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227's YouTube "Chili"-8 Yr. Old Chili' Terror Suspect (CBS Early Show - Conan O'Brien NBA Mix')! Jamaal Al-Din's Hoop 227! Terrorism From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search "Terrorist" redirects here. For other uses, see Terrorist (disambiguation). Terrorism, despite considerable disagreement about a precise definition, is often considered to be deliberate violence or the threat of violence directed at innocent non-combatants and governments to cause fear systematically to attract media attention for causes which may be political or ideological or religious and which are viewed as coercive. An act which meets many or all of these criteria is often considered to be terrorism. There is considerable disagreement about whether the term can describe government or religious leaders and whether the term should be extended to include wartime acts. Further, the distinction between terrorism and crime is hard to specify. The term is charged politically and emotionally and has strong negative connotations. Its meaning often depends on the ideology of the user and the context of its use. Studies have found more than one hundred definitions of the term. At present, there is no internationally agreed-upon definition. Governments have described opponents as terrorists to delegitimize them. Some suggest that the term terrorist is so fraught with conceptual problems that a better term would be violent non-state actor. Terrorism has a long history and has been practiced by both right-wing and left-wing political parties, nationalistic groups, religious groups, revolutionaries, criminals, and others. Contents [hide] 1 Origin of term 2 Key criteria 3 Pejorative use 4 Types 4.1 Democracy and domestic terrorism 5 Religious terrorism 6 Perpetrators 6.1 Terrorist groups 6.2 State sponsors 6.3 State terrorism 7 Funding 8 Tactics 9 Responses 10 Mass media 11 History 12 See also 13 Further reading 14 References 15 External links 15.1 UN conventions 15.2 Terrorism
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and international humanitarian law 15.3 News monitoring websites specializing on articles on terrorism 15.4 Papers and articles on global terrorism 15.5 Papers and articles on terrorism and the United States 15.6 Papers and articles on terrorism and Israel 15.7 Other Origin of term Main article: Definition of terrorism See also: State terrorism Terrorism Definitions History of terrorism International conventions Anti-terrorism legislation Counter-terrorism War on Terrorism By ideology Communist · Capitalist · Eco-terrorism · Ethnic Narcoterrorism · Nationalist Religious (Islamic · Christian · Jewish) Types and tactics Agro-terrorism · Aircraft hijacking (list) Bioterrorism · Car bombing (list) Environmental · Nuclear Piracy · Propaganda of the deed Proxy bomb · Suicide attack (list) State involvement State terrorism State sponsorship Iran · Pakistan · Russia Sri Lanka · United States Organisation Terrorist financing Terrorist front organization Terrorist training camp Lone-wolf fighter Clandestine cell system Historical Reign of Terror Red Terror · White Terror Lists Designated organizations Charities accused of ties to terrorism Terrorist incidents v • d • e "Terror" comes from a Latin terrere meaning "to frighten". The terror cimbricus was a panic and state of emergency in Rome in response to the approach of warriors of the Cimbri tribe in 105 BC. The Jacobins cited this precedent when imposing a Reign of Terror during the French Revolution. After the Jacobins lost power, the word "terrorist" became a term of abuse. Although the Reign of Terror was imposed by a government, in modern times "terrorism" usually refers to the killing of innocent people by a private group in such a way as to create a media spectacle. This meaning can be traced back to Sergey Nechayev, who described himself as a "terrorist". Nechayev founded the Russian terrorist group "People's Retribution" (Народная расправа) in 1869. In November 2004, a United Nations Security Council report described terrorism as any act "intended to cause death or serious bodily harm to civilians or non-combatants with the purpose of intimidating a population or compelling a government or an international organization to do or abstain from doing any act". . In many countries, acts of terrorism are legally distinguished from criminal acts done for other purposes, and "terrorism" is defined by statute; see definition of terrorism for particular definitions. Common principles among legal definitions of terrorism provide an emerging consensus as to meaning and also foster cooperation between law enforcement personnel in different countries. Among these definitions there are several that do not recognize the possibility of legitimate use of violence by civilians against an invader in an occupied country. Other definitions would label as terrorist groups only the resistance movements that oppose an invader with violent acts that undiscriminately kill or harm civilians and non-combatants, thus making a distinction between lawful and unlawful use of violence. Ultimately, the distinction is a political judgment. Key criteria Official definitions determine counter-terrorism policy, and are often developed to serve it. Most government definitions outline the following key criteria: target, objective, motive, perpetrator, and legitimacy or legality of the act. Terrorism is also often recognizable by a following statement from the
perpetrators. Violence – According to Walter Laqueur of the Center for Strategic and International Studies, "the only general characteristic of terrorism generally agreed upon is that terrorism involves violence and the threat of violence". However, the criterion of violence alone does not produce a useful definition, as it includes many acts not usually considered terrorism: war, riot, organized crime, or even a simple assault. Property destruction that does not endanger life is not usually considered a violent crime, but some have described property destruction by the Earth Liberation Front and Animal Liberation Front as violence and terrorism; see eco-terrorism. Psychological impact and fear – The attack was carried out in such a way as to maximize the severity and length of the psychological impact. Each act of terrorism is a “performance” devised to have an impact on many large audiences. Terrorists also attack national symbols, to show power and to attempt to shake the foundation of the country or society they are opposed to. This may negatively affect a government, while increasing the prestige of the given terrorist organization and/or ideology behind a terrorist act. Perpetrated for a political goal – Something that many acts of terrorism have in common is a political purpose. Terrorism is a political tactic, like letter-writing or protesting, which is used by activists when they believe that no other means will effect the kind of change they desire. The change is desired so badly that failure to achieve change is seen as a worse outcome than the deaths of civilians. This is often where the inter-relationship between terrorism and religion occurs. When a political struggle is integrated into the framework of a religious or "cosmic" struggle, such as over the control of an ancestral homeland or holy site such as Israel and Jerusalem, failing in the political goal (nationalism) becomes equated with spiritual failure, which, for the highly committed, is worse than their own death or the deaths of innocent civilians. One definition that combines the key elements was developed at the George C. Marshall Center for European Security Studies by Carsten Bockstette: “ Terrorism is defined as political violence in an asymmetrical conflict that is designed to induce terror and psychic fear (sometimes indiscriminate) through the violent victimization and destruction of noncombatant targets (sometimes iconic symbols). Such acts are meant to send a message from an illicit clandestine organization. The purpose of terrorism is to exploit the media in order to achieve maximum attainable publicity as an amplifying force multiplier in order to influence the targeted