halford Reminisces About Covering For OZZY!". BraveWords.com. http://www.bravewords.com/features/1000484. Retrieved on 2008-03-17. ^ a b Rosen 1996, p. 130 ^ Mitchell, Ben. "Blender Cross Purposes Review". Blender.com. http://www.blender.com/guide/reviews.aspx?id=2226. Retrieved on 2008-03-18. ^ Torreano, Bradley. "AMG Cross Purposes Review". Allmusic.com. http://www.allmusic.com/cg/amg.dll?p=amg&sql=10:5s831v08zzma. Retrieved on 2008-03-18. ^ Sharpe-Young, Gary. "RockDetector Bio 1994". Rocketector.com. Archived from the original on 2007-11-23. http://web.archive.org/web/20071123043014/http://rockdetector.com/officialbio,1111.sm. Retrieved on 2008-03-18. ^ Rosen 1996, p. 51 ^ Rosen 1996, p. 131 ^ "Billboard Black Sabbath album chart history". Billboard.com. http://www.billboard.com/bbcom/retrieve_chart_history.do?model.chartFormatGroupName=Albums&model.vnuArtistId=4105&model.vnuAlbumId=545105. Retrieved on 2008-03-20. ^ "Every Hit.com UK Black Sabbath album chart history". EveryHit.com. http://www.everyhit.com. Retrieved on 2008-03-20. ^ Torreano, Bradley. "Allmusic Forbidden review". Allmusic.com. http://www.allmusic.com/cg/amg.dll?p=amg&sql=10:bmh9keptkq7b. Retrieved on 2008-03-20. ^ Mitchell, Ben. "Blender Forbidden review". Blender.com. http://www.blender.com/guide/reviews.aspx?id=2230m. Retrieved on 2008-03-20. ^ Rivadavia, Ed. "AMG The 1996 DEP Sessions Review". Allmusic.com. http://www.allmusic.com/cg/amg.dll?p=amg&sql=10:d9fpxq9sldje. Retrieved on 2008-03-21. ^ "Tony Martin.net Q&A". TonyMartin.net. http://www.tonymartin.net/qanda.html. Retrieved on 2008-03-20. ^ "RIAA Gold & Platinum database-Reunion". http://www.riaa.com/goldandplatinumdata.php?resultpage=1&table=SEARCH_RESULTS&action=&title=&artist=BLACK%20SABBATH&format=&debutLP=&category=&sex=&releaseDate=&requestNo=&type=&level=&label=&company=&certificationDate=&awardDescription=&catalogNo=&aSex=&rec_id=&charField=&gold=&platinum=&multiPlat=&level2=&certDate=&album=&id=&after=on&before=on&startMonth=1&endMonth=2&startYear=1999&endYear=1999&sort=Artist&perPage=25. Retrieved on February 22, 2009. ^ "HEAVEN AND HELL Drummer: RONNIE JAMES DIO Is 'Singing Better Than He Has Ever Sung'". Blabbermouth.net. http://www.roadrunnerrecords.com/blabbermouth.net/news.aspx?mode=Article&newsitemID=68263. Retrieved on 2008-04-08. ^ Saraceno, Christina. "Sabbath Scrap Disturbed Dates". RollingStone.com. http://www.rollingstone.com/artists/blacksabbath/articles/story/5932210/sabbath_scrap_disturbed_dates. Retrieved on 2008-04-08. ^ a b "BLACK SABBATH Guitarist Says It's A 'Shame' The Band Didn't Complete New Studio Album". Blabbermouth.net. http://www.roadrunnerrecords.com/blabbermouth.net/news.aspx?mode=Article&newsitemID=25029. Retrieved on 2008-04-08. ^ Sprague, David. "Rock and Roll Hall of Fame 2006: Black Sabbath - Ozzy Osbourne recalls his band's heavy, scary journey". Rollingstone.com. http://www.rollingstone.com/artists/blacksabbath/articles/story/9438157/rock_and_roll_hall_of_fame_2006_black_sabbath. Retrieved on 2008-04-08. ^ "METALLICA: Video Footage Of BLACK SABBATH Rock Hall Induction, Performance Posted Online". Blabbermouth.net. http://www.roadrunnerrecords.com/blabbermouth.net/news.aspx?mode=Article&newsitemID=50050. Retrieved on 2008-04-08. ^ Elliott, Mike. "Komodo Rock Talks With Ronnie James Dio". Komodorock.com. http://www.komodorock.com/interviews/interviews/komodo-rock-talks-with-ronnie-james-dio-200711012460/. Retrieved on 2008-04-08. ^ "JUDAS PRIEST Frontman On 'Metal Masters' Tour: 'We Insisted On A Classic Metal Package'". Blabbermouth.net. http://www.roadrunnerrecords.com/blabbermouth.net/news.aspx?mode=Article&newsitemID=95359. Retrieved on 2008-04-25. ^ Sprague, David. "Rock and Roll Hall of