Canada From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
For a topic outline on this subject, see List of basic Canada topics. For other uses of "Canada" or "Canadian", see Canada (disambiguation) and Canadian (disambiguation). Canada / Flag Coat of arms / Motto: A Mari Usque Ad Mare (Latin) "From Sea to Sea" Anthem: "O Canada" Royal anthem: "God Save the Queen" / Capital Ottawa 45°24′N 75°40′W / 45.4, -75.667 Largest city Toronto Official languages English, French Recognised regional languages Inuktitut, Inuinnaqtun, Cree, Dëne Sųłiné, Gwich’in, Inuvialuktun, Slavey, Tłįchǫ Yatiì Ethnic groups 28% British, 23% French, 3.5% Aboriginal peoples, 47% other
Demonym Canadian Government Parliamentary democracy and Constitutional monarchy - Monarch HM Queen Elizabeth II - Governor General Michaëlle Jean - Prime Minister Stephen Harper Establishment - British North America Acts July 1, 1867 - Statute of Westminster December 11, 1931 - Canada Act April 17, 1982 Area - Total 9,984,670 km² (2nd) 3,854,085 sq mi - Water (%) 8.92 (891,163 km²/344,080 mi²) Population - 2008 estimate 33,379,000 (36th) - 2006 census 31,612,897 - Density 3.2/km² (219th) 8.3/sq mi GDP (PPP) 2007 estimate - Total $1.274 trillion (13th) - Per capita $38,200 (12th) GDP (nominal) 2007 estimate - Total $1.432 trillion (9th) - Per capita $42,738 (14th) Gini 32.1 (2005) HDI (2007) ▲ 0.961 (high) (4th) Currency Dollar ($) (CAD) Time zone (UTC−3.5 to −8) - Summer (DST) (UTC−2.5 to −7) Internet TLD .ca Calling code +1 Canada portal Canada (IPA: /ˈkænədə/) is a country occupying most of northern North America, extending from the Atlantic Ocean in the east to the Pacific Ocean in the west and northward into the Arctic Ocean. It is the world's second largest country by total area, and shares land borders with the United States to the south and northwest.
Atlanta, GA * Boston, MA * Charlotte, NC * Chicago, IL * Cleveland, OH * Dallas, TX * Denver, CO * Detroit, MI * Oakland, CA * Houston, TX * Indianapolis, IN * Los Angeles, CA * Memphis, TN * Miami, FL * Milwaukee, WI * Minneapolis, MN * East Rutherford, NJ * New Orleans, LA * New York, NY * Orlando, FL * Philadelphia, PA * Phoenix, AZ * Portland, OR * Sacramento, CA * San Antonio, TX * Oklahoma City, OK * Toronto, Canada * Salt Lake City, UT * Washington, D.C.
The land occupied by Canada was inhabited for millennia by various aboriginal people. Beginning in the late 15th century, British and French expeditions explored and later settled the Atlantic coast. France ceded nearly all of its colonies in North America in 1763 after the Seven Years' War. In 1867, with the union of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces. This began an accretion of additional provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the United Kingdom, highlighted by the Statute of Westminster in 1931, and culminating in the Canada Act in 1982 which severed the vestiges of legal dependence on the British parliament.
A federation comprising ten provinces and three territories, Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy, with Queen Elizabeth II as its head of state. It is a bilingual and multicultural country, with both English and French as official languages at the federal level. Technologically advanced and industrialized, Canada maintains a diversified economy that is heavily reliant upon its abundant natural resources and upon trade—particularly with the United States, with which Canada has had a long and complex relationship.
Contents 1 Etymology 2 History 3 Government and politics 4 Law 5 Foreign relations and military 6 Provinces and territories 7 Geography and climate 8 Economy 9 Demographics 10 Culture 11 Language 12 International rankings 13 See also 14 Notes 15 References 16 External links
Etymology Main article: Name of Canada Jacques CartierThe name Canada comes from a St. Lawrence Iroquoian word kanata, meaning "village" or "settlement". In 1535, inhabitants of the present-day Quebec City region used the word to direct explorer Jacques Cartier toward the village of Stadacona. Cartier used the word 'Canada' to refer to not only that village, but the entire area subject to Donnacona, Chief at Stadacona. By 1545, European books and maps began referring to this region as Canada. The French colony of Canada referred to the part of New France along the Saint Lawrence River and the northern shores of the Great Lakes. Later, it was split into two British colonies, called Upper Canada and Lower Canada until their union as the British Province of Canada in 1841. Upon Confederation in 1867, the name Canada was adopted for the entire country, and Dominion was conferred as the country's title. It was frequently referred to as the Dominion of Canada until the 1950s. As Canada asserted its political autonomy from Britain, the federal government increasingly used Canada on legal state documents and treaties. The Canada Act 1982 refers only to "Canada" and, as such, it is currently the only legal (and bilingual) name. This was reflected in 1982 with the renaming of the national holiday from Dominion Day to Canada Day.
History Main articles: History of Canada, Timeline of Canadian history, and Territorial evolution of Canada The fur trade was Canada's most important industry until the 19th centuryFirst Nation and Inuit traditions maintain that aboriginal peoples have resided on their lands since the beginning of time. Archaeological studies support a human presence in the northern Yukon from 26,500 years ago, and in southern Ontario from 9,500 years ago. Europeans first arrived when the Vikings settled briefly at L'Anse aux Meadows around AD 1000. Canada's Atlantic coast would next be explored John Cabot in 1497 for England and Jacques Cartier in 1534 for France; seasonal Basque whalers and fishermen subsequently exploited the region between the Grand Banks and Tadoussac for over a century. French explorer Samuel de Champlain arrived in 1603 and established the first permanent European settlements at Port Royal in 1605 and Quebec City in 1608. These would become respectively the capitals of Acadia and Canada. Among French colonists of New France, Canadiens extensively settled the Saint Lawrence River valley, Acadians settled the present-day Maritimes, while French fur traders and Catholic missionaries explored the Great Lakes, Hudson Bay and the Mississippi watershed to Louisiana. The French and Iroquois Wars broke out over control of the fur trade. The Death of General Wolfe on the Plains of Abraham at Quebec in 1759, part of the Seven Years' WarThe English established fishing outposts in Newfoundland around 1610 and colonized the Thirteen Colonies to the south. A series of four Intercolonial Wars erupted between 1689 and 1763. Mainland Nova Scotia came under British rule with the Treaty of Utrecht (1713); the Treaty of Paris (1763) ceded Canada and most of New France to Britain following the Seven Years' War.
The Royal Proclamation (1763) carved the Province of Quebec out of New France and annexed Cape Breton Island to Nova Scotia. It also restricted the language and religious rights of French Canadians. In 1769, St. John's Island (now Prince Edward Island) became a separate colony. To avert conflict in Quebec, the Quebec Act of 1774 expanded Quebec's territory to the Great Lakes and Ohio Valley and re-established the French language, Catholic faith, and French civil law in Quebec; it angered many residents of the Thirteen Colonies, helping to fuel the American Revolution. The Treaty of Paris (1783) recognized American independence and ceded territories south of the Great Lakes to the United States. Approximately 50,000 United Empire Loyalists fled the United States to Canada. New Brunswick was split from Nova Scotia as part of a reorganization of Loyalist settlements in the Maritimes. To accommodate English-speaking Loyalists in Quebec, the Constitutional Act of 1791 divided the province into French-speaking Lower Canada and English-speaking Upper Canada, granting each their own elected Legislative Assembly. Canada (Upper and Lower) was the main front in the War of 1812 between the United States and British Empire. Its defence contributed to a sense of unity among British North Americans. Large-scale immigration to Canada began in 1815 from Britain and Ireland. The timber industry surpassed the fur trade in importance in the early nineteenth century. Fathers of Confederation by Robert Harris, an amalgamation of Charlottetown and Quebec conference scenesThe desire for responsible government resulted in the aborted Rebellions of 1837. The Durham Report subsequently recommended responsible government and the assimilation of French Canadians into British culture. The Act of Union 1840 merged The Canadas into a United Province of Canada. French and English Canadians worked together in the Assembly to reinstate French rights. Responsible government was established for all British North American provinces by 1849.