audience(s) in order to reach short- and midterm political goals and/or desired long-term end states." ” Deliberate targeting of non-combatants – The distinctive nature of terrorism lies in its intentional and specific selection of civilians as direct targets. Specifically, the criminal intent is shown when babies, children, mothers and the elderly are murdered, or injured and put in harm's way. Much of the time, the victims of terrorism are targeted not because they are threats, but because they are specific "symbols, tools, animals or corrupt beings" that tie into a specific view of the world that the terrorists possess. Their suffering accomplishes the terrorists' goals of instilling fear, getting their message out to an audience or otherwise satisfying the demands of their often radical religious and political agendas. Unlawfulness or illegitimacy – Some official (notably government) definitions of terrorism add a criterion of illegitimacy or unlawfulness to distinguish between actions authorized by a government (and thus "lawful") and those of other actors, including individuals and small groups. Using this criterion, actions that would otherwise qualify as terrorism would not be considered terrorism if they were government sanctioned. For example, firebombing a city, which is designed to affect civilian support for a cause, would not be considered terrorism if it were authorized by a government. This criterion is inherently problematic and is not universally accepted, because: it denies the existence of state terrorism; the same act may or may not be classed as terrorism depending on whether its sponsorship is traced to a "legitimate" government; "legitimacy" and "lawfulness" are subjective, depending on the perspective of one government or another; and it diverges from the historically accepted meaning and origin of the term. For these reasons, this criterion is not universally accepted; most dictionary definitions of the term do not include this criterion. Pejorative use The neutrality of this section is disputed. Please see the discussion on the talk page. Please do not remove this message until the dispute is resolved. (January 2010) The terms "terrorism" and "terrorist" (someone who engages in terrorism) carry strong negative connotations. These terms are often used as political labels, to condemn violence or the threat of violence by certain actors as immoral, indiscriminate, unjustified or to condemn an entire segment of a population. Those labeled "terrorists" by their opponents rarely identify themselves as such, and typically use other terms or terms specific to their situation, such as separatist, freedom fighter, liberator, revolutionary, vigilante, militant, paramilitary, guerrilla, rebel, patriot, or any similar-meaning word in other languages and cultures. Jihadi, mujaheddin, and fedayeen are similar Arabic words which have entered the English lexicon. It is common for both parties to a conflict to describe each other as terrorists. On the question of whether particular terrorist acts, such as killing civilians, can be justified as the lesser evil in a particular circumstance, philosophers have expressed different views: while, according to David Rodin, utilitarian philosophers can (in theory) conceive of cases in which the evil of terrorism is outweighed by the good which could not be achieved in a less morally costly way, in practice the "harmful effects of undermining the convention of non-combatant immunity is thought to outweigh the goods that may be achieved by particular acts of terrorism". Among the non-utilitarian philosophers, Michael Walzer argued that terrorism can be morally justified in only one specific case: when "a nation or community faces the extreme threat of complete destruction and the only way it can preserve itself is by intentionally targeting non-combatants, then it is morally entitled to do so". In his book Inside Terrorism Bruce Hoffman offered an explanation of why the term terrorism becomes distorted: “ On one point, at least, everyone agrees: terrorism is a pejorative term. It is a word with intrinsically negative connotations that is generally applied to one's enemies and opponents, or to those with whom one disagrees and would otherwise prefer to ignore. 'What is called terrorism,' Brian Jenkins has written, 'thus seems to depend on one's point of view. Use of the term implies a moral judgment; and if one party can successfully attach the label terrorist to its opponent, then it has indirectly persuaded others to adopt its moral viewpoint.' Hence the decision to call someone or label some organization terrorist becomes almost unavoidably subjective, depending largely on whether one sympathizes with or opposes the person/group/cause concerned. If one identifies with the victim of the violence, for example, then the act is terrorism. If, however, one identifies with the perpetrator, the violent act is regarded in a more sympathetic, if not positive (or, at the worst, an ambivalent) light; and it is not terrorism. ” The pejorative connotations of the word can be summed up in the aphorism, "One man's terrorist is another man's freedom fighter". This is exemplified when a group using irregular military methods is an ally of a state against a mutual enemy, but later falls out with the state and starts to use those methods against its former ally. During World War II, the Malayan People’s Anti-Japanese Army was allied with the British, but during the Malayan Emergency, members of its successor (the Malayan Races Liberation Army), were branded "terrorists" by the British. More recently, Ronald Reagan and others in the American administration frequently called the Afghan Mujahideen "freedom fighters" during their war against the Soviet Union, yet twenty years later, when a new generation of Afghan men are fighting against what they perceive to be a regime installed by foreign powers, their attacks are labelled "terrorism" by George W. Bush. Groups accused of terrorism understandably prefer terms reflecting legitimate military or ideological action. Leading terrorism researcher Professor Martin Rudner, director of the Canadian Centre of Intelligence and Security Studies at Ottawa's Carleton University, defines "terrorist acts" as attacks against civilians for political or other ideological goals, and said: “ There is the famous statement: 'One man's terrorist is another man's freedom fighter.' But that is grossly misleading. It assesses the validity of the cause when terrorism is an act. One can have a perfectly beautiful cause and yet if one commits terrorist acts, it is terrorism regardless. ” Some groups, when involved in a "liberation" struggle, have been called "terrorists" by the Western governments or media. Later, these same persons, as leaders of the liberated nations, are called "statesmen" by similar organizations. Two examples of this phenomenon are the Nobel Peace Prize laureates Menachem Begin and Nelson Mandela. Sometimes states which are close allies, for reasons of history, culture and politics, can disagree over whether or not members of a certain organization are terrorists. For instance, for many years, some branches of the United States government refused to label members of the Irish Republican Army (IRA) as terrorists while the IRA was using methods against one of the United States' closest allies (Britain) which Britain branded as terrorism. This was highlighted by the Quinn v. Robinson case. For these and other reasons, media outlets wishing to preserve a reputation for impartiality try to be careful in their use of the term. Types In early 1975, the Law Enforcement Assistant Administration in the United States formed the National Advisory Committee on Criminal Justice Standards and Goals. One of the five volumes that the committee wrote was entitled Disorders and Terrorism, produced by the Task Force on Disorders and Terrorism under the direction of H.H.A. Cooper, Director of the Task Force staff. The Task Force classified terrorism into six categories. Civil disorder – A form of collective violence interfering with the peace, security, and normal functioning of the community. Political terrorism – Violent criminal