Fame 2006: Black Sabbath". Rollingstone.com. http://www.rollingstone.com/artists/blacksabbath/articles/story/9438157/rock_and_roll_hall_of_fame_2006_black_sabbath. Retrieved on 2008-04-25. ^ a b Rosen 1996, p. 135 ^ "Tony Iommi interview". http://iommi.com/images/spread.jpg. Retrieved on March 1, 2009. ^ Diehl, Matt. "The Holy Sabbath". Rollingstone.com. http://www.rollingstone.com/artists/blacksabbath/articles/story/5939997/the_holy_sabbath. Retrieved on 2008-04-25. ^ "The Greatest Artists of All Time". Rollingstone.com. http://www.rollingstone.com/artists/blacksabbath/articles/story/7249931/the_immortals__the_greatest_artists_of_all_time_85_black_sabbath. Retrieved on 2008-04-25. ^ "All Time 100". Rollingstone.com. http://www.time.com/time/2006/100albums/0,27693,Paranoid,00.html. Retrieved on 2008-04-25. ^ "BLACK SABBATH, JUDAS PRIEST And METALLICA Are 'Greatest Heavy Metal Bands Of All Time". Blabbermouth.net. http://www.roadrunnerrecords.com/blabbermouth.net/news.aspx?mode=Article&newsitemID=55087. Retrieved on 2008-04-25. ^ "Rock the Net-VH1: 100 Greatest Hard Rock Artists". http://www.rockonthenet.com/archive/2000/vh1hardrock.htm. Retrieved on April 9, 2009. ^ "BLACK SABBATH's 'Iron Man' Tops VH1 List As the Greatest Metal Song of All Time". Blabbermouth.net. http://www.roadrunnerrecords.com/blabbermouth.net/news.aspx?mode=Article&newsitemID=51784. Retrieved on 2008-04-25. ^ "IRON MAIDEN Bassist Talks About His Technique And Influences". Blabbermouth.net. http://www.roadrunnerrecords.com/blabbermouth.net/news.aspx?mode=Article&newsitemID=27275. Retrieved on 2008-04-25. ^ "OPETH Pays Tribute To Classic Heavy Metal Artists". Blabbermouth.net. http://www.roadrunnerrecords.com/blabbermouth.net/news.aspx?mode=Article&newsitemID=80477. Retrieved on 2008-04-25. ^ Turman, Katherine. "Black Sabbath - Bank One Ballpark, Phoenix, Dec. 31, 1998". Rollingstone.com. http://www.rollingstone.com/artists/blacksabbath/articles/story/5921802/black_sabbath. Retrieved on 2008-04-25. ^ Di Perna, Alan. "Zero Worship", Guitar World. December 1995. ^ "BLACK SABBATH Bassist: 'It's Great When Bands Cite Us As Their Influence". Blabbermouth.net. http://www.roadrunnerrecords.com/blabbermouth.net/news.aspx?mode=Article&newsitemID=77507. Retrieved on 2008-04-25. ^ "HEAVEN AND HELL, MEGADETH Perform In Los Angeles; Photos Available". Blabbermouth.net. http://www.roadrunnerrecords.com/blabbermouth.net/news.aspx?mode=Article&newsitemID=71459. Retrieved on 2008-04-25. ^ "Ex-FEAR FACTORY Axeman DINO CAZARES Talks Guitars". Blabbermouth.net. http://www.roadrunnerrecords.com/blabbermouth.net/news.aspx?mode=Article&newsitemID=73036. Retrieved on 2008-04-25. ^ "GODSMACK'S Next Album Will Rock In A Bluesier Way". Blabbermouth.net. http://www.roadrunnerrecords.com/blabbermouth.net/news.aspx?mode=Article&newsitemID=28660. Retrieved on 2008-04-25. ^ "METALLICA Induct BLACK SABBATH Into ROCK AND ROLL HALL OF FAME: Photos Available". Blabbermouth.net. http://www.roadrunnerrecords.com/blabbermouth.net/news.aspx?mode=Article&newsitemID=49540. Retrieved on 2008-04-25. ^ a b c "Metal/Hard Rock Musicians Pay Tribute To BLACK SABBATH's 'Paranoid'". Blabbermouth.net. http://www.roadrunnerrecords.com/blabbermouth.net/news.aspx?mode=Article&newsitemID=41860. Retrieved on 2008-04-25. ^ Morgan, Anthony. "LAMB OF GOD To Switch Record Labels For Non-U.S. Territories". Blabbermouth.net. http://www.roadrunnerrecords.com/blabbermouth.net/news.aspx?mode=Article&newsitemID=88379. Retrieved on 2008-04-25.  