The signing of the Oregon Treaty by Britain and the United States in 1846 ended the Oregon boundary dispute, extending the border westward along the 49th parallel and paving the way for British colonies on Vancouver Island (1849) and in British Columbia (1858). Canada launched a series of western exploratory expeditions to claim Rupert's Land and the Arctic region. The Canadian population grew rapidly because of high birth rates; British immigration was offset by emigration to the United States, especially by French Canadians moving to New England. An animated map, exhibiting the growth and change of Canada's provinces and territories since ConfederationFollowing several constitutional conferences, the Constitution Act, 1867 brought about Confederation creating "one Dominion under the name of Canada" on July 1, 1867, with four provinces: Ontario, Quebec, Nova Scotia, and New Brunswick. Canada assumed control of Rupert's Land and the North-Western Territory to form the Northwest Territories, where Métis' grievances ignited the Red River Rebellion and the creation of the province of Manitoba in July 1870. British Columbia and Vancouver Island (which had united in 1866) and the colony of Prince Edward Island joined Confederation in 1871 and 1873, respectively. Prime Minister John A. Macdonald's Conservative Party established a National Policy of tariffs to protect nascent Canadian manufacturing industries. To open the West, the government sponsored construction of three trans-continental railways (most notably the Canadian Pacific Railway), opened the prairies to settlement with the Dominion Lands Act, and established the North-West Mounted Police to assert its authority over this territory. In 1898, after the Klondike Gold Rush in the Northwest Territories, the Canadian government created the Yukon territory. Under Liberal Prime Minister Wilfrid Laurier, continental European immigrants settled the prairies, and Alberta and Saskatchewan became provinces in 1905.
Canadian soldiers won the Battle of Vimy Ridge in 1917.Canada automatically entered World War I in 1914 with Britain's declaration of war, sending volunteers to the Western Front, who played a substantial role in the Battle of Vimy Ridge. The Conscription Crisis of 1917 erupted when conservative Prime Minister Robert Borden brought in compulsory military service over the objection of French-speaking Quebecers. In 1919, Canada joined the League of Nations independently of Britain; in 1931 the Statute of Westminster affirmed Canada's independence. The Great Depression brought economic hardship to all of Canada. In response, the Co-operative Commonwealth Federation (CCF) in Alberta and Saskatchewan presaged a welfare state as pioneered by Tommy Douglas in the 1940s and 1950s. Canada declared war on Germany independently during World War II under Liberal Prime Minister William Lyon Mackenzie King, three days after Britain. The first Canadian Army units arrived in Britain in December 1939. Canadian troops played important roles in the Battle of the Atlantic, the failed 1942 Dieppe Raid in France, the Allied invasion of Italy, the D-Day landings, the Battle of Normandy and the Battle of the Scheldt in 1944. Canada is credited by the Netherlands for having provided asylum and protection for its monarchy during the war after the country was occupied and the Netherlands credits Canada for its leadership and major contribution to the liberation of Netherlands from Nazi Germany. The Canadian economy boomed as industry manufactured military materiel for Canada, Britain, China and the Soviet Union. Despite another Conscription Crisis in Quebec, Canada finished the war with one of the largest armed forces in the world. In 1945, during the war, Canada became one of the first countries to join the United Nations.
In 1949, Newfoundland joined Confederation. Post-war prosperity and economic expansion ignited a baby boom and attracted immigration from war-ravaged European countries. The Constitution Act, 1982 during the official signing ceremony by Queen Elizabeth II in Ottawa on April 17, 1982Under successive Liberal governments of Lester B. Pearson and Pierre Trudeau, a new Canadian identity emerged. Canada adopted its current Maple Leaf Flag in 1965. In response to a more assertive French-speaking Quebec, the federal government became officially bilingual with the Official Languages Act of 1969. Non-discriminatory Immigration Acts were introduced in 1967 and 1976, and official multiculturalism in 1971; waves of non-European immigration changed the face of the country. Social democratic programs such as universal health care, the Canada Pension Plan, Canada Student Loans, the Foreign Investment Review Agency, and the National Energy Program were established in the 1960s and 1970s; provincial governments, particularly Quebec and Alberta, opposed many of these as incursions into their jurisdictions. Finally, constitutional conferences led by Prime Minister Trudeau resulted in the patriation of the constitution from Britain, enshrining a Charter of Rights and Freedoms based on individual rights in the Constitution Act of 1982. Canadians continue to take pride in their system of universal health care, their commitment to multiculturalism, and human rights. Quebec underwent profound social and economic changes during the Quiet Revolution of the 1960s. Quebec nationalists under Jean Lesage began pressing for greater autonomy. The radical Front de libération du Québec (FLQ) ignited the October Crisis in 1970 with bombings and kidnappings demanding Quebec independence. The more moderate Parti Québécois of René Lévesque came to power in 1976 and held an unsuccessful referendum on sovereignty-association in 1980. Efforts by the Progressive Conservative government of Brian Mulroney to constitutionally recognize Quebec as a "distinct society" with the Meech Lake Accord collapsed in 1989. Regional tensions ignited by the constitutional debate helped fledgling regional parties, the Bloc Québécois under Lucien Bouchard and the Reform Party under Preston Manning in Western Canada, relegate the Progressive Conservatives to fifth place in the federal election. A second Quebec referendum on sovereignty in 1995 was rejected by a slimmer margin of just 50.6% to 49.4%. In 1997, the Canadian Supreme Court ruled unilateral secession by a province to be unconstitutional, and the Liberal government of Jean Chrétien passed the "Clarity Act" outlining the terms of a negotiated departure. The Reform Party expanded to become the Canadian Alliance and merge with the Progressive Conservatives to form the Conservative Party of Canada in 2003. The Conservatives were elected as a minority government under Stephen Harper in the 2006 federal election. Later that year, Canada's parliament passed a symbolic motion to recognize the Québécois as a nation within Canada. Years of neglect and abuse by government agencies prompted aboriginal First Nations in the 1960s to use federal courts to press land claims and initiate negotiations with federal and provincial governments to recognize historical treaty rights. In the 1990s, frustration at the slow pace of negotiations gave way to violent confrontations in Oka, Ipperwash, and Gustafsen Lake. However, in 1999 Canada recognized Inuit self-government with the creation of Nunavut, and settled Nisga'a claims in B.C. In 2008, Canada's government officially apologized for the creation of residential schools set up to culturally assimilate aboriginal peoples which resulted in multiple abuses towards aboriginal people in these schools.
Government and politics Main articles: Government of Canada, Politics of Canada, and Monarchy of Canada Parliament Hill, OttawaCanada is a constitutional monarchy with Elizabeth II, Queen of Canada, as head of state and the Prime Minister as the head of the government. The country is a parliamentary democracy with a federal system of parliamentary government and strong democratic traditions. Executive authority is formally and constitutionally vested in the monarch. However, by convention, the monarch and her appointed representative, the Governor General, act in a predominantly ceremonial and apolitical role, deferring the exercise of executive power to the Cabinet, which is made up of ministers generally accountable to the elected House of Commons, and headed by the Prime Minister, who is normally the leader of the party that holds the confidence of the House of Commons. Thus, the Cabinet is typically regarded as the active seat of executive power. This arrangement, which stems from the principals of responsible government, ensures the stability of government, and makes the Prime Minister's Office one of the most powerful organs of the system, tasked with selecting, besides the other Cabinet members, Senators, federal court judges, heads of Crown corporations and government agencies, and the federal and provincial viceroys for appointment. However, the sovereign and Governor General do retain their right to use the Royal Prerogative in exceptional constitutional crisis situations.