behavior designed primarily to generate fear in the community, or substantial segment of it, for political purposes. Non-Political terrorism – Terrorism that is not aimed at political purposes but which exhibits “conscious design to create and maintain a high degree of fear for coercive purposes, but the end is individual or collective gain rather than the achievement of a political objective.” Quasi-terrorism – The activities incidental to the commission of crimes of violence that are similar in form and method to genuine terrorism but which nevertheless lack its essential ingredient. It is not the main purpose of the quasi-terrorists to induce terror in the immediate victim as in the case of genuine terrorism, but the quasi-terrorist uses the modalities and techniques of the genuine terrorist and produces similar consequences and reaction. For example, the fleeing felon who takes hostages is a quasi-terrorist, whose methods are similar to those of the genuine terrorist but whose purposes are quite different. Limited political terrorism – Genuine political terrorism is characterized by a revolutionary approach; limited political terrorism refers to “acts of terrorism which are committed for ideological or political motives but which are not part of a concerted campaign to capture control of the state. Official or state terrorism –"referring to nations whose rule is based upon fear and oppression that reach similar to terrorism or such proportions.” It may also be referred to as Structural Terrorism defined broadly as terrorist acts carried out by governments in pursuit of political objectives, often as part of their foreign policy. In an analysis prepared for U.S. Intelligence four typologies are mentioned. Nationalist-separatist Religious fundamentalist New religious Social revolutionary Democracy and domestic terrorism The relationship between domestic terrorism and democracy is very complex. Terrorism is most common in nations with intermediate political freedom, and is least common in the most democratic nations. However, one study suggests that suicide terrorism may be an exception to this general rule. Evidence regarding this particular method of terrorism reveals that every modern suicide campaign has targeted a democracy–a state with a considerable degree of political freedom. The study suggests that concessions awarded to terrorists during the 1980s and 1990s for suicide attacks increased their frequency. Some examples of "terrorism" in non-democracies include ETA in Spain under Francisco Franco, the Shining Path in Peru under Alberto Fujimori, the Kurdistan Workers Party when Turkey was ruled by military leaders and the ANC in South Africa. Democracies, such as the United Kingdom, United States, Israel, Indonesia, India, and the Philippines, have also experienced domestic terrorism. While a democratic nation espousing civil liberties may claim a sense of higher moral ground than other regimes, an act of terrorism within such a state may cause a dilemma: whether to maintain its civil liberties and thus risk being perceived as ineffective in dealing with the problem; or alternatively to restrict its civil liberties and thus risk delegitimizing its claim of supporting civil liberties. This dilemma, some social theorists would conclude, may very well play into the initial plans of the acting terrorist(s); namely, to delegitimize the state. Religious terrorism Main article: Religious terrorism Religious terrorism is terrorism performed by groups or individuals, the motivation of which is typically rooted in the faith based tenets. Terrorist acts throughout the centuries have been performed on religious grounds with the hope to either spread or enforce a system of belief, viewpoint or opinion. Religious terrorism does not in itself necessarily define a specific religious standpoint or view, but instead usually defines an individual or a group view or interpretation of that belief system's teachings. Perpetrators The perpetrators of acts of terrorism can be individuals, groups, or states. According to some definitions, clandestine or semi-clandestine state actors may also carry out terrorist acts outside the framework of a state of war. However, the most common image of terrorism is that it is carried out by small and secretive cells, highly motivated to serve a particular cause and many of the most deadly operations in recent times, such as the September 11 attacks, the London underground bombing, and the 2002 Bali bombing were planned and carried out by a close clique, composed of close friends, family members and other strong social networks. These groups benefited from the free flow of information and efficient telecommunications to succeed where others had failed. Over the years, many people have attempted to come up with a terrorist profile to attempt to explain these individuals' actions through their psychology and social circumstances. Others, like Roderick Hindery, have sought to discern profiles in the propaganda tactics used by terrorists. Some security organizations designate these groups as violent non-state actors. To avoid detection, a terrorist will look, dress, and behave normally until executing the assigned mission. Some claim that attempts to profile terrorists based on personality, physical, or sociological traits are not useful. The physical and behavioral description of the terrorist could describe almost any normal person. However, the majority of terrorist attacks are carried out by military age men, aged 16–40. Terrorist groups There is speculation that anthrax mailed inside letters to U.S. politicians was the work of a lone wolf terrorist.Main articles: List of designated terrorist organizations and Lone wolf (terrorism) State sponsors Main article: State-sponsored terrorism A state can sponsor terrorism by funding or harboring a terrorist organization. Opinions as to which acts of violence by states consist of state-sponsored terrorism vary widely. When states provide funding for groups considered by some to be terrorist, they rarely acknowledge them as such. State terrorism Main article: State terrorism “ Civilization is based on a clearly defined and widely accepted yet often unarticulated hierarchy. Violence done by those higher on the hierarchy to those lower is nearly always invisible, that is, unnoticed. When it is noticed, it is fully rationalized. Violence done by those lower on the hierarchy to those higher is unthinkable, and when it does occur is regarded with shock, horror, and the fetishization of the victims. ” — Derrick Jensen  As with "terrorism" the concept of "state terrorism" is controversial. The Chairman of the United Nations Counter-Terrorism Committee has stated that the Committee was conscious of 12 international Conventions on the subject, and none of them referred to State terrorism, which was not an international legal concept. If States abused their power, they should be judged against international conventions dealing with war crimes, international human rights and international humanitarian law. Former United Nations Secretary-General Kofi Annan has said that it is "time to set aside debates on so-called 'state terrorism'. The use of force by states is already thoroughly regulated under international law" However, he also made clear that, "regardless of the differences between governments on the question of definition of terrorism, what is clear and what we can all agree on is any deliberate attack on innocent civilians, regardless of one's cause, is unacceptable and fits into the definition of terrorism." State terrorism has been used to refer to terrorist acts by governmental agents or forces. This involves the use of state resources employed by a state's foreign policies, such as using its military to directly perform acts of terrorism. Professor of Political Science Michael Stohl cites the examples that include Germany’s bombing of London and the U.S. atomic destruction of Hiroshima during World War II. He argues that “the use of terror tactics is common in international relations and the state has been and remains a more likely employer of terrorism within the international system than insurgents." They also