External links Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Black Sabbath Official Black Sabbath site [hide]v • d • eBlack Sabbath Ozzy Osbourne • Tony Iommi • Geezer Butler • Bill Ward Vinny Appice • Bev Bevan • Jo Burt • Bob Daisley • Ronnie James Dio • Ian Gillan • Ray Gillen • Glenn Hughes • Tony Martin • Neil Murray • Geoff Nicholls • Cozy Powell • Bobby Rondinelli • Eric Singer • Dave Spitz • Dave Walker Studio albums Black Sabbath • Paranoid • Master of Reality • Black Sabbath Vol. 4 • Sabbath Bloody Sabbath • Sabotage • Technical Ecstasy • Never Say Die! • Heaven and Hell • Mob Rules • Born Again • Seventh Star • The Eternal Idol • Headless Cross • Tyr • Dehumanizer • Cross Purposes • Forbidden Live albums Live Evil • Cross Purposes Live • Reunion • Past Lives • Live at Hammersmith Odeon Compilations We Sold Our Soul for Rock 'n' Roll • Under Wheels of Confusion • The Sabbath Stones • Symptom of the Universe: The Original Black Sabbath 1970–1978 • Black Box: The Complete Original Black Sabbath (1970–1978) • Greatest Hits 1970–1978 • The Dio Years • The Rules of Hell Unofficial albums Live at Last • The Sabbath Collection • The Ozzy Osbourne Years • The Best of Black Sabbath Singles "Evil Woman" • "N.I.B." • "The Wizard" • "Paranoid" • "Iron Man" • "War Pigs" • "Fairies Wear Boots" • "Sweet Leaf" • "Children of the Grave" • "After Forever" • "Changes" • "Sabbath Bloody Sabbath" • "Symptom of the Universe" • "Rock 'n' Roll Doctor" • "Dirty Women" • "Never Say Die!" • "Neon Knights" • "Die Young" • "The Mob Rules" • "Turn Up the Night" • "Trashed" • "No Stranger to Love" • "TV Crimes" • "Psycho Man" Videos Never Say Die • Black and Blue • The Black Sabbath Story, Vol. 1 • The Black Sabbath Story, Vol. 2 • The Last Supper • Inside Black Sabbath - 1970-1992 • Black Sabbath's Paranoid • Rock Review • In Their Own Words • Hangin' with Heaven and Hell Related articles Discography • Members • Heaven and Hell (tour) • In These Black Days • In These Black Days: A Tribute to Black Sabbath Vol. 1 • Nativity in Black • Born Again Tour 1983 Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Black_Sabbath" Categories: 1960s music groups | 1970s music groups | 1980s music groups | 1990s music groups | 2000s music groups | Black Sabbath | English heavy metal musical groups | English rock music groups | Grammy Award winners | I.R.S. Records artists | Music from Birmingham, England | Musical groups established in 1968 | Musical quartets | Rock and Roll Hall of Fame inductees | UK Music Hall of Fame inductees
227's YouTube "Chili" - STOMP THE YARD (BLACK COLLEGE STEP SHOW MOVIE) Starring Columbus Short, Meagan Good, Ne-Yo, Darrin Henson, Chris Brown, Brian White, Las Alonso, Valerie Pettiford & Harry Lennix (NBA Mix)!
Beyonce * Maxwell * Mario ft. Gucci Mane & sean Garrett * Drake ft. Lil Wayne * Ginuwine * Fabolous Featuring The-Dream * Keyshia Cole Duet With Monica * Jay-Z, Rihanna & Kanye West * Gucci Mane Featuring Plies * Mary Mary Featuring Kierra "KiKi" Sheard * Ice Cream Paint Job * Pleasure P * Mariah Carey * Trey Songz * Trey Songz Featuring Gucci Mane & Soulja Boy Tell'em * R. Kelly Featuring Keri Hilson * K'Jon * Young Money * Twista Featuring Erika Shevon * Yo Gotti * New Boyz * Jeremih * Keri Hilson Featuring Kanye West & Ne-Yo * Musiq Soulchild * Whitney Houston * Anthony Hamilton * Charlie Wilson * Chrisette Michele * Jamie Foxx Featuring T-Pain * Plies * LeToya Featuring Ludacris * Mary J. Blige Featuring Drake * Mullage * Charlie Wilson * Jamie Foxx Featuring Drake, Kanye West + The-Dream * Jamie Foxx Featuring Drake, Kanye West + The-Dream * Jeremih * Mishon * Jennifer Hudson * Clipse Featuring Pharrell Williams * Kid Cudi Featuring Kanye West & Common * Raphael Saadiq Featuring Stevie Wonder & CJ * Anthony Hamilton Featuring David Banner * Jazmine Sullivan * Trey Songz Featuring Drake * F.L.Y. (Fast Life Yungstaz) * Laura Izibor
Jamaal Al-Din's Hoops 227 (227's YouTube Chili")!