The leader of the party with the second most seats usually becomes the Leader of the Opposition and is part of an adversarial parliamentary system that keeps the government in check. Michaëlle Jean has served as Governor General since September 27, 2005; Stephen Harper, leader of the Conservative Party, has been Prime Minister since February 6, 2006; and Stéphane Dion, leader of the Liberal Party of Canada, has been Leader of the Opposition since December 2, 2006. The chamber of the House of CommonsThe federal parliament is made up of the Queen (represented by the Governor General) and two houses: an elected House of Commons and an appointed Senate. Each member in the House of Commons is elected by simple plurality in a riding or electoral district. General elections are either every four years as determined by fixed election date legislation, or triggered by the government losing the confidence of the House (usually only possible during minority governments). Members of the Senate, whose seats are apportioned on a regional basis, are chosen by the Prime Minister and formally appointed by the Governor General, and serve until age 75. Five parties have had representation in the federal parliament since 2006 elections: the Conservative Party of Canada (governing party), the Liberal Party of Canada (Official Opposition), the New Democratic Party (NDP), Bloc Québécois and the Green Party of Canada. The list of historical parties with elected representation is substantial. In line with Canada's federalist structure, the constitution divides government responsibilities between the federal government and the ten provinces, whose unicameral provincial legislatures operate in parliamentary fashion similar to the federal House of Commons. Canada's three territories also have legislatures, but with less constitutional responsibilities than the provinces, and with some structural differences (for example, the Legislative Assembly of Nunavut has no parties and operates on consensus).
Law Main article: Law of Canada See also: Court system of Canada The Supreme Court of Canada in Ottawa, west of Parliament HillThe constitution is the supreme law of the country, and consists of written text and unwritten conventions. The Constitution Act, 1867, affirmed governance based on parliamentary precedent "similar in principle to that of the United Kingdom" and divided powers between the federal and provincial governments; the Statute of Westminster, 1931, granted full autonomy; and the Constitution Act, 1982, added the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms, which guarantees basic rights and freedoms that usually cannot be overridden by any level of government – though a notwithstanding clause allows the federal parliament and provincial legislatures to override certain sections of the Charter for a period of five years – and added a constitutional amending formula.
Canada's judiciary plays an important role in interpreting laws and has the power to strike down laws that violate the Constitution. The Supreme Court of Canada is the highest court and final arbiter and is led by the Right Honourable Madam Chief Justice Beverley McLachlin, P.C. since 2000. Its nine members are appointed by the Governor General on the advice of the Prime Minister and Minister of Justice. All judges at the superior and appellate levels are appointed after consultation with non-governmental legal bodies. The federal cabinet also appoints justices to superior courts at the provincial and territorial levels. Judicial posts at the lower provincial and territorial levels are filled by their respective governments. Common law prevails everywhere except in Quebec, where civil law predominates. Criminal law is solely a federal responsibility and is uniform throughout Canada. Law enforcement, including criminal courts, is a provincial responsibility, but in rural areas of all provinces except Ontario and Quebec, policing is contracted to the federal Royal Canadian Mounted Police. Foreign relations and military Main articles: Foreign relations of Canada, Canadian Forces, and Military history of Canada The Peacekeeping Monument in OttawaCanada and the United States share the world's longest undefended border, co-operate on military campaigns and exercises, and are each other's largest trading partners. Canada has nevertheless maintained an independent foreign policy, most notably maintaining full relations with Cuba and declining to participate in the Iraq War. Canada also maintains historic ties to the United Kingdom and France and to other former British and French colonies through Canada's membership in the Commonwealth of Nations and La Francophonie (French-Speaking Countries). Canada is noted for having a strong and positive relationship with the Netherlands which Canada helped liberate during World War II, and the Dutch government traditionally gives tulips, a symbol of the Netherlands, to Canada each year in remembrance of Canada's contribution to its liberation.
Canada currently employs a professional, volunteer military force of about 64,000 regular and 26,000 reserve personnel. The unified Canadian Forces (CF) comprise the army, navy, and air force. Major CF equipment deployed includes 1,400 armoured fighting vehicles, 34 combat vessels, and 861 aircraft. Strong attachment to the British Empire and Commonwealth in English Canada led to major participation in British military efforts in the Second Boer War, the First World War, and the Second World War. Since then, Canada has been an advocate for multilateralism, making efforts to resolve global issues in collaboration with other nations. Canada joined the United Nations in 1945 and became a founding member of NATO in 1949. During the Cold War, Canada was a major contributor to UN forces in the Korean War and founded the North American Aerospace Defense Command (NORAD) in cooperation with the United States to defend against aerial attacks from the Soviet Union. Canada has played a leading role in UN peacekeeping efforts. During the Suez Crisis of 1956, Lester B. Pearson eased tensions by proposing the inception of the United Nations Peacekeeping Force. Canada has since served in 50 peacekeeping missions, including every UN peacekeeping effort until 1989 and has since maintained forces in international missions in Rwanda, the former Yugoslavia, and elsewhere. Canada joined the Organization of American States (OAS) in 1990; Canada hosted the OAS General Assembly in Windsor, Ontario, in June 2000 and the third Summit of the Americas in Quebec City in April 2001. Canada seeks to expand its ties to Pacific Rim economies through membership in the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum (APEC). Canadian soldiers in AfghanistanSince 2001, Canada has had troops deployed in Afghanistan as part of the U.S. stabilization force and the UN-authorized, NATO-commanded International Security Assistance Force. Canada and the U.S. continue to integrate state and provincial agencies to strengthen security long the Canada – United States border through the Western Hemisphere Travel Initiative. Canada's Disaster Assistance Response Team (DART) has participated in three major relief efforts in recent years; the two-hundred member team has been deployed in relief operations after the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake in South Asia, Hurricane Katrina in 2005, and the Kashmir earthquake in October 2005. In February 2007, Canada, Italy, Britain, Norway, and Russia announced their funding commitments to launch a $1.5 billion project to help develop vaccines they said could save millions of lives in poor nations, and called on others to join them. In August 2007, Canadian sovereignty in Arctic waters was challenged following a Russian expedition that planted a Russian flag at the seabed at the North Pole. Canada has considered that area to be sovereign territory since 1925. Provinces and territories Main articles: Provinces and territories of Canada and Canadian federalism A geopolitical map of Canada, exhibiting its ten provinces and three territoriesCanada is a federation composed of ten provinces and three territories; in turn, these may be grouped into regions. Western Canada consists of British Columbia and the three Prairie provinces (Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba). Central Canada consists of Quebec and Ontario. Atlantic Canada consists of the three Maritime provinces (New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island, and Nova Scotia), along with Newfoundland and Labrador. Eastern Canada refers to Central Canada and Atlantic Canada together. Three territories (Yukon, Northwest Territories, and Nunavut) make up Northern Canada. Provinces have more autonomy than territories. Each has its own provincial or territorial symbols.
The provinces are responsible for most of Canada's social programs (such as health care, education, and welfare) and together collect more revenue than the federal government, an almost unique structure among federations in the world. Using its spending powers, the federal government can initiate national policies in provincial areas, such as the Canada Health Act; the provinces can opt out of these but rarely do so in practice. Equalization payments are made by the federal government to ensure that reasonably uniform standards of services and taxation are kept between the richer and poorer provinces. All provinces have unicameral, elected legislatures headed by a Premier selected in the same way as the Prime Minister of Canada. Each province also has a Lieutenant-Governor representing the Queen, analogous to the Governor General of Canada. The Lieutenant-Governor is appointed on the recommendation of the Prime Minister of Canada, though with increasing levels of consultation with provincial governments in recent years. Geography and climate Main articles: Geography of Canada and Temperature in Canada A satellite composite image of Canada. Boreal forests prevail on the rocky Canadian Shield. Ice and tundra are prominent in the Arctic. Glaciers are visible in the Canadian Rockies and Coast Mountains. Flat and fertile prairies facilitate agriculture. The Great Lakes feed the Saint Lawrence River (in the southeast) where lowlands host much of Canada's population.Canada occupies a major northern portion of North America, sharing land borders with the continental United States to the south and with the U.S. state of Alaska to the northwest, stretching from the Atlantic Ocean in the east to the Pacific Ocean in the west; to the north lies the Arctic Ocean. By total area (including its waters), Canada is the second largest country in the world—after Russia—and largest on the continent. Rolling hills on Prince Edward Island.By land area it ranks fourth. Since 1925, Canada has claimed the portion of the Arctic between 60°W and 141°W longitude, but this claim is not universally recognized. The northernmost settlement in Canada and in the world is Canadian Forces Station (CFS) Alert on the northern tip of Ellesmere Island—latitude 82.5°N—just 817 kilometres (450 nautical miles) from the North Pole. Canada has the longest coastline in the world: 243,000 kilometres.