cite the First strike option as an example of the "terror of coercive diplomacy" as a form of this, which holds the world hostage with the implied threat of using nuclear weapons in "crisis management." They argue that the institutionalized form of terrorism has occurred as a result of changes that took place following World War II. In this analysis, state terrorism exhibited as a form of foreign policy was shaped by the presence and use of weapons of mass destruction, and that the legitimizing of such violent behavior led to an increasingly accepted form of this state behavior. Was Adolf Hitler a terrorist? He murdered millions of people; some theorists suggest genocide or democide is a type of terrorism.State terrorism has also been used to describe peacetime actions by governmental agents such as the bombing of Pan Am Flight 103. Charles Stewart Parnell described William Gladstone's Irish Coercion Act as terrorism in his "no-Rent manifesto" in 1881, during the Irish Land War. The concept is also used to describe political repressions by governments against their own civilian population with the purpose to incite fear. For example, taking and executing civilian hostages or extrajudicial elimination campaigns are commonly considered "terror" or terrorism, for example during the Red Terror or Great Terror. Such actions are often also described as democide or genocide which has been argued to be equivalent to state terrorism. Empirical studies on this have found that democracies have little democide. Funding State sponsors have constituted a major form of funding; for example, PLO, DFLP and some other terrorist groups were funded by the Soviet Union. "Revolutionary tax" is another major form of funding, and essentially an euphemism for "protection money". Revolutionary taxes are typically extorted from businesses, and they also "play a secondary role as one other means of intimidating the target population". Other major sources of funding include kidnapping for ransoms, smuggling, fraud and robbery.  Tactics Main article: Tactics of terrorism The Wall Street bombing at noon on September 16, 1920 killed thirty-eight people and injured several hundred. The perpetrators were never caught.Terrorism is a form of asymmetric warfare, and is more common when direct conventional warfare won't be effective because forces vary greatly in power. The context in which terrorist tactics are used is often a large-scale, unresolved political conflict. The type of conflict varies widely; historical examples include: Secession of a territory to form a new sovereign state Dominance of territory or resources by various ethnic groups Imposition of a particular form of government Economic deprivation of a population Opposition to a domestic government or occupying army Religious fanaticism Terrorist attacks are often targeted to maximize fear and publicity, usually using explosives or poison. There is concern about terrorist attacks employing weapons of mass destruction. Terrorist organizations usually methodically plan attacks in advance, and may train participants, plant undercover agents, and raise money from supporters or through organized crime. Communication may occur through modern telecommunications, or through old-fashioned methods such as couriers. Responses Main article: Responses to terrorism Responses to terrorism are broad in scope. They can include re-alignments of the political spectrum and reassessments of fundamental values. The term counter-terrorism has a narrower connotation, implying that it is directed at terrorist actors. Specific types of responses include: Targeted laws, criminal procedures, deportations, and enhanced police powers Target hardening, such as locking doors or adding traffic barriers Preemptive or reactive military action Increased intelligence and surveillance activities Preemptive humanitarian activities More permissive interrogation and detention policies Mass media Media exposure may be a primary goal of those carrying out terrorism, to expose issues that would otherwise be ignored by the media. Some consider this to be manipulation and exploitation of the media. Others consider terrorism itself to be a symptom of a highly controlled mass media, which does not otherwise give voice to alternative viewpoints, a view expressed by Paul Watson who has stated that controlled media is responsible for terrorism, because "you cannot get your information across any other way". Paul Watson's organization Sea Shepherd has itself been branded "eco-terrorist", although it claims to have not caused any casualties. The internet has created a new channel for groups to spread their messages. This has created a cycle of measures and counter measures by groups in support of and in opposition to terrorist movements. The United Nations has created its own online counter-terrorism resource. The mass media will, on occasion, censor organizations involved in terrorism (through self-restraint or regulation) to discourage further terrorism. However, this may encourage organizations to perform more extreme acts of terrorism to be shown in the mass media. Conversely James F. Pastor explains the significant relationship between terrorism and the media, and the underlying benefit each receives from the other. There is always a point at which the terrorist ceases to manipulate the media gestalt. A point at which the violence may well escalate, but beyond which the terrorist has become symptomatic of the media gestalt itself. Terrorism as we ordinarily understand it is innately media-related. —Novelist William Gibson History Number of terrorist incidents 2009 (January–June)Main article: History of terrorism The term "terrorism" was originally used to describe the actions of the Jacobin Club during the "Reign of Terror" in the French Revolution. "Terror is nothing other than justice, prompt, severe, inflexible," said Jacobin leader Maximilien Robespierre. In 1795, Edmund Burke denounced the Jacobins for letting "thousands of those hell-hounds called Terrorists...loose on the people" of France. In January 1858, Italian patriot Felice Orsini threw three bombs in an attempt to assassinate French Emperor Napoleon III. Eight bystanders were killed and 142 injured. The incident played a crucial role as an inspiration for the development of the early Russian terrorist groups. Russian Sergey Nechayev, who founded People's Retribution in 1869, described himself as a "terrorist", an early example of the term being employed in its modern meaning. Nechayev's story is told in fictionalized form by Fyodor Dostoevsky in the novel The Possessed. German anarchist writer Johann Most dispensed "advice for terrorists" in the 1880s. See also Aircraft hijacking Airport security Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives (ATF) Christian Terrorism Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) Communist terrorism Counter-terrorism Crimes against humanity Cyber-terrorism Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Domestic terrorism in the United States Eco-terrorism Extremism Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) Federal Air Marshal Service (FAMS) Global Initiative to Combat Nuclear Terrorism Hijacking Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) Insurgency International Criminal Police Organization (Interpol) Islamic Terrorism Jewish Terrorism List of designated terrorist organizations List of terrorist incidents Special forces Suicide attack S.W.A.T U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) United States Secret Service War on Terrorism Narcoterrorism Patriot Act PDD-62 Propaganda by deed Strategy of tension Terrorism Information Awareness Program Unconventional warfare VNSA State terrorism: Pakistani state terrorism State terrorism by Iran State terrorism and Russia State terrorism and the United States Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Terrorism Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Terrorism Further reading Bockstette, Carsten: "Jihadist Terrorist Use of Strategic Communication Management Techniques" George C. Marshall Center for European Security Studies Occasional Paper Series, Volume 20, Dezember 2008, ISSN 1863-6039, pp. 