Beyonce * Shakira * Jordin Sparks * Mariah Carey * New Boyz * Jason DeRulo * Mario ft. Gucci Mane & Sean Garrett * Katy Perry * The Black Eyed Peas * Colby Caillat * Fabolous ft. The Dream * Jason Aldean * Daughtry * Lady Gaga * Michael Franti & Spearhead Featuring Cherine Anderson * Boys Like Girls * Flo Rida Featuring Ne-Yo * Dorrough * Green Day * Linkin Park * Pink * Justin Bieber * Rob Thomas * Maxwell * Jason Mraz * Young Money * The Fray * Rascal Flatts * Zac Brown Band * Shinedown * Disney's Friends For Change * Toby Keith * Darius Rucker * Cascada * Billy Currington * Justin Moore * Kid Cudi Featuring Kanye West & Common * Keith Urban * Randy Houser * Drake Featuring Lil Wayne * Jeremih * Pearl Jam * Kelly Clarkson * George Strait * LMFAO * Twista Featuring Erika Shevon * Uncle Kracker * Eric Church * Jack Ingram * Love And Theft * Parachute * Chris Young * Theory Of A Deadman * Tim McGraw * Sean Paul * Gloriana * Creed * Ginuwine * Keyshia Cole Duet With Monica * Blake Shelton * Iyaz
2009 NCAA Basketball Tournament! List of NCAA Division 1 Teams & Coaches at 227!
America East Conference Albany - Will Brown Binghamton - Kevin Broadus Boston University - Dennis Wolff Hartford - Dan Leibovitz Maine - Ted Woodward New Hampshire - Bill Herrion Stony Brook - Steve Pikiell UMBC - Randy Monroe Vermont - Mike Lonergan 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! America East Conference
Atlantic 10 Conference Charlotte - Bobby Lutz Dayton - Brian Gregory Duquesne - Ron Everhart Fordham - Dereck Whittenburg George Washington - Karl Hobbs La Salle - John Giannini Rhode Island - Jim Baron Richmond - Chris Mooney St. Bonaventure - Mark Schmidt Saint Joseph's - Phil Martelli Saint Louis - Rick Majerus Temple - Fran Dunphy UMass - Derek Kellogg Xavier - Sean Miller 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Atlantic 10 Conference
Atlantic Coast Conference Boston College - Al Skinner Clemson - Oliver Purnell Duke - Mike Krzyzewski Florida State - Leonard Hamilton Georgia Tech - Paul Hewitt Maryland - Gary Williams Miami (Florida) - Frank Haith North Carolina - Roy Williams North Carolina State - Sidney Lowe Virginia - Dave Leitao Virginia Tech - Seth Greenberg Wake Forest - Dino Gaudio 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Atlantic Coast Conference
Atlantic Sun Conference Belmont - Rick Byrd Campbell - Robbie Laing East Tennessee State - Murry Bartow Florida Gulf Coast - Dave Balza Jacksonville - Cliff Warren Kennesaw State - Tony Ingle Lipscomb - Scott Sanderson Mercer - Bob Hoffman North Florida - Matt Kilcullen Stetson - Derek Waugh USC Upstate - Eddie Payne 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Atlantic Sun Conference
Big 12 Conference Baylor - Scott Drew Colorado - Jeff Bzdelik Iowa State - Greg McDermott Kansas - Bill Self Kansas State - Frank Martin Missouri - Mike Anderson Nebraska - Doc Sadler Oklahoma - Jeff Capel III Oklahoma State - Travis Ford Texas - Rick Barnes Texas A&M - Mark Turgeon Texas Tech - Pat Knight 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Big 12 Conference
Big East Conference Cincinnati - Mick Cronin Connecticut - Jim Calhoun DePaul - Jerry Wainwright Georgetown - John Thompson III Louisville - Rick Pitino Marquette - Buzz Williams Notre Dame - Mike Brey Pittsburgh - Jamie Dixon Providence - Keno Davis Rutgers - Fred Hill St. John's - Norm Roberts Seton Hall - Bobby Gonzalez South Florida - Stan Heath Syracuse - Jim Boeheim Villanova - Jay Wright West Virginia - Bobby Huggins 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Big East Conference
Big Sky Conference Eastern Washington - Kirk Earlywine Idaho State - Joe O'Brien Montana - Wayne Tinkle Montana State - Brad Huse Northern Arizona - Mike Adras Northern Colorado - Tad Boyle Portland State - Ken Bone Sacramento State - Brian Katz Weber State - Randy Rahe 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Big Sky Conference
Big South Conference Charleston Southern - Barclay Radebaugh Coastal Carolina - Cliff Ellis Gardner-Webb - Rick Scruggs High Point - Bart Lundy Liberty - Ritchie McKay Presbyterian - Gregg Nibert Radford - Brad Greenberg UNC-Asheville - Eddie Biedenbach VMI - Duggar Baucom Winthrop - Randy Peele 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Big South Conference