The population density, 3.5 inhabitants per square kilometre (9.1/sq mi), is among the lowest in the world. The most densely populated part of the country is the Quebec City-Windsor Corridor along the Great Lakes and Saint Lawrence River in the southeast. To the north of this region is the broad Canadian Shield, an area of rock scoured clean by the last ice age, thinly soiled, rich in minerals, and dotted with lakes and rivers. Canada by far has more lakes than any other country and has a large amount of the world's freshwater. A Maritime scene at Peggys Cove, Nova Scotia, which has long been sustained by the Atlantic fisheryIn eastern Canada, most people live in large urban centres on the flat Saint Lawrence Lowlands. The Saint Lawrence River widens into the world's largest estuary before flowing into the Gulf of Saint Lawrence. The gulf is bounded by Newfoundland to the north and the Maritimes to the south. The Maritimes protrude eastward along the Appalachian Mountain range from northern New England and the Gaspé Peninsula of Quebec. New Brunswick and Nova Scotia are divided by the Bay of Fundy, which experiences the world's largest tidal variations. Ontario and Hudson Bay dominate central Canada. West of Ontario, the broad, flat Canadian Prairies spread toward the Rocky Mountains, which separate them from British Columbia. In northwestern Canada, the Mackenzie River flows from the Great Slave Lake to the Arctic Ocean. A tributary of a tributary of the Mackenzie is the South Nahanni River, which is home to Virginia Falls, a waterfall about twice as high as Niagara Falls.
Mount Robson, Canadian Rockies in British Columbia.Northern Canadian vegetation tapers from coniferous forests to tundra and finally to Arctic barrens in the far north. The northern Canadian mainland is ringed with a vast archipelago containing some of the world's largest islands. Average winter and summer high temperatures across Canada vary depending on the location. Winters can be harsh in many regions of the country, particularly in the interior and Prairie provinces which experience a continental climate, where daily average temperatures are near −15 °C (5 °F) but can drop below −40 °C (−40 °F) with severe wind chills. In non-coastal regions, snow can cover the ground almost six months of the year (more in the north). Coastal British Columbia is an exception and enjoys a temperate climate with a mild and rainy winter. On the east and west coast, average high temperatures are generally in the low 20s °C (70s °F), while between the coasts the average summer high temperature ranges from 25 to 30 °C (75 to 85 °F) with occasional extreme heat in some interior locations exceeding 40 °C (104 °F). For a more complete description of climate across Canada see Environment Canada's Website. Canada is also geologically active, having many earthquakes and potentially active volcanoes, notably Mount Meager, Mount Garibaldi, Mount Cayley and the Mount Edziza volcanic complex. The volcanic eruption of Tseax Cone in 1775 caused a catastrophic disaster, killing 2,000 Nisga'a people and the distruction of their village in the Nass River valley of northern British Columbia; the eruption produced a 22.5 km (14 mi) lava flow and according to legend of the Nisga'a people, it blocked the flow of the Nass River.
Economy Main articles: Economy of Canada, Economic history of Canada, and Agriculture in Canada
Canadian banknotes depicting, top to bottom, Wilfrid Laurier, John A. Macdonald, Queen Elizabeth II, William Lyon Mackenzie King, and Robert BordenCanada is one of the world's wealthiest nations, with a high per-capita income, and is a member of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and the G8. It is one of the world's top 10 trading nations. Canada is a mixed market, ranking lower than the U.S. but higher than most western European nations on the Heritage Foundation's index of economic freedom. Since the early 1990s, the Canadian economy has been growing rapidly with low unemployment and large government surpluses on the federal level. Today Canada closely resembles the U.S. in its market-oriented economic system, pattern of production, and high living standards. As of October 2007, Canada's national unemployment rate of 5.9% is its lowest in 33 years. Provincial unemployment rates vary from a low of 3.6% in Alberta to a high of 14.6% in Newfoundland and Labrador. According to the Forbes Global 2000 list of the world's largest companies in 2008, Canada had 69 companies in the list, ranking 5th next to France. As of 2008, the Canada’s total government debt burden is the lowest in the G8. The OECD projects that Canada’s net debt-to-GDP ratio will decline to 19.5% in 2009, less than half of the projected average of 51.9% for all G8 countries. According to these projections, Canada’s debt burden will have fallen over 50 percentage points from the peak in 1995, when it was the second highest in the G8.
In the past century, the growth of the manufacturing, mining, and service sectors has transformed the nation from a largely rural economy into one primarily industrial and urban. As with other first world nations, the Canadian economy is dominated by the service industry, which employs about three quarters of Canadians. However, Canada is unusual among developed countries in the importance of the primary sector, with the logging and oil industries being two of Canada's most important. Canada is one of the few developed nations that are net exporters of energy. Atlantic Canada has vast offshore deposits of natural gas and large oil and gas resources are centred in Alberta. The vast Athabasca Oil Sands give Canada the world's second largest oil reserves behind Saudi Arabia. In Quebec, British Columbia, Newfoundland & Labrador, New Brunswick, Ontario and Manitoba, hydroelectricity is a cheap and clean source of renewable energy. Canada is one of the world's most important suppliers of agricultural products, with the Canadian Prairies one of the most important suppliers of wheat, canola and other grains. Canada is the world's largest producer of zinc and uranium and a world leader in many other natural resources such as gold, nickel, aluminium, and lead; many towns in the northern part of the country, where agriculture is difficult, exist because of a nearby mine or source of timber. Canada also has a sizeable manufacturing sector centred in southern Ontario and Quebec, with automobiles and aeronautics representing particularly important industries.
Representatives of the Canadian, Mexican, and United States governments sign NAFTA in 1992.Economic integration with the United States has increased significantly since World War II. This has prompted Canadian nationalists to worry about cultural and economic autonomy in an age of globalization as American television shows, movies and corporations have become omnipresent. The Automotive Products Trade Agreement in 1965 opened the borders to trade in the auto manufacturing industry. In the 1970s, concerns over energy self-sufficiency and foreign ownership in the manufacturing sectors prompted Pierre Trudeau's Liberal government to set up the National Energy Program (NEP) and Foreign Investment Review Agency (FIRA). In the 1980s, Brian Mulroney's Progressive Conservatives abolished the NEP and changed the name of FIRA to Investment Canada to encourage foreign investment. The Canada-United States Free Trade Agreement (FTA) of 1988 eliminated tariffs between the two countries, while North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) expanded the free trade zone to include Mexico in the 1990s. In the mid-1990s, the Liberal government under Jean Chrétien began posting annual budgetary surpluses and began steadily paying down the national debt. Since 2001, Canada has successfully avoided economic recession and has maintained the best overall economic performance in the G8.
Demographics Main articles: Demographics of Canada, List of cities in Canada, Ethnic groups in Canada, and Immigration to Canada Largest Metropolitan Areas of Canada Rank Core City Province Pop. Rank Core City Province Pop. view • talk • edit
1 Toronto Ontario 5,113,149 11 Kitchener Ontario 451,235 2 Montreal Quebec 3,635,571 12 St. Catharines Ontario 390,317 3 Vancouver British Columbia 2,116,581 13 Halifax Nova Scotia 372,858 4 Ottawa Ontario 1,130,761 14 Oshawa Ontario 330,594 5 Calgary Alberta 1,079,310 15 Victoria British Columbia 330,088 6 Edmonton Alberta 1,034,945 16 Windsor Ontario 323,342 7 Quebec City Quebec 715,515 17 Saskatoon Saskatchewan 233,923 8 Winnipeg Manitoba 694,668 18 Regina Saskatchewan 194,971 9 Hamilton Ontario 692,911 19 Sherbrooke Quebec 186,952 10 London Ontario 457,720 20 St. John's Newfoundland and Labrador 181,113
Canada 2006 Census Canada's 2006 census counted a total population of 31,612,897, an increase of 5.4% since 2001. Population growth is from immigration and, to a lesser extent, natural growth. About three-quarters of Canada's population live within 150 kilometres (90 mi) of the US border. A similar proportion live in urban areas concentrated in the Quebec City-Windsor Corridor (notably the Greater Golden Horseshoe including Toronto and area, Montreal, and Ottawa), the BC Lower Mainland (consisting of the region surrounding Vancouver), and the Calgary-Edmonton Corridor in Alberta.