1–28 Christian Buder, "Die Todesstrafe, Tabu und Terror", VDM-Verlag, Saarbrücken, 2008, ISBN 978-3-8364-5163-5 Köchler, Hans (ed.), Terrorism and National Liberation. Proceedings of the International Conference on the Question of Terrorism. Frankfurt a. M./Bern/New York: Peter Lang, 1988, ISBN 3-8204-1217-4 Köchler, Hans. Manila Lectures 2002. Terrorism and the Quest for a Just World Order. Quezon City (Manila): FSJ Book World, 2002, ISBN 0-9710791-2-9 Laqueur, Walter. No End to War - Terrorism in the 21st century, New York, 2003, ISBN 0-8264-1435-4 Lerner, Brenda Wilmoth & K. Lee Lerner, eds. Terrorism : essential primary sources. Thomson Gale, 2006. ISBN 9781414406213 Library of Congress. Jefferson or Adams Bldg General or Area Studies Reading Rms LC Control Number: 2005024002. Lewis, Jeff, Language Wars: The Role of Media and Culture in Global Terror and Political Violence, Pluto Books, London, 2005. Lieberman, David M. Sorting the revolutionary from the terrorist: The delicate application of the "Political Offense" exception in U.S. extradition case, Stanford Law Review, Volume 59, Issue 1, 2006, pp. 181–211 Matovic, Violeta, Suicide Bombers Who's Next, Belgrade, The National Counter Terrorism Committee, ISBN 978-86-908309-2-3 Sunga, Lyal S., US Anti-Terrorism Policy and Asia’s Options, in Johannen, Smith and Gomez, (eds.) September 11 & Political Freedoms: Asian Perspectives (Select) (2002) 242–264. Arno Tausch 'Against Islamophobia. Quantitative analyses of global terrorism, world political cycles and center periphery structures' Hauppauge, N.Y.: Nova Science Publishers (for info: https://www.novapublishers.com/catalog/), 2007 Anderson, Sean; Sloan, Stephen (1995). Historical dictionary of terrorism. Metuchen, N.J.: Scarecrow Press. ISBN 978-0-8108-2914-5. Charles Tilly, Terror, Terrorism, Terrorists in Sociological Theory (2004) 22, 5-13 online Schmid, Alex (Ed.) , UN Forum on Crime and Society. Special Issue on Terrorism. 2004, Vol 4:1/2. References ^ Angus Martyn, The Right of Self-Defence under International Law-the Response to the Terrorist Attacks of 11 September, Australian Law and Bills Digest Group, Parliament of Australia Web Site, 12 February 2002 ^ Thalif Deen. POLITICS: U.N. Member States Struggle to Define Terrorism, Inter Press Service, 25 July 2005 ^ a b Abrahms, Max (March 2008). "What Terrorists Really Want: Terrorist Motives and Counterterrorism Strategy" (PDF 1933 KB). International Security (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press) 32 (4): 86–89. ISSN 0162-2889. http://maxabrahms.com/pdfs/DC_250-1846.pdf. Retrieved 2008-11-04. ^ Jean Paul Laborde (2007). "COUNTERING TERRORISM: NEW INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL LAW PERSPECTIVES: 132ND INTERNATIONAL SENIOR SEMINAR VISITING EXPERTS’ PAPERS". United Nations. http://www.unafei.or.jp/english/pdf/PDF_rms/no71/07_p10-p13.pdf. Retrieved 2010-01-13. "The UN is often criticized for its action (or more accurately lack of action) on terrorism. “Lack of the definition” of terrorism, not addressing its “root causes”, “victims” and other issues are often cited by the critics to highlight UN impotence in dealing with this gravest manifestation of crime." ^ a b c Fareed Zakaria (Jun 2, 2008). "The Only Thing We Have to Fear ... If you set aside the war in Iraq, terrorism has in fact gone way down over the past five years.". Newsweek. http://www.newsweek.com/id/138508. Retrieved 2010-01-12. ""Over the past 30 years, civil wars in the Democratic Republic of Congo, Angola, Liberia, Sierra Leone, Uganda, Bosnia, Guatemala, and elsewhere have, like Iraq, been notorious for the number of civilians killed. But although the slaughter in these cases was intentional, politically motivated, and perpetrated by non-state groups—and thus constituted terrorism as conceived by MIPT, NCTC, and START—" ^ a b c Francis Townsend, Bruce Hoffman, Steve Inskeep (host) (November 25, 2009). "Experts Explore How To Define Terrorism Act". NPR. http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=120809061. Retrieved 2010-01-13. "Incidents like Fort Hood are forcing terrorism experts to refine what should count as a terrorist act. ... When you look at the just basic English dictionary definition of terror, which is the use of violence to instill fear and intimidation, I think it's hard to imagine this wasn't an act of terror. ... Professor BRUCE HOFFMAN (Georgetown University): For me, an act of violence becomes an act of terrorism when it has some political motive." ^ a b c d e "What is terrorism?". BBC News. 20 September 2001. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/1555265.stm. Retrieved 2010-01-13. "One is Britain - the Terrorism Act 2000 is the largest piece of terrorist legislation in any member state. The Act says terrorism means the use or threat of action to influence a government or intimidate the public for a political, religious or ideological cause." ^ a b "What is terrorism?". BBC News. 20 September 2001. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/1555265.stm. Retrieved 2010-01-13. "Hardly anyone disputes that flying an aircraft full of passengers into the World Trade Center was terrorism of the worst kind. But the outrage has tended to obscure the fact that there is still argument about what the word covers. In other contexts, the debate about who is a terrorist and who is a freedom-fighter is not dead. ... You would get wide agreement across the world that innocent civilians or bystanders should not be targeted - as opposed to being killed inadvertently in an attack on the military." ^ Steven Monblatt (2010-01-13). "Transatlantic Security". British American Security Information Council. http://www.basicint.org/transatlantic/counterr.htm. Retrieved 2010-01-13. "Most victims of terrorism are innocent bystanders who happened to be in the wrong place at the wrong time." ^ a b James Poniewozik (June 11, 2009). "Is the Media Soft on White Male Terrorism?". Time Magazine. http://tunedin.blogs.time.com/2009/06/11/is-the-media-soft-on-white-male-terrorism/. Retrieved 2010-01-13. "The Webster definition of terrorism is "the systematic use of terror especially as a means of coercion."" ^ [http://www.asap-spssi.org/pdf/asap019.pdf "politically motivated violence perpetrated against noncombatant"] ^ "Terrorism". Merriam-Webster's Dictionary. 1795. http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/terrorism. ^ Bruce Hoffman, Steve Inskeep (host) (November 25, 2009). "Experts Explore How To Define Terrorism Act". NPR. http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=120809061. Retrieved 2010-01-13. "But Hoffman concedes he might not have viewed Fort Hood as terrorism a decade or two ago. Back then, he believed there had to be some sort of chain of command; that a terror network had to be involved for an incident to rank as a terrorist attack. But Hoffman was forced to revisit that view, in light of the Unabomber, the Oklahoma City bomber, and now his conviction that terrorist groups like al-Qaida have learned they don't need to finance or train would-be terrorists directly; instead, they can motivate them to commit terrorism on their own. In that sense, Hoffman sees the Fort Hood attack as a prime example of one of the major trends in 21st century terrorism." ^ Jean Paul Laborde (2007). "COUNTERING TERRORISM: NEW INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL LAW PERSPECTIVES: 132ND INTERNATIONAL SENIOR SEMINAR VISITING EXPERTS’ PAPERS". United Nations. http://www.unafei.or.jp/english/pdf/PDF_rms/no71/07_p10-p13.pdf. Retrieved 2010-01-13. "By defining terrorism as a crime rather than as an international security issue, the General Assembly has chosen a criminal law approach rather than a war model of fighting terrorism." ^ Hoffman, Bruce "Inside Terrorism" Columbia University Press 1998 ISBN 0-231-11468-0. Page 32. See review in The New York TimesInside Terrorism ^ Record, Jeffrey (December 2003). "BOUNDING THE GLOBAL WAR ON TERRORISM". Strategic Studies Institute (SSI). http://www.strategicstudiesinstitute.army.mil/pdffiles/pub207.pdf. Retrieved 2009-11-11. "The views expressed in this report are those of the author and do not necessarily