Big Ten Conference Illinois - Bruce Weber Indiana - Tom Crean Iowa - Todd Lickliter Michigan - John Beilein Michigan State - Tom Izzo Minnesota - Tubby Smith Northwestern - Bill Carmody Ohio State - Thad Matta Penn State - Ed DeChellis Purdue - Matt Painter Wisconsin - Bo Ryan 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Big Ten Conference
Big West Conference Cal Poly - Kevin Bromley Cal State Fullerton - Bob Burton Cal State Northridge - Bobby Braswell Long Beach State - Dan Monson Pacific - Bob Thomason UC Davis - Gary Stewart UC Irvine - Pat Douglass UC Riverside - Jim Wooldridge UC Santa Barbara - Bob Williams 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Big West Conference
Colonial Athletic Association Delaware - Monte Ross Drexel - Bruiser Flint George Mason - Jim Larranaga Georgia State - Rod Barnes Hofstra - Tom Pecora James Madison - Matt Brady Northeastern - Bill Coen Old Dominion - Blaine Taylor Towson - Pat Kennedy UNC-Wilmington - Benny Moss Virginia Commonwealth - Anthony Grant William & Mary - Tony Shaver 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Colonial Athletic Association
Conference USA East Carolina - Mack McCarthy Houston - Tom Penders Marshall - Donnie Jones Memphis - John Calipari Rice - Ben Braun Southern Methodist - Matt Doherty Southern Mississippi - Larry Eustachy Tulane - Dave Dickerson Tulsa - Doug Wojcik UAB - Mike Davis UCF - Kirk Speraw UTEP - Tony Barbee 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Conference USA
Horizon League - Butler - Brad Stevens Cleveland State - Gary Waters Detroit - Ray McCallum Loyola (Chicago) - Jim Whitesell UIC - Jimmy Collins UW-Green Bay - Tod Kowalczyk UW-Milwaukee - Rob Jeter Valparaiso - Homer Drew Wright State - Brad Brownell Youngstown State - Jerry Slocum 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Horizon League
Independents Bryant - Tim O'Shea Cal State Bakersfield - Keith Brown Chicago State - Benjy Taylor Houston Baptist - Ron Cottrell Longwood - Mike Gillian New Jersey Institute of Technology - Jim Engles North Carolina Central - Henry Dickerson Savannah State - Horace Broadnax SIU-Edwardsville - Lennox Forrester Texas-Pan American - Tom Schuberth Utah Valley - Dick Hunsaker 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! NCAA Division I independent schools (basketball)
Ivy League Brown - Jesse Agel Columbia - Joe Jones Cornell - Steve Donahue Dartmouth - Terry Dunn Harvard - Tommy Amaker Penn - Glen Miller Princeton - Sydney Johnson Yale - James Jones 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Ivy League
Metro Atlantic Athletic Conference Canisius - Tom Parrotta Fairfield - Ed Cooley Iona - Kevin Willard Loyola (Maryland) - Jimmy Patsos Manhattan - Barry Rohrssen Marist - Chuck Martin Niagara - Joe Mihalich Rider - Tommy Dempsey St. Peter's - John Dunne Siena - Fran McCaffery 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Mid-American Conference
Mid-American Conference Akron – Keith Dambrot Ball State – Billy Taylor Bowling Green – Louis Orr Buffalo – Reggie Witherspoon Central Michigan – Ernie Ziegler Eastern Michigan – Charles Ramsey Kent State – Geno Ford Miami – Charlie Coles Northern Illinois – Ricardo Patton Ohio – John Groce Toledo – Gene Cross Western Michigan – Steve Hawkins 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Mid-American Conference
Mid-Eastern Athletic Conference Bethune-Cookman - Clifford Reed Coppin State - Ron Mitchell Delaware State - Greg Jackson Florida A&M - Mike Gillespie Hampton - Kevin Nickelberry Howard - Gil Jackson Maryland-Eastern Shore - Meredith Smith Morgan State - Todd Bozeman Norfolk State - Anthony Evans North Carolina A&T - Jerry Eaves South Carolina State - Tim Carter Winston-Salem State - Bobby Collins 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Mid-Eastern Athletic Conference
Missouri Valley Conference Bradley - Jim Les Creighton - Dana Altman Drake - Mark Phelps Evansville - Marty Simmons Illinois State - Tim Jankovich Indiana State - Kevin McKenna Missouri State - Cuonzo Martin Northern Iowa - Ben Jacobson Southern Illinois - Chris Lowery Wichita State - Gregg Marshall 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Missouri Valley Conference
Mountain West Conference Air Force - Jeff Reynolds Brigham Young - Dave Rose Colorado State - Tim Miles New Mexico - Steve Alford San Diego State - Steve Fisher Texas Christian - Neil Dougherty UNLV - Lon Kruger Utah - Jim Boylen Wyoming - Heath Schroyer 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Mountain West Conference
Northeast Conference Central Connecticut State - Howie Dickenman Fairleigh Dickinson - Tom Green LIU-Brooklyn - Jim Ferry Monmouth - Dave Calloway Mount St. Mary's - Milan Brown Quinnipiac - Tom Moore Robert Morris - Mike Rice Jr. Sacred Heart - Dave Bike St. Francis (PA) - Don Friday St. Francis (NY) - Brian Nash Wagner - Mike Deane 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Northeast Conference
Ohio Valley Conference Austin Peay - Dave Loos Eastern Illinois - Mike Miller Eastern Kentucky - Jeff Neubauer Jacksonville State - James Green Morehead State - Donnie Tyndall Murray State - Billy Kennedy Southeast Missouri - Zac Roman Tennessee-Martin - Bret Campbell Tennessee State - Cy Alexander Tennessee Tech - Mike Sutton 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Ohio Valley Conference
Pacific-10 Conference Arizona - Russ Pennell Arizona State - Herb Sendek California - Mike Montgomery Oregon - Ernie Kent Oregon State - Craig Robinson Stanford - Johnny Dawkins UCLA - Ben Howland USC - Tim Floyd Washington - Lorenzo Romar Washington State - Tony Bennett 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Pacific-10 Conference
Patriot League American - Jeff Jones Army - Jim Crews Bucknell - Dave Paulsen Colgate - Emmett Davis Holy Cross - Ralph Willard Lafayette - Fran O'Hanlon Lehigh - Brett Reed Navy - Billy Lange 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Patriot League
Southeastern Conference Alabama - Philip Pearson Arkansas - John Pelphrey Auburn - Jeff Lebo Florida - Billy Donovan Georgia - Pete Herrmann Kentucky - Billy Gillispie LSU - Trent Johnson Mississippi - Andy Kennedy Mississippi State - Rick Stansbury South Carolina - Darrin Horn Tennessee - Bruce Pearl Vanderbilt - Kevin Stallings 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Southeastern Conference
Southern Conference Appalachian State - Houston Fancher Chattanooga - John Shulman The Citadel - Ed Conroy College of Charleston - Bobby Cremins Davidson - Bob McKillop Elon - Ernie Nestor Furman - Jeff Jackson Georgia Southern - Jeff Price Samford - Jimmy Tillette UNC-Greensboro - Mike Dement Western Carolina - Larry Hunter Wofford - Mike Young 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Southern Conference
Southland Conference Central Arkansas - Rand Chappell Lamar - Steve Roccaforte McNeese State - Dave Simmons Nicholls State - J. P. Piper Northwestern State - Mike McConathy Sam Houston State - Bob Marlin Southeastern Louisiana - Jim Yarbrough Stephen F. Austin - Danny Kaspar Texas A&M-Corpus Christi - Perry Clark Texas-Arlington - Scott Cross Texas-San Antonio - Brooks Thompson Texas State - Doug Davalos 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Southland Conference
Southwestern Athletic Conference Alabama A&M - L. Vann Pettaway Alabama State - Lewis Jackson Alcorn State - Samuel West Arkansas-Pine Bluff - George Ivory Grambling State - Larry Wright Jackson State - Tevester Anderson Mississippi Valley State - Sean Woods Prairie View A&M - Byron Rimm II Southern - Rob Spivery Texas Southern - Tony Harvey 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Southwestern Athletic Conference
The Summit League Centenary - Greg Gary IPFW - Dane Fife IUPUI - Ron Hunter North Dakota State - Saul Phillips Oakland - Greg Kampe Oral Roberts - Scott Sutton South Dakota State - Scott Nagy Southern Utah - Roger Reid UMKC - Matt Brown Western Illinois - Derek Thomas 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! The Summit League
Sun Belt Conference Arkansas-Little Rock - Steve Shields Arkansas State - Dickey Nutt Denver - Joe Scott Florida Atlantic - Mike Jarvis Florida International - Sergio Rouco Louisiana-Lafayette - Robert Lee Louisiana-Monroe - Orlando Early Middle Tennessee - Kermit Davis New Orleans - Joe Pasternack North Texas - Johnny Jones South Alabama - Ronnie Arrow Troy - Don Maestri Western Kentucky - Ken McDonald 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Sun Belt Conference
West Coast Conference Gonzaga - Mark Few Loyola Marymount - Rodney Tention Pepperdine - Vance Walberg Portland - Eric Reveno Saint Mary's - Randy Bennett San Diego - Bill Grier San Francisco - Rex Walters Santa Clara - Kerry Keating 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! West Coast Conference
Western Athletic Conference Boise State - Greg Graham Fresno State - Steve Cleveland Hawai?i - Bob Nash Idaho - Don Verlin Louisiana Tech - Kerry Rupp Nevada - Mark Fox New Mexico State - Marvin Menzies San Jose State - George Nessman Utah State - Stew Morrill 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Western Athletic Conference
2Pac 50 Cent A Adam Tensta Akon Aaliyah Ashanti Andre 3000 B Bow Wow Bobby Valentino Beyonce Bone Thugs n Harmony Birdman (rapper) Busta Rhymes Bobby Fischer C Chris Brown Cherish Cassidy Chingy Chamillionaire Christina Milian Chrisette Michele Cashis Ciara Cypress Hill Calzone Mafia Cuban Link D Destiny's Child DJ Clue Demetri Montaque Danity Kane Day 26 Donnie D12 DJ Khaled Dr. Dre E E-40 Eminem Eazy-E F Fabolous Flo Rida Fat Joe Frankie J G G-Unit The Game H Hurricane Chris I Ice Cube J Jay-Z J.R. Rotem J Holiday Jordan Sparks K Kanye West Kelly Rowland keri hilson The Kreators L Lil' Kim Lil' Mo Lil Jon Lil Mama Lloyd Banks Lil Wayne Ludacris Lloyd Lil Mama Lil Eazy-E Leona lewis M MC Hammer Mike Shorey MF Doom Mariah Carey Mario Mary J. Blige N Ne-Yo Nate Dogg Niia N.W.A. Notorious B.I.G. Nas Nick Cannon Nelly Necro O Olivia Omarion Obie Trice Old Dirty Bastard P Public Enemy Plies P Diddy pink Pharcyde Q R Red Cafe Run DMC Ray J R Kelly Rihanna Rick Ross (rapper) S Sean Combs Sean Kingston Snoop Dogg Stargate Sean Garrett Suge Knight Soulja Boy Tell 'Em Stat Quo shakira T The Notorious B.I.G. Tupac Shakur Trina Tyrese T-Pain Three 6 Mafia T.I. Too Phat U Usher V V.I.C. W Warren G Wyclef Jean Wu Tang Clan will.i.am X Xzibit Y Young Jeezy Yung Berg Z
Michael Jackson Bing Crosby U.S. The Beatles AC/DC ABBA Alla Bee Gees Bob Marley Celine Dion Cliff Richard The Drifters Elton John Herbert von Karajan Julio Iglesias Led Zeppelin Madonna Mariah Carey Elvis Presley Nana Mouskouri Pink Floyd The Rolling Stones Tino Rossi Wei Wei
Adriano Celentano Aerosmith Backstreet Boys Barry White Billy Joel Bon Jovi Boney M. The Carpenters Charles Aznavour Cher Chicago Dave Clark Five David Bowie Deep Purple Depeche Mode Dire Straits Dolly Parton The Eagles Electric Engelbert Humperdinck Fats Domino Fleetwood Mac The Four Seasons Frank Sinatra Garth Brooks Genesis George Michael Guns N' Roses James Last The Jackson 5 Janet Jackson Johnny Hallyday Kenny Rogers Lionel Richie Luciano Pavarotti Metallica Michiya Mihashi Mireille Mathieu Modern Talking Neil Diamond Olivia Newton-John Patti Page Paul McCartney Perry Como Pet Shop Boys Phil Collins Prince Queen Ricky Nelson Roberto Carlos Rod Stewart Salvatore Adamo Status Quo Stevie Wonder Teresa Teng Tina Turner Tom Jones U2 Valeriya The Ventures Whitney Houston The Who
Annie Lennox B'z Britney Spears Carlos Santana Dalida Earth, Wind & Fire Eddy Arnold Eminem Eurythmics Gloria Estefan Hibari Misora Journey Scorpions Van Halen Ace of Base Alan Jackson Country Alice Cooper Hard rock Andrea Bocelli Opera The Andrews Sisters Swing Ayumi Hamasaki Pop Black Sabbath Heavy metal Barbra Streisand Pop / Adult contemporary Beach Boys Rock Pop Bob Dylan Folk / Rock Bob Seger Rock Boston Arena rock Boyz II Men R&B Bruce Springsteen Rock Bryan Adams Def Leppard Destiny's Child R&B / Pop Dreams Come True Pop / Jazz Duran Duran Enya Ireland Four Tops George Strait Glay Iron Maiden Jay-Z Hip hop Jean Michel Jarre Jethro Tull Johnny Cash Kazuhiro Moriuchi Kiss Hard rock Kenny G Kylie Minogue Luis Miguel Linkin Park Meat Loaf Michael Bolton Mills Brothers Mötley Crüe Mr.Children Nat King Cole New Kids on the Block Nirvana 'N Sync Oasis Orhan Gencebay Pearl Jam Petula Clark Red Hot Chili Peppers The Police Ray Conniff Reba McEntire R.E.M. Richard Clayderman Ricky Martin Robbie Williams Roxette Sweden Shakira Colombia
The Seekers Australia Spice Girls Tom Petty & The Heartbreakers Tony Bennett T.Rex UB40 Vicente Fernandez Village People Willie Nelson
Jamaal Al-Din, a native of Grand Rapids, Michigan and former leading scorer of Olympic Basketball and LSU great, Ed Palubinskas brings to you Michigan State University's and the NBA's Earvin "Magic" Johnson at 227's YouTube "MAGIC!" provided by Jamaal Al-Din's Hoops 227-the everything basketball website, featuring YouTube Videos and Wikipedia information on the legendary Earvin "Magic" Johnson, The Magic Johnson Foundation, Magic Johnson Enterprises, and everything including the magical phrase..."MAGIC!" 227's YouTube "MAGIC!"
As we look to expand basketball marketing, camps and clinics nationally, our basketball affiliate programs are scheduled to begin in March of 2008. Our affiliates, exciting, take a look at this list: ebay, StubHub.com, Yahoo Affiliate Program!, TickCo Premium Seating, RazorGator Affiliate Program, SightSell, VistaPrint.com, Pokeorder and WeHaveSeats.com. Jamaal Al-Din's Hoops 227 welcomes our affiliate partners for 2008. Among the items offered our NCAA & NBA basketball tickets both premium and discounted rates. Basketball shoes and apparel for kids, fans, players and coaches ranging from Air Jordans, LeBron James, NIKE, Adidas, AND1, hats, collectibles and memoralbilia! Jamaal Al-Din's Hoops 227- The everything basketball website!
?227's YouTube "Chili" features these exciting YouTube music and entertainment celebrities...click onto to these 227 YouTube "Chili" links, channels and articles for the most watched YouTube hip-hop music videos in the world!
Sean Kingston, Justin Timberlake, M.I.A'"Paper Planes!" , Timbaland, 50 Cent, P-Diddy, Kanye West. Rihanna, Chris Brown, T.I.-"Big Things Poppin!" , Rihanna- Hate That I Love You (over 29 million views on YouTube)!, Leona Lewis, Soulja Boy, Britney Spears, Alicia Keys, Avril Lavigne, Alicia Keys- No One, Akon, NE-YO, LL Cool J, Dr. Dre, Snoop Dogg, Dmx, Jay-z, The Notorious B.I.G, 2PAC, Will Smith, Jonas Brothers, Pink "So What!" , Jordin Sparks feta. Chris Brown- "No Air" Official Music Video-over 33 million views on YouTube!), Lil Jon- get low music movie, Ludacris, Ice Cube, Flo Rida feat. T.Pain Music from the Movie Step Up 2 "Low," Chris Brown*Chris Brown feat. T.Pain- Kiss Kiss (over 51 million views on YouTube)!, Chris Brown-"With You," Chris Brown feat. Lil' Wayne (over 56 million views on YouTube!, Chris Brown "YO," Chris Brown-Run It, Chris Brown- Forever, Wu Tang Clan, The Fugees, Jordin Sparks-Tattoo, Rhianna- Cry, Rihanna- unfaithful, Rhianna- Umbrella (over 43 million views on YouTube/You Tube)!, Ashanti, Fergie Fergalicious, Fergie- Clumsy!, Rhianna- Dont' Stop The Music (over 62 million views on YouTube), Avril Lavign- Girlfriend (over 92 million views on YouTube)!, Clay Aiken, Akon, Christina Aguilera-Hurt, Clay Aiken-On My Way Here, All-American Rejects, All-American Rejects-Move Along, All-American Rejects-It Ends Tonight, Ashley Parker Angel, Michael Jackson ("Thriller"), Backstreet Boys, Augustana, Natasha Bedingfeild, Michael Jackson, Natasha Bedingfield feat. Sean Kingston-Love Like This, Natasha Bedingfield-Pocketful of Sunshine and lots more at 227's YouTube Chili!!! Your source for the world's most watched YouTube Music Videos at Jamaal Al-Din's Hoops 227- the everything basketball website!
Also: Jesse McCartney, Ray J,Usher,Elliott Yamin,Jonas Brothers,Fergie,Taylor Swift, Nelly Furtado, Jennifer Lopez, Flyleaf,Maroon 5,Kanye West,Keyshia Cole, The Pussycat Dolls,Colby O'Donis,Ashanti,R. Kelly,Girlicious, Colbi Calliat, Boy George,Mario,Three Days Grace,Beyonce', Gorillaz,Carrie Underwood,3 Doors Down,Finger Eleven, Ginuwine,Baby Bash,Kid Rock,Joe, Gwen Steffani, Billy Ray Cyrus, Danity Kane, Janel Parrish, Ciara, NLT, Fall Out Boy, Josh Turner, Fantasia and more!