According to the 2006 census, there are 43 ethnic origins that at least one hundred thousand people in Canada claim in their background. The largest ethnic group is English (21%), followed by French (15.8%), Scottish (15.2%), Irish (13.9%), German (10.2%), Italian (5%), Chinese (4%), Ukrainian (3.6%), and First Nations (3.5%); Approximately, one third of respondents identified their ethnicity as "Canadian. Canada's aboriginal population is growing almost twice as fast as the Canadian average, and 3.8% of Canada's population claimed aboriginal identity in 2006. Also, 16.2% of the population belonged to non-aboriginal visible minorities. In 2001, 49% of the Vancouver population and 42.8% of Toronto's population were visible minorities. In March 2005, Statistics Canada projected that people of non-European origins will constitute a majority in both Toronto and Vancouver by 2012. According to Statistics Canada's forecasts, the number of visible minorities in Canada is expected to double by 2017. A survey released in 2007 reveals that virtually 1 in 5 Canadians (19.8%) are foreign born. Nearly 60% of new immigrants hail from Asia (including the Middle East). Canada has the highest per capita immigration rate in the world, driven by economic policy and family reunification; Canada also accepts large numbers of refugees. Newcomers settle mostly in the major urban areas of Toronto, Vancouver and Montreal. In the 2006 census, there were 5,068,100 people considered to belong to a visible minority, making up 16.2% of the population. Between 2001 and 2006, the visible minority population rose by 27.2 %. In common with many other developed countries, Canada is experiencing a demographic shift towards an older population, with more retirees and fewer people of working age. In 2006, the average age of the civilian population was 39.5 years. The census results also indicate that despite an increase in immigration since 2001 (which gave Canada a higher rate of population growth than in the previous intercensal period) the aging of Canada's population did not slow in the period. Support for religious pluralism is an important part of Canada's political culture. According to the 2001 census, 77.1% of Canadians identify as being Christians; of this, Catholics make up the largest group (43.6% of Canadians). The largest Protestant denomination is the United Church of Canada. About 16.5% of Canadians declare no religious affiliation, and the remaining 6.3% are affiliated with religions other than Christianity, of which the largest is Islam numbering 1.9%, followed by Judaism at 1.1%. Canadian provinces and territories are responsible for education. Each system is similar, while reflecting regional history, culture and geography. The mandatory school age ranges between 5–7 to 16–18 years, contributing to an adult literacy rate that is 99%. Postsecondary education is also administered by provincial and territorial governments, who provide most of the funding; the federal government administers additional research grants, student loans and scholarships. In 2002, 43% of Canadians aged between 25 and 64 had post-secondary education; for those aged 25 to 34 the post-secondary education rate reaches 51%.
Culture Main articles: Culture of Canada, National symbols of Canada, Sport in Canada, and Music of Canada A Kwakwaka'wakw totem pole and traditional "big house" in Victoria, British ColumbiaCanadian culture has historically been influenced by British, French, and Aboriginal cultures and traditions. It has also been influenced heavily by American culture because of its proximity and migration between the two countries. The great majority of English speaking immigrants to Canada between 1755-1815 were Americans from the Lower Thirteen Colonies who were drawn there by promises of land or exiled because of their loyalty to Britain during the American War for Independence. American media and entertainment are popular, if not dominant, in English Canada; conversely, many Canadian cultural products and entertainers are successful in the U.S. and worldwide. Many cultural products are marketed toward a unified "North American" or global market. The creation and preservation of distinctly Canadian culture are supported by federal government programs, laws and institutions such as the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC), the National Film Board of Canada (NFB), and the Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission (CRTC). Canada is a geographically vast and ethnically diverse country. Canadian culture has also been greatly influenced by immigration from all over the world. Many Canadians value multiculturalism and see Canadian culture as being inherently multicultural. Multicultural heritage is the basis of Section 27 of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms. Hockey game, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec (1901)National symbols are influenced by natural, historical, and First Nations sources. Particularly, the use of the maple leaf as a Canadian symbol dates back to the early 18th century and is depicted on its current and previous flags, the penny, and on the coat of arms. Other prominent symbols include the beaver, Canada Goose, Common Loon, the Crown, the RCMP, and more recently the totem pole and Inukshuk. Canada's official national sports are ice hockey in the winter and lacrosse in the summer. Ice hockey is a national pastime and the most popular spectator sport in the country. It is the most popular sport Canadians play, with 1.65 million active participants in 2004. Canada's six largest metropolitan areas – Toronto, Montreal, Vancouver, Ottawa, Calgary, and Edmonton – have franchises in the National Hockey League (NHL), and there are more Canadian players in the league than from all other countries combined. After hockey, other popular spectator sports include curling and football; the latter is played professionally in the Canadian Football League (CFL). Golf, baseball, skiing, soccer, volleyball, and basketball are widely played at youth and amateur levels, but professional leagues and franchises are not as widespread. Canada hosted several high-profile international sporting events, including the 1976 Summer Olympics, the 1988 Winter Olympics, and the 2007 FIFA U-20 World Cup. Canada will be the host country for the 2010 Winter Olympics in Vancouver and Whistler, British Columbia.
Language Main articles: Spoken languages of Canada, Official bilingualism in Canada, Canadian English, and Canadian French The population of Montreal, Quebec is mainly French-speaking, with a significant English-speaking community.Canada's two official languages are English and French. Official bilingualism in Canada is law, defined in the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms, the Official Languages Act, and Official Language Regulations; it is applied by the Commissioner of Official Languages. English and French have equal status in federal courts, Parliament, and in all federal institutions. The public has the right, where there is sufficient demand, to receive federal government services in either English or French, and official language minorities are guaranteed their own schools in all provinces and territories. English and French are the mother tongues of 59.7% and 23.2% of the population respectively, and the languages most spoken at home by 68.3% and 22.3% of the population respectively. 98.5% of Canadians speak English or French (67.5% speak English only, 13.3% speak French only, and 17.7% speak both). English and French Official Language Communities, defined by First Official Language Spoken, constitute 73.0% and 23.6% of the population respectively. Although 85% of French-speaking Canadians live in Quebec, there are substantial Francophone populations in Ontario, Alberta and southern Manitoba, with an Acadian population in the northern and southeastern parts of New Brunswick constituting 35% of that province's population, as well as concentrations in southwestern Nova Scotia and on Cape Breton Island. Ontario has the largest French-speaking population outside Quebec. The Charter of the French Language in Quebec makes French the official language in Quebec, and New Brunswick is the only province to have a statement of official bilingualism in its constitution. Other provinces have no official languages as such, but French is used as a language of instruction, in courts, and for other government services in addition to English. Manitoba, Ontario and Quebec allow for both English and French to be spoken in the provincial legislatures, and laws are enacted in both languages. In Ontario, French has some legal status but is not fully co-official. Several aboriginal languages have official status in Northwest Territories. Inuktitut is the majority language in Nunavut, and one of three official languages in the territory. Non-official languages are important in Canada, with over five million people listing one as a first language. Some significant non-official first languages include Chinese (853,745 first-language speakers), Italian (469,485), German (438,080), and Punjabi (271,220). International rankings Organization Survey Ranking State of World Liberty Project State of World Liberty Index 3 out of 159 United Nations Development Programme Human Development Index 4 out of 177 A. T. Kearney/Foreign Policy Magazine Globalization Index 2006 6 out of 111 IMD International World Competitiveness Yearbook 2007 10 out of 60 The Economist The World in 2005 - Worldwide quality-of-life index, 2005 14 out of 111 Yale University/Columbia University Environmental Sustainability Index, 2005 (pdf) 6 out of 146 Reporters Without Borders World-wide Press Freedom Index 2007 18 out of 169 Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index 2005 14 out of 159 Heritage Foundation/The Wall Street Journal Index of Economic Freedom, 2008 7 out of 157 The Economist Global Peace Index 8 out of 121 Fund for Peace/ForeignPolicy.com Failed States Index, 2007 168 out of 177
See also Main article: List of basic Canada topics Notes ^ "Canada's population clock" (source code). Statistics Canada (2007-12-04). Retrieved on 2007-12-21. "StartPop = 32976026; EndPop = 33305836; StartDate = new Date(2007, 6, 1); EndDate = new Date(2008, 6, 1)" ^ a b c d e f g Central Intelligence Agency (2006-05-16). "The World Factbook: Canada". Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved on 2007-05-06. ^ "IMF (2008 Data base)". ^ "Territorial evolution" (html/pdf). Atlas of Canada. Natural Resources Canada. Retrieved on 2007-10-09. "In 1867, the colonies of Canada, Nova Scotia and New Brunswick are united in a federal state, the Dominion of Canada...." ^ "Canada: History" (html/pdf). Country Profiles. Commonwealth Secretariat. Retrieved on 2007-10-09. "The British North America Act of 1867 brought together four British colonies ... in one federal Dominion under the name of Canada."