reflect the official policy or position of the Department of the Army, the Department of Defense, or the U.S. Government. This report is cleared for public release; distribution is unlimited." ^ Schmid, Alex, and Jongman, Albert. Political Terrorism: A new guide to actors, authors, concepts, data bases, theories and literature. Amsterdam ; New York : North-Holland ; New Brunswick: Transaction Books, 1988. ^ a b Geoffrey Nunberg (October 28, 2001). "HEAD GAMES / It All Started with Robespierre / "Terrorism": The history of a very frightening word". San Francisco Chronicle. http://articles.sfgate.com/2001-10-28/opinion/17622543_1_terrorism-robespierre-la-terreur. Retrieved 2010-01-11. "For the next 150 years the word "terrorism" led a double life -- a justifiable political strategy to some an abomination to others" ^ Elysa Gardner (2008-12-25). "Harold Pinter: Theater's singular voice falls silent". USA Today. http://www.usatoday.com/life/theater/news/2008-12-25-pinter_N.htm. Retrieved 2010-01-11. "In 2004, he earned the prestigious Wilfred Owen prize for a series of poems opposing the war in Iraq. In his acceptance speech, Pinter described the war as "a bandit act, an act of blatant state terrorism, demonstrating absolute contempt for the concept of international law."" ^ Barak Mendelsohn (2005-01). "Sovereignty under attack: the international society meets the Al Qaeda network (abstract)". Cambridge Journals. http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayAbstract;jsessionid=14A39C376E92196BB12E57159E36C7DF.tomcat1?fromPage=online&aid=274626. Retrieved 2010-01-11. "This article examines the complex relations between a violent non-state actor, the Al Qaeda network, and order in the international system. Al Qaeda poses a challenge to the sovereignty of specific states but it also challenges the international society as a whole." ^ "Terrorism". Encyclopædia Britannica. pp. 3. http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9071797. Retrieved 2006-08-11. ^ Kim Campbell (September 27, 2001). "When is 'terrorist' a subjective term?". Christian Science Monitor. http://www.csmonitor.com/2001/0927/p16s2-wogi.html. Retrieved 2010-01-11. "New York Times columnist William Safire wrote that the word "terrorist" has its roots in the Latin terrere, which means "to frighten."" ^ Kim Campbell (September 27, 2001). "When is 'terrorist' a subjective term?". Christian Science Monitor. http://www.csmonitor.com/2001/0927/p16s2-wogi.html. Retrieved 2010-01-11. "The French were the first to coin the term, he says." ^ Geoffrey Nunberg (October 28, 2001). "HEAD GAMES / It All Started with Robespierre / "Terrorism": The history of a very frightening word". San Francisco Chronicle. http://articles.sfgate.com/2001-10-28/opinion/17622543_1_terrorism-robespierre-la-terreur. Retrieved 2010-01-11. "In 1792 the Jacobins came to power in France and initiated what we call the Reign of Terror and what the French call simply La Terreur." ^ Robert Mackey (November 20, 2009). "Can Soldiers Be Victims of Terrorism?". The New York Times. http://thelede.blogs.nytimes.com/2009/11/20/define-terrorism/. Retrieved 2010-01-11. "Terrorism is the deliberate killing of innocent people, at random, in order to spread fear through a whole population and force the hand of its political leaders." ^ Jeremy Lott (December 5, 2001). "Suicide Blunderers: Terrorists kill selves, blame Jews.". Reason Magazine. http://reason.com/archives/2001/12/05/suicide-blunderers. Retrieved 2010-01-11. "The World Trade Center and Pentagon bombings were an unthinkable masterstroke, producing a media spectacle that rocked the world." ^ a b Crenshaw, Martha, Terrorism in Context, p. 77. ^ "UN Reform". United Nations. 2005-03-21. Archived from the original on 2007-04-27. http://web.archive.org/web/20070427012107/http://www.un.org/unifeed/script.asp?scriptId=73. Retrieved 2008-07-11. "The second part of the report, entitled "Freedom from Fear backs the definition of terrorism - an issue so divisive agreement on it has long eluded the world community - as any action "intended to cause death or serious bodily harm to civilians or non-combatants with the purpose of intimidating a population or compelling a government or an international organization to do or abstain from doing any act."" ^ Khan, Ali (1987). "A Theory of International Terrorism" (PDF). Social Science Research Network. http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=935347. Retrieved 2008-07-11. ^ Ronald Bailey (February 6, 2009). "Earth Liberation Front Terrorist Gets 22 Years in Prison for Anti-Biotech Arson". Reason Magazine. http://reason.com/blog/2009/02/06/earth-liberation-front-terrori. Retrieved 2010-01-11. "Marie Mason decided to "elevate her grievances beyond the norms of civilized society" through fire and destruction, U.S. District Judge Paul Maloney said. The case _ which was prosecuted as domestic terrorism ..." ^ Daniel Schorn (June 18, 2006). "Ed Bradley Reports On Extremists Now Deemed Biggest Domestic Terror Threat". 60 Minutes. http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2005/11/10/60minutes/main1036067.shtml. Retrieved 2010-01-11. "The biggest act of eco-terrorism in U.S. history was a fire ... Animal Liberation Front, whose masked members have been known to videotape themselves breaking into research labs, ..." ^ Bruce Hoffman (June 2003). "The Logic of Suicide Terrorism". The Atlantic. http://www.theatlantic.com/doc/200306/hoffman. Retrieved 2010-01-11. "...terrorism is meant to produce psychological effects that reach far beyond the immediate victims of the attack." ^ Rick Hampson (2009-07-06). "Statue of Liberty gets her view back". USA Today. http://www.usatoday.com/travel/destinations/2009-07-01-statue-of-liberty-crown_N.htm. Retrieved 2010-01-11. "On Saturday, the statue, closed above its base since the terror attacks, will reopen to visitors — a relative few, in small groups, specially ticketed, carefully screened and escorted by a park ranger." ^ Juergensmeyer, Mark (2000). Terror in the Mind of God. University of California Press. pp. 125–135. ^ "Number of Terrorist Attacks, Fatalities". Washington Post. June 12, 2009. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/graphic/2009/06/12/GR2009061200051.html. Retrieved 2010-01-11. "The nation's deadliest terrorist acts - attacks designed to achieve a political goal" ^ Juergensmeyer, Mark (2000). Terror in the Mind of God. University of California Press. ^ Alexander Stille (May 31, 2003). "Historians Trace an Unholy Alliance; Religion as the Root Of Nationalist Feeling". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2003/05/31/arts/historians-trace-an-unholy-alliance-religion-as-the-root-of-nationalist-feeling.html?pagewanted=1. Retrieved 2010-01-11. "Now the context in which we see nationalism has completely changed, he said. Faced with the threat of Islamic fundamentalism, the West is more open to looking at the role of religion in the formation of nationalism." ^ Bockstette, Carsten (2008). "Jihadist Terrorist Use of Strategic Communication Management Techniques" (PDF). George C. Marshall Center Occasional Paper Series (20). ISSN 1863-6039. http://www.marshallcenter.org/mcpublicweb/MCDocs/files/College/F_ResearchProgram/occPapers/occ-paper_20-en.pdf. Retrieved 2009-01-01. ^ Edith M. Lederer, Associated Press Writer (2008-11-13). "UN conference rejects religious terrorism". USA Today. http://www.usatoday.com/news/world/2008-11-13-2150005625_x.htm. Retrieved 2010-01-11. "Countries attending a U.N. interfaith conference Thursday rejected the use of religion to justify acts of terrorism and other violence that kills and injures innocent civilians." ^ Juergensmeyer, Mark (2000). Terror in the Mind of God. University of California Press. pp. 127–128. ^ "Terrorism in the United States 1999" (PDF). Federal Bureau of Investigation. http://www.fbi.gov/publications/terror/terror99.pdf. Retrieved 2008-07-11. ^ "Iraq accuses US of state terrorism". BBC News. 2002-02-20. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/1830640.stm. Retrieved 2010-01-11. "Iraq has accused the United States of state terrorism amid signs that the war of words between the two countries is heating up." ^ "AskOxford Search Results - terrorist". AskOxford. AskOxford. http://www.askoxford.com/results/?view=dev_dict&field-12668446=terrorism&branch=13842570&textsearchtype=exact&sortorder=score%2Cname. Retrieved 2008-07-11. ^ "Cambridge International Dictionary of English". Dictionary.cambridge.org. http://dictionary.cambridge.org/define.asp?key=82104&dict=CALD. Retrieved 2009-08-10. ^ "Dictionary.com". Dictionary.reference.com. 1979-10-20. http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/terrorism. Retrieved 2009-08-10. ^ "Online Etymology Dictionary". Etymonline.com. 1979-10-20. http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=terrorism. Retrieved 2009-08-10. ^ Bob Thompson (May 1, 2005). "Hollywood on Crusade". Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2005/04/29/AR2005042900744.html. Retrieved 2010-01-11. "... terrorism. He was widely chastised for using a word that carries major negative connotations ..." ^ B'Tselem Head of ISA defines a terrorist as any Palestinian killed by Israel ^ a b Paul Reynolds, quoting David Hannay, Former UK ambassador (14 September 2005). "UN staggers on road to reform". BBC News. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/4244842.stm. Retrieved 2010-01-11. "This would end the argument that one man's terrorist is another man's freedom fighter..." ^ a b Rodin, David (2006). Terrorism. In E. Craig (Ed.), Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy. London: Routledge ^ Peter Steinfels (March 1, 2003). "Beliefs; The just-war tradition, its last-resort criterion and the debate on an invasion of Iraq.". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2003/03/01/us/beliefs-just-war-tradition-its-last-resort-criterion-debate-invasion-iraq.html?pagewanted=1. Retrieved 2010-01-11. "For those like Professor Walzer who value the just-war tradition as a disciplined way to think about the morality of war..." ^ Bruce Hoffman (1998). "Inside Terrorism". Columbia University Press. pp. 32. ISBN 0-231-11468-0. http://220.127.116.11/search?q=cache:RPT6zpTtE08J:www.nytimes.com/books/first/h/hoffman-terrorism.html+%22everyone+agrees:+terrorism+is+a+pejorative+term%22&hl=en&gl=uk&ct=clnk&cd=1&lr=lang_en. Retrieved 2010-01-11. "Google cached copy" ^ Bruce Hoffman (1998). "Inside Terrorism". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/books/first/h/hoffman-terrorism.html. Retrieved 2010-01-11. ^ Raymond Bonner (November 1, 1998). "Getting Attention: A scholar's historical and political survey of terrorism finds that it works.". The New York Times: Books. http://www.nytimes.com/books/98/11/01/reviews/981101.01bonnert.html. Retrieved 2010-01-11. "Inside Terrorism falls into the category of must read, at least for anyone who wants to understand how we can respond to international acts of terror." ^ Malayan People's Anti-Japanese Army Britannica Concise ^ Dr Chris Clark "Malayan Emergency, 16 June 1948". Archived from the original on 2007-06-08. http://web.archive.org/web/20070608150502/http://awm.gov.au/atwar/remembering1942/malaya/index.htm. , 16 June 2003 ^ Ronald Reagan, speech to National Conservative Political Action Conference 8 March, 1985. On the Spartacus Educational web site ^ "President Meets with Afghan Interim Authority Chairman". Georgewbush-whitehouse.archives.gov. 2002-01-29. http://georgewbush-whitehouse.archives.gov/news/releases/2002/01/20020128-13.html. Retrieved 2009-08-10. ^ President Discusses Progress in War on Terrorism to National Guard White House web site February 9, 2006 ^ Sudha Ramachandran Death behind the wheel in Iraq Asian Times, November 12, 2004, "Insurgent groups that use suicide attacks therefore do not like their attacks to be described as suicide terrorism. They prefer to use terms like "martyrdom ..." ^ Alex Perry How Much to Tip the Terrorist? Time Magazine, September 26, 2005. "The Tamil Tigers would dispute that tag, of course. Like other guerrillas and suicide bombers, they prefer the term “freedom fighters.” ^ Terrorism: concepts, causes, and conflict resolution George Mason University Institute for Conflict Analysis and Resolution, Printed by the Defense Threat Reduction Agency, Fort Belvoir, Virginia, January 2003 ^ Humphreys, Adrian. "One official's 'refugee' is another's 'terrorist'", National Post, January 17, 2006. ^ Theodore P. Seto The Morality of Terrorism Includes a list in the Times published on July 23, 1946 which were described as Jewish terrorist actions, including those launched by Irgun which Begin was a leading member ^ BBC News: Profiles: Menachem Begin BBC website "Under Begin's command, the underground terrorist group Irgun carried out numerous acts of violence." ^ Eqbal Ahmad "Straight talk on terrorism" Monthly Review, January, 2002. "including Menachem Begin, appearing in "Wanted" posters saying, "Terrorists, reward this much." The highest reward I have seen offered was 100,000 British pounds for the head of Menachem Begin" ^ Lord Desai Hansard, House of Lords 3 September 1998 : Column 72, "However, Jomo Kenyatta, Nelson Mandela and Menachem Begin — to give just three examples — were all denounced as terrorists but all proved to be successful political leaders of their countries and good friends of the United Kingdom." ^ BBC NEWS:World: Americas: UN reforms receive mixed response BBC website "Of all groups active in recent times, the ANC perhaps represents best the traditional dichotomous view of armed struggle. Once regarded by western governments as a terrorist group, it now forms the legitimate, elected government of South Africa, with Nelson Mandela one of the world's genuinely iconic figures." ^ BBC NEWS: World: Africa: Profile: Nelson Mandela BBC website "Nelson Mandela remains one of the world's most revered statesman" ^ Quinn v. Robinson (pdf), 783 F2d. 776 (9th Cir. 1986)(PDF), web site of the Syracuse University College of Law ^ Page 17, Northern Ireland: TP , T , S 11 (PDF) Queen's University Belfast School of Law ^ "Guardian Unlimited style guide". http://www.guardian.co.uk/styleguide/page/0,5817,184833,00.html. ^ "BBC editorial guidelines on the use of language when reporting terrorism" (DOC). http://www.bbc.co.uk/guidelines/editorialguidelines/assets/advice/guidanceontheuseoflanguagewhenreportingterrorism.doc. ^ Disorders and Terrorism, National Advisory Committee on Criminal Justice Standards and Goals (Washington D.C.:1976) ^ "13 Beagles Stolen From Researchers". The New York Times. February 2, 1988. http://www.nytimes.com/1988/02/02/science/13-beagles-stolen-from-researchers.html?pagewanted=1. Retrieved 2010-01-11. "Animal-rights proponents have removed 13 beagles used for medical research ... A campus spokeswoman, Kathy Jones, called the theft a quasi-terrorist act." ^ Hudson, Rex A. Who Becomes a Terrorist and Why: The 1999 Government Report on Profiling Terrorists, Federal Research Division, The Lyons Press,2002 ^ "Freedom squelches terrorist violence: Harvard Gazette Archives". http://www.news.harvard.edu/gazette/2004/11.04/05-terror.html. ^ "Freedom squelches terrorist violence: Harvard Gazette Archives" (PDF). http://ksghome.harvard.edu/~.aabadie.academic.ksg/povterr.pdf. Retrieved 2008-12-28. ^ "Poverty, Political Freedom, and the Roots of Terrorism" (PDF). 2004. http://ksghome.harvard.edu/~.aabadie.academic.ksg/povterr.pdf. Retrieved 2008-12-28. ^ "Unemployment, Inequality and Terrorism: Another Look at the Relationship between Economics and Terrorism" (PDF). 2005. http://titan.iwu.edu/~econ/uer/articles/kevin_goldstein.pdf. Retrieved 2008-12-28. ^ Bruce Hoffman (June 2003). "The Logic of Suicide Terrorism". The Atlantic. http://www.theatlantic.com/doc/200306/hoffman. Retrieved 2010-01-11. "The terrorists appear to be deliberately homing in on the few remaining places where Israelis thought they could socialize in peace." ^ Pape, Robert A. "The Strategic Logic of Suicide Terrorism," American Political Science Review, 2003. 97 (3): pp. 1–19. ^ "Basque Terrorist Group Marks 50th Anniversary with New Attacks". Time Magazine. Jul. 31, 2009. http://www.time.com/time/world/article/0,8599,1913931,00.html. Retrieved 2010-01-11. "Europe's longest-enduring terrorist group. This week, ETA (the initials stand for Basque Homeland and Freedom in Euskera, the Basque language)" ^ "Shining Path". The New York Times. March 18, 2009. http://topics.nytimes.com/topics/reference/timestopics/organizations/s/shining_path/index.html. Retrieved 2010-01-11. "The Shining Path, a faction of Peruvian militants, has resurfaced in the remote corners of the Andes. The war against the group, which took nearly 70,000 lives, supposedly ended in 2000. ... In the 1980s, the rebels were infamous for atrocities like planting bombs on donkeys in crowded markets, assassinations and other terrorist tactics." ^ "1983: Car bomb in South Africa kills 16". BBC. 2005-05-20. http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/may/20/newsid_4326000/4326975.stm. Retrieved 2010-01-11. "The outlawed anti-apartheid group the African National Congress has been blamed for the attack ... He said the explosion was the "biggest and ugliest" terrorist incident since anti-government violence began in South Africa 20 years ago." ^ Rick Young (May 16, 2007). "PBS Frontline: 'Spying on the Home Front'". PBS: Frontline. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/discussion/2007/05/03/DI2007050301142.html. Retrieved 2010-01-11. "... we and Frontline felt that it was important to look more comprehensively at the post-9/11 shift to prevention and the dilemma we all now face in balancing security and privacy." ^ shabad, goldie and francisco jose llera ramo. "Political Violence in a Democratic State," Terrorism in Context. Ed. Martha Crenshaw. University Park: Pennsylvania State University, 1995. pp467. ^ Peter Rose (August 28, 2003). "Disciples of religious terrorism share one faith". Christian Science Monitor. http://www.csmonitor.com/2003/0828/p15s02-bogn.html/(page)/2. Retrieved 2010-01-11. "Almost everyone Stern interviewed said they were doing God's will, defending the faithful against the lies and evil deeds of their enemies. Such testimonials, she suggests, "often mask a deeper kind of angst and a deeper kind of fear - fear of a godless universe, of chaos, of loose rules, and of loneliness."" ^ Sageman, Mark (2004). Understanding Terror Networks. Philadelphia, PA: U. of Pennsylvania Press. pp. 166–67. ISBN 978-0812238082. ^ Williams, Phil (2008). "Violent Non-State Actors and National and International Security". http://se2.isn.ch/serviceengine/FileContent?serviceID=ISFPub&fileid=8EEBA9FE-478E-EA2C-AA15-32FC9A59434A&lng=en. Retrieved 2009-02-14. ^ Sean Coughlan (21 August 2006). "Fear of the unknown". BBC News. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/magazine/5270500.stm. Retrieved 2010-01-11. "A passenger on the flight, Heath Schofield, explained the suspicions: "It was a return holiday flight, full of people in flip-flops and shorts. There were just two people in the whole crowd who looked like they didn't belong there."" ^ a b Library of Congress – Federal Research Division The Sociology and Psychology of Terrorism ^ Endgame: Resistance, by Derrick Jensen, Seven Stories Press, 2006, ISBN 158322730X, pg IX ^ "Pds Sso". Eprints.unimelb.edu.au. http://eprints.unimelb.edu.au/archive/00000137/01/Primorat.pdf. Retrieved 2009-08-10. ^ "Addressing Security Council, Secretary-General Calls On Counter-Terrorism Committee To Develop Long-Term Strategy To Defeat Terror". Un.org. http://www.un.org/News/Press/docs/2002/SC7276.doc.htm. Retrieved 2009-08-10. ^ Lind, Michael (2005-05-02). "The Legal Debate is Over: Terrorism is a War Crime | The New America Foundation". Newamerica.net. http://newamerica.net/publications/articles/2005/the_legal_debate_is_over_terrorism_is_a_war_crime. Retrieved 2009-08-10. ^ "Press conference with Kofi Annan & FM Kamal Kharrazi". Un.org. 2002-01-26. http://www.un.org/News/dh/latest/afghan/sg-teheran26.htm. Retrieved 2009-08-10. ^ Michael Stohl (April 1, 1984). "The Superpowers and International Terror". International Studies Association, Atlanta. ^ a b Michael Stohl (1988). "Terrible beyond Endurance? The Foreign Policy of State Terrorism". International Studies Association, Atlanta. ^ Michael Slackman (March 22, 2009). "New Status in Africa Empowers an Ever-Eccentric Qaddafi". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2009/03/23/world/africa/23libya.html. Retrieved 2010-01-11. "Once vilified for promoting state terrorism, Colonel Qaddafi is now courted." ^ "The "No Rent" Manifesto.; Text Of The Document Issued By The Land Leag... - Article Preview - The". New York Times. 2009-08-02. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=9C04E6DF113CEE3ABC4951DFB667838A699FDE. Retrieved 2009-08-10. ^ Nicolas Werth, Karel Bartošek, Jean-Louis Panné, Jean-Louis Margolin, Andrzej Paczkowski, Stéphane Courtois, The Black Book of Communism: Crimes, Terror, Repression, Harvard University Press, 1999, hardcover, 858 pages, ISBN 0-674-07608-7 ^ Kisangani, E. (2007). "The Political Economy Of State Terror" (PDF). Defence and Peace Economics 18 (5): 405–414. doi:10.1080/10242690701455433. http://www.informaworld.com/index/781318312.pdf. Retrieved 2008-04-02. ^ Death by Government By R.J. Rummel New Brunswick, N.J.: Transaction Publishers, 1994. Online links:  ^ No Lessons Learned from the Holocaust?[dead link], Barbara Harff, 2003. ^ a b c d Detection of Terrorist Financing, U.S. National Credit Union Administration (NCUA), 2002 ^ Jeremy Lott (October 6, 2004). "Tripped Up". Reason Magazine. http://reason.com/archives/2004/10/06/tripped-up. Retrieved 2010-01-11. "and before the Soviet Union fell, terrorist organizations were funding themselves through subsidies from Communist governments" ^ "Hackers warn high street chains". BBC News. 25 April 2008. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/7366995.stm. Retrieved 2010-01-11. "That's the beauty of asymmetric warfare. You don't need a lot of money, or an army of people." ^ Suicide bombings are the most effective terrorist act in this regard. See the following works: Hoffman, Bruce (June 2003). "The Logic of Suicide Terrorism". Atlantic Monthly 291 (5): pp. 40–47. http://www.theatlantic.com/doc/200306/hoffman. Pape, Robert A.. "The Strategic Logic of Suicide Terrorism" (reprint). American Political Science Review 97 (3): 343–361. http://www.danieldrezner.com/research/guest/Pape1.pdf. Ricolfi, Luca (2005). "Palestinians 1981–2003". in Gambetta, Diego. Making Sense of Suicide Missions (1st ed.). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. pp. 76–130. ISBN 9780199276998. Cited in Richardson, Louise (2006). What Terrorists Want: Understanding the Terrorist Threat. London, UK: John Murray. p. 33. ISBN 0719563062. ^ The Media and Terrorism: A Reassessment Paul Wilkinson. Terrorism and Political Violence, Vol.9, No.2 (Summer 1997), pp.51–64 Published by Frank Cass, London. ^ "Security Council Counter-Terrorism Committee"]. http://www.un.org/sc/ctc/. Retrieved 2009-06-17. ^ Pastor, James F. (2009). Terrorism & Public Safety Policing: Implications of the Obama Presidency. New York, NY: Taylor & Francis. ISBN 978-1-4398-1580-9. ^ his blog William Gibson's blog, October 31, 2004. Retrieved April 26, 2007. ^ Edmund Burke (1795). "Letter No. IV. To the Earl Fitzwilliam". Library of Economics and Liberty. pp. 308-76, 371. http://www.econlib.org/library/LFBooks/Burke/brkSWv3c4.html. Retrieved 2010-01-11. "Thousands of those Hell-hounds called Terrorists, whom they had shut up in Prison on their last Revolution, as the Satellites of Tyranny, are let loose on the people." ^ a b c Crenshaw, Martha, Terrorism in Context, p. 38 ^ Crenshaw, p. 44. External links This article's external links may not follow Wikipedia's policies or guidelines. Please improve this article by removing excessive and inappropriate external links or by converting links into references. (November 2009) UN conventions United Nations:Conventions on Terrorism United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime: "Conventions against terrorism". Archived from the original on 2007-08-05. http://web.archive.org/web/20070805001945/http://www.unodc.org/unodc/terrorism_conventions.html. "There are 12 major multilateral conventions and protocols related to states' responsibilities for combating terrorism. But many states are not yet party to these legal instruments, or are not yet implementing