^ Hillmer, Norman; W. David MacIntyre. "Commonwealth" (html). Canadian Encyclopedia. Historica Project. Retrieved on 2007-10-09. "With CONFEDERATION in 1867, Canada became the first federation in the British Empire ..." ^ Trigger, Bruce G.; Pendergast, James F. (1978). "Saint-Lawrence Iroquoians", Handbook of North American Indians Volume 15. Washington: Smithsonian Institution, pp. 357–361. OCLC 58762737. ^ Jacques Cartier (1545). "Relation originale de Jacques Cartier". Tross (1863 edition). Retrieved on 2007-02-23. ^ J. E. Hodgetts. 2004. "Dominion". Oxford Companion to Canadian History, Gerald Hallowell, ed. (ISBN 0195415590) Toronto: Oxford University Press; p. 183: "The title conferred on Canada by the preamble to the Constitution Act, 1867, whereby the provinces declare 'their desire to be federally united into one Dominion under the Crown of the United Kingdom'." ^ Cinq-Mars, J. (2001). "On the significance of modified mammoth bones from eastern Beringia". The World of Elephants – International Congress, Rome. Retrieved on 2006-05-14. ^ Wright, J.V (2001-09-27). "A History of the Native People of Canada: Early and Middle Archaic Complexes". Canadian Museum of Civilization Corporation. Retrieved on 2006-05-14. ^ "John Cabot =". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica. ^ "Cartier, Jacques". World book Encyclopedia. World Book, Inc.. ISBN 071660101X. Retrieved on 2007-09-01. ^ "Basques". The Canadian Encyclopedia. (2007). Historica. ^ "Wars on Our Soil, earliest times to 1885". Retrieved on 2006-08-21. ^ Moore, Christopher (1994). The Loyalist: Revolution Exile Settlement. Toronto: McClelland & Stewart. ISBN 0-7710-6093-9. ^ David Mills. "Durham Report". Historica Foundation of Canada. Retrieved on 2006-05-18. ^ Farthing, John (1957). Freedom Wears a Crown. Toronto: Kingswood House. ASIN B0007JC4G2. ^ a b Stacey, C.P. (1948). History of the Canadian Army in the Second World War. Queen's Printer. ^ Harold Troper (2000-03). "History of Immigration to Toronto Since the Second World War: From Toronto 'the Good' to Toronto 'the World in a City'". Ontario Institute for Studies in Education. Retrieved on 2006-05-19. ^ a b Bickerton, James & Gagnon, Alain-G & Gagnon, Alain (Eds). (2004). Canadian Politics, 4th edition, Orchard Park, NY: Broadview Press. ISBN 1-55111-595-6. ^ Bélanger, Claude (2000-08-03). "Quiet Revolution". Quebec History. Marionopolis College, Montreal. Retrieved on 2008. ^ a b Dickinson, John Alexander; Young, Brian (2003). A Short History of Quebec, 3rd edition, Montreal: McGill-Queen's University Press. ISBN 0-7735-2450-9. ^ "Quebecers form a nation within Canada: PM". Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (2006-11-22). Retrieved on 2008-07-27. ^ Heritage Canada (2005-04-21). "The Queen and Canada: 53 Years of Growing Together". Heritage Canada. Retrieved on 2006-05-14. ^ Governor General of Canada (2005-12-06). "Role and Responsibilities of the Governor General". Governor General of Canada. Retrieved on 2006-05-14. ^ a b "Canada's System of Justice: The Canadian Constitution". Department of Justice Canada. "The executive power in Canada is vested in the Queen. In our democratic society, this is only a constitutional convention, as the real executive power rests with the Cabinet." "Constitution Act 1867; III.9". Queen's Printer for Canada. "The Executive Government and Authority of and over Canada is hereby declared to continue and be vested in the Queen." "By Executive Decree: The Governor General". Library and Archives Canada. "The governor general holds formal executive power within the Queen's Privy Council for Canada, and signs orders-in-council." ^ a b "Responsible Government: Clarifying Essentials, Dispelling Myths and Exploring Change". Canada School of Public Service. "Under the constitutional convention of responsible government, the powers of the Crown are exercised by Ministers, both individually and collectively." ^ Ray T. Donahue. "Diplomatic Discourse: International Conflict at the United Nations". Greenwood Publishing Group. "As Head of State ... Elizabeth II has no political power, only symbolic power" David Stewart. "Introduction: Principles of the Westminster Model of Parliamentary Democracy". Module on Parliamentary Democracy. Commonwealth Parliamentary Association, Athabasca University. "the Crown now serves as the ceremonial executive" "By Executive Decree:". Library and Archives Canada. "As Canada is a constitutional monarchy, the symbolic head of the executive is the governor general." ^ McWhinney, Edward (2005). The Governor General and the Prime Ministers. Vancouver: Ronsdale Press, 25. ISBN 1-55380-031-1. "By Executive Decree: The Cabinet". Library and Archives Canada. "The Cabinet as selected and directed by the prime minister constitutes the active seat of executive power in Canada." Joseph Magnet. "Separation of Powers in Canada". Constitutional Law of Canada. University of Ottawa Faculty of Law. "... democratic principles dictate that the bulk of the Governor General's powers be exercised in accordance with the wishes of the leadership of that government, namely the Cabinet. So the true executive power lies in the Cabinet." "By Executive Decree: The Cabinet". Library and Archives Canada. "The Cabinet as selected and directed by the prime minister constitutes the active seat of executive power in Canada." W.A. Matheson. "Prime Minister". The Canadian Encyclopedia. "The prime minister is the chief minister and effective head of the executive in a parliamentary system ..." "The Prime Minister". By Executive Decree. National Archives of Canada. "While the modern governor general has only a nominal influence on the operation of the Canadian government, the prime minister's influence is decisive." ^ "Canadian Cofederation: Responsible Government". Library and Archives Canada. "The Executive Council would be governed by the leader of the political party that held an elected majority in the Legislative Assembly. That same leader would also appoint the members of the Executive Council. The governor would therefore be forced to accept these "ministers", and if the majority of the members of the Legislative Assembly voted against them, they would have to resign. The governor would also be obliged to ratify laws concerning the internal affairs of the colony once these laws had been passed to the Legislative Assembly."
"The Canadian Encyclopedia: Responsible Government". Historica Foundation of Canada. "This key principle of responsibility, whereby a government needed the confidence of Parliament, originated in established British practice. But its transfer to British N America gave the colonists control of their domestic affairs, since a governor would simply follow the advice (ie, policies) of responsible colonial ministers." "Responsible Government and Checks and Balances: The Crown". "Responsible government means that the Crown no longer has the prerogative to select or remove Ministers. They are selected and removed by the first Minister — the Prime Minister." ^ "Responsible Government and Checks and Balances: The Crown". Responsible Government: Clarifying Essentials, Dispelling Myths and Exploring Change. Canada School of Public Service. "Ministers are thereby accountable to the Prime Minister who, in the Canadian tradition, has the sole power to appoint and dismiss them." ^ Forsey, Eugene. "How Canadians Govern Themselves: Parliamentary Government (pg. 2)". Queen's Printer for Canada. "In very exceptional circumstances, the Governor General could refuse a request for a fresh election." Forsey, Eugene. "How Canadians Govern Themselves: The Institutions of Our Federal Government (pg. 2)". Queen's Printer for Canada. "But they almost invariably must act on their Ministers’ advice, though there may be very rare occasions when they must, or may, act without advice or even against the advice of the Ministers in office." Forsey, Eugene. "How Canadians Govern Themselves: Canadian and American Government (pg. 2)". Queen's Printer for Canada. "Yes: in Canada, the head of state can, in exceptional circumstances, protect Parliament and the people against a Prime Minister and Ministers who may forget that "minister" means "servant," and may try to make themselves masters. For example, the head of state could refuse to let a Cabinet dissolve a newly elected House of Commons before it could even meet, or could refuse to let Ministers bludgeon the people into submission by a continuous series of general elections." Zolf, Larry (2002-06-28). "CBC News: Boxing in a Prime Minister". CBC News. "The Governor General must take all steps necessary to thwart the will of a ruthless prime minister prematurely calling for the death of a Parliament." "By Executive Decree: The Governor General". Library and Archives Canada. "In exceptional circumstances, the governor general may appoint or dismiss a prime minister." "Governor General of Canada: Role and Responsibilities of the Governor General". Office of the Governor General of Canada. "One of the governor general’s most important responsibilities is to ensure that Canada always has a prime minister and a government in place. In the case of the death of a prime minister, it is the governor general’s responsibility to ensure the continuity of government." McWhinney, Edward (2005). The Governor General and the Prime Ministers. Vancouver: Ronsdale Press, 16-17; 34. ISBN 1-55380-031-1. MacLeod, Kevin S.; A Crown of Maples: Constitutional Monarchy in Canada; The Queen in Right of Canada; 2008 ^ "Constitution Act, 1867; IV". Queen's Printer for Canada. "There shall be One Parliament for Canada, consisting of the Queen, an Upper House styled the Senate, and the House of Commons."
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Morton, Desmond (2001). A Short History of Canada, 6th ed., Toronto: M & S. ISBN 0-7710-6509-4. Lamb, W. Kaye (2006). "Canada". The Canadian Encyclopedia. Stewart, Gordon T. (1996). History of Canada Before 1867. East Lansing, MI: Michigan State University Press. ISBN 0-87013-398-5. Government and law Bickerton, James & Gagnon, Alain-G & Gagnon, Alain (Eds). (2004). Canadian Politics, 4th edition, Orchard Park, NY: Broadview Press. ISBN 1-55111-595-6. Brooks, Stephen (2000). Canadian Democracy : An Introduction, 3rd edition, Don Mills, ON: Oxford University Press Canada. ISBN 0-19-541503-5. Forsey, Eugene A. (2005). How Canadians Govern Themselves, 6th ed., Ottawa: Canada. ISBN 0-662-39689-8. Dahlitz, Julie (2003). Secession and international law: conflict avoidance – regional appraisals. The Hague: T.M.C. Asser Press. ISBN 90-6704-142-4. Foreign relations and military Cook, Tim (2005). "Quill and Canon: Writing the Great War in Canada". American Review of Canadian Studies 35 (3): 503+. Eayrs, James (1980). In Defence of Canada. Toronto: University of Toronto Press. ISBN 0-8020-2345-2. Fox, Annette Baker (1996). Canada in World Affairs. East Lansing: Michigan State University Press. ISBN 0-87013-391-8. Appel, Molot Maureen (Spring-Fall 1990). "Where Do We, Should We, Or Can We Sit? A Review of the Canadian Foreign Policy Literature". International Journal of Canadian Studies. Morton, Desmond; Granatstein, J.L. (1989). Marching to Armageddon: Canadians and the Great War 1914–1919. Toronto: Lester & Orpen Dennys. ISBN 0-88619-209-9. Morton, Desmond (1999). A Military History of Canada. Toronto: McClelland & Stewart. ISBN 0-7710-6514-0. Morton, Desmond (1993). When Your Number's Up: The Canadian Soldier in the First World War. Toronto: Random House of Canada. ISBN 0-394-22288-1.
Rochlin, James (1994). Discovering the Americas: The Evolution of Canadian Foreign Policy towards Latin America. Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press. ISBN 0-7748-0476-9. Provinces and territories Bumsted, J. M. (2004). History of the Canadian Peoples. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-541688-0. Geography and climate Natural Resources Canada (2005). National Atlas of Canada. Ottawa: Information Canada. ISBN 0-7705-1198-8. Stanford, Quentin H. (ed.) (2003). Canadian Oxford World Atlas, 5th ed., Toronto: Oxford University Press (Canada). ISBN 0-19-541897-2. Economy Central Intelligence Agency (2005). The World Factbook. Washington, DC: National Foreign Assessment Center. ISSN 1553-8133. Wallace, Iain (2002). A Geography of the Canadian Economy. Don Mills, ON: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-540773-3. Marr, William L. (1980). Canada: An Economic History. Toronto: Gage. ISBN 0-7715-5684-5. Innis, Mary Quayle (1943). An Economic History of Canada. Toronto: Ryerson Press. ASIN B0007JFHBQ. Demography and statistics Statistics Canada (2001). Canada Year Book. Ottawa: Queen of Canada. ISBN 0-660-18360-9. Leacy, F. H. (ed.) (1983). Historical statistics of Canada. Ottawa: Statistics Canada. Language
Office of the Commissioner of Official Languages (2003-09-01). "Federal Legislation on Official Languages". Office of the Commissioner of Official Languages. Retrieved on 2007-05-24. Statistics Canada (2005-01-27). "Population by mother tongue, by province and territory". Statistics Canada. Retrieved on 2006-05-14. Statistics Canada (2005-01-27). "Population by knowledge of official language, by province and territory". Statistics Canada. Retrieved on 2006-05-14. Culture Bickerton, James & Gagnon, Alain-G & Gagnon, Alain (Eds). (2004). Canadian Politics, 4th edition, Orchard Park, NY: Broadview Press. ISBN 1-55111-595-6. Blackwell, John D. (2005). "Culture High and Low". International Council for Canadian Studies World Wide Web Service. Retrieved on 2006-03-15. Canadian Heritage (2002). Symbols of Canada. Ottawa, ON: Canadian Government Publishing. ISBN 0-660-18615-2. Similar publication online here. National Film Board of Canada (2005). "Mandate of the National Film Board". Retrieved on 2006-03-15. Currie, Gordon (1968). 100 years of Canadian football: The dramatic history of football's first century in Canada, and the story of the Canadian Football League. Don Mills, ON: Pagurian Press. ASIN B0006CCK4G. Maxwell, Doug (2002). Canada Curls: The Illustrated History of Curling in Canada. North Vancouver, BC: Whitecap books. ISBN 1-55285-400-0. McFarlane, Brian (1997). Brian McFarlane's History of Hockey. Champaign, IL: Sports Publishing Inc. ISBN 1-57167-145-5. Resnick, Philip (2005). The European Roots Of Canadian Identity. Peterborough, Ont.: Broadview Press. ISBN 1-55111-705-3. Ross, David & Hook, Richard (1988). The Royal Canadian Mounted Police 1873–1987. London: Osprey. ISBN 0-85045-834-X.
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Light blue: countries where English is an official language but not primary. English is also one of the official languages of the European Union. Click on the coloured regions to get to the related article:
British Empire and Commonwealth of Nations
Legend Current territory · Former territory * now a Commonwealth Realm · now a member of the Commonwealth of Nations
Europe 18th century 1708–1757 Minorca since 1713 Gibraltar 1782–1802 Minorca 19th century 1800–1964 Malta 1807–1890 Heligoland 1809–1864 Ionian Islands 1878–1960 Cyprus 20th century since 1960 Akrotiri and Dhekelia
North America 17th century 1607–1776 Virginia 1610–1907 Newfoundland since 1619 Bermuda 1620–1691 Plymouth Colony 1629–1691 Massachusetts Bay Colony 1632–1776 Maryland 1636–1776 Connecticut 1636–1776 Rhode Island 1637–1662 New Haven Colony 1663–1712 Carolina 1664–1776 New York 1665–1776 New Jersey 1670–1870 Rupert's Land 1674–1702 East Jersey 1674–1702 West Jersey 1680–1776 New Hampshire 1681–1776 Pennsylvania 1686–1689 Dominion of New England 1691–1776 Massachusetts
18th century 1701–1776 Delaware 1712–1776 North Carolina 1712–1776 South Carolina 1713–1867 Nova Scotia 1733–1776 Georgia 1763–1873 Prince Edward Island 1763–1791 Quebec 1784–1867 New Brunswick 1791–1841 Lower Canada 1791–1841 Upper Canada
19th century 1818–1846 Columbia District / Oregon Country1 1841–1867 Province of Canada 1849–1866 Vancouver Island 1858–1866 British Columbia 1859–1870 North-Western Territory 1862–1863 Stikine Territory 1866–1871 Vancouver Island and British Columbia 1867–1931 *Dominion of Canada2 20th century 1907–1949 Dominion of Newfoundland3 1Occupied jointly with the United States 2In 1931, Canada and other British dominions obtained self-government through the Statute of Westminster. "Dominion" remains Canada's legal title; see Canada's name. 3Gave up self-rule in 1934, but remained a de jure Dominion until it joined Canada in 1949.
Latin America and the Caribbean 17th century 1605–1979 *Saint Lucia 1623–1883 Saint Kitts (*Saint Kitts & Nevis) 1624–1966 *Barbados 1625–1650 Saint Croix 1627–1979 *St. Vincent and the Grenadines 1628–1883 Nevis (*Saint Kitts & Nevis) 1629–1641 St. Andrew and Providence Islands4 since 1632 Montserrat 1632–1860 Antigua (*Antigua & Barbuda) 1643–1860 Bay Islands since 1650 Anguilla 1651–1667 Willoughbyland (Suriname) 1655–1850 Mosquito Coast (protectorate) 1655–1962 *Jamaica since 1666 British Virgin Islands since 1670 Cayman Islands 1670–1973 *Bahamas 1670–1688 St. Andrew and Providence Islands4 1671–1816 Leeward Islands
18th century 1762–1974 *Grenada 1763–1978 Dominica since 1799 Turks and Caicos Islands 19th century 1831–1966 British Guiana (Guyana) 1833–1960 Windward Islands 1833–1960 Leeward Islands 1860–1981 *Antigua and Barbuda 1871–1964 British Honduras (*Belize) 1882–1983 *St. Kitts and Nevis 1889–1962 Trinidad and Tobago
20th century 1958–1962 West Indies Federation 4Now the San Andrés y Providencia Department of Colombia
Africa 18th century 1792–1961 Sierra Leone 1795–1803 Cape Colony
19th century 1806–1910 Cape Colony 1816–1965 Gambia 1856–1910 Natal 1868–1966 Basutoland (Lesotho) 1874–1957 Gold Coast (Ghana) 1882–1922 Egypt 1884–1966 Bechuanaland (Botswana) 1884–1960 British Somaliland 1887–1897 Zululand 1888–1894 Matabeleland 1890–1980 Southern Rhodesia (Zimbabwe) 1890–1962 Uganda 1890–1963 Zanzibar (Tanzania) 1891–1964 Nyasaland (Malawi) 1891–1907 British Central Africa 1893–1968 Swaziland 1895–1920 British East Africa 1899–1956 Anglo-Egyptian Sudan 20th century 1900–1914 Northern Nigeria 1900–1914 Southern Nigeria 1900–1910 Orange River Colony 1900–1910 Transvaal Colony 1906–1954 Nigeria Colony 1910–1931 South Africa 1911–1964 Northern Rhodesia (Zambia) 1914–1954 Nigeria Protectorate 1915–1931 South West Africa (Namibia) 1919–1960 Cameroons (Cameroon) 5 1920–1963 Kenya 1922–1961 Tanganyika (Tanzania) 5 1954–1960 Nigeria
5League of Nations mandate
Asia 18th century 1757–1947 Bengal (West Bengal (India) and Bangladesh) 1762–1764 Philippines 1795–1948 Ceylon (Sri Lanka) 1796–1965 Maldives
19th century 1819–1826 British Malaya (Peninsular Malaysia and Singapore) 1826–1946 Straits Settlements 1839–1967 Colony of Aden 1841–1997 Hong Kong 1841–1941 Kingdom of Sarawak (Malaysia) 1858–1947 British India (India, Pakistan and Bangladesh, Burma) 1882–1963 British North Borneo (Malaysia) 1885–1946 Unfederated Malay States 1891–1971 Muscat and Oman protectorate 1892–1971 Trucial States protectorate 1895–1946 Federated Malay States 1898–1930 Weihai Garrison 20th century 1918–1961 Kuwait protectorate 1920–1932 Iraq5 1921–1946 Transjordan5 1923–1948 Palestine5 1946–1948 Malayan Union 1946–1963 Sarawak (Malaysia) 1948–1957 Federation of Malaya (Malaysia) since 1965 British Indian Ocean Territory
5League of Nations mandate
Oceania 18th century 1788–1901 New South Wales
19th century 1803–1901 Van Diemen's Land/Tasmania 1807–1863 Auckland Islands6 1824–1980 New Hebrides (Vanuatu) 1824–1901 Queensland 1829–1901 Swan River Colony/Western Australia 1836–1901 South Australia since 1838 Pitcairn Islands 1841–1907 Colony of New Zealand 1851–1901 Victoria 1874–1970 Fiji7 1877–1976 British Western Pacific Territories 1884–1949 Territory of Papua 1888–1965 Cook Islands6 1888–1984 Sultanate of Brunei 1889–1948 Union Islands (Tokelau)6 1892–1979 Gilbert and Ellice Islands8 1893–1978 British Solomon Islands9 20th century 1900–1970 Tonga (protected state) 1900–1974 Niue6 1901–1942 *Commonwealth of Australia 1907–1953 *Dominion of New Zealand 1919–1949 Territory of New Guinea 1949–1975 Territory of Papua and New Guinea10
6Now part of the *Realm of New Zealand 7Suspended member 8Now Kiribati and *Tuvalu 9Now the *Solomon Islands 10Now *Papua New Guinea
Antarctica and South Atlantic [show] 17th century since 1659 St. Helena 19th century since 1815 Ascension Island11 since 1816 Tristan da Cunha11 since 1833 Falkland Islands12
20th century since 1908 British Antarctic Territory13 since 1908 South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands12, 13
11Dependencies of St. Helena since 1922 (Ascension Island) and 1938 (Tristan da Cunha) 12Occupied by Argentina during the Falklands War of April–June 1982 13Both claimed in 1908; territories formed in 1962 (British Antarctic Territory) and 1985 (South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands)
Antigua and Barbuda · Australia · Bahamas · Barbados · Belize · Canada · Grenada · Jamaica · New Zealand · Papua New Guinea · St Kitts and Nevis · St Lucia · St Vincent and the Grenadines · Solomon Islands · Tuvalu · United Kingdom
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Elective Andorra · Cambodia · Kuwait · Malaysia · Swaziland · United Arab Emirates3 · Vatican Subnational Ghana Ashanti · Dagbon Uganda Ankole · Buganda · Bunyoro · Busoga · Toro Wallis and Futuna Alo · Sigave · Uvea Others Māori (New Zealand) · Mustang (Nepal) · Yogyakarta (Indonesia) · Zululand (South Africa)
Italics indicate Commonwealth realms, of which the monarch of the United Kingdom is Head of State. 1 Monarch debatable as Head of State. 2 Technically constitutional, but effectively absolute. 3 Uses the title President.
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Members Albania · Andorra · Belgium (French Community) · Benin · Bulgaria · Burkina Faso · Burundi · Cambodia · Cameroon · Canada (New Brunswick • Quebec) · Cape Verde · Central African Republic · Chad · Comoros · Cyprus1 · Democratic Republic of the Congo · Republic of the Congo · Côte d'Ivoire · Djibouti · Dominica · Egypt · Equatorial Guinea · FYR Macedonia · France (French Guiana • Guadeloupe • Martinique • St. Pierre and Miquelon) · Gabon · Ghana1 · Greece · Guinea · Guinea-Bissau · Haiti · Laos · Luxembourg · Lebanon · Madagascar · Mali · Mauritania · Mauritius · Moldova · Monaco · Morocco · Niger · Romania · Rwanda · St. Lucia · São Tomé and Príncipe · Senegal · Seychelles · Switzerland · Togo · Tunisia · Vanuatu · Vietnam
Observers Armenia · Austria · Bosnia and Herzegovina · Chile · Croatia · Czech Republic · Georgia · Hungary · Italy · Lithuania · Louisiana (USA) (Louisiana Creole) · Mozambique · Poland · Serbia · Slovakia · Slovenia · Ukraine 1 Associate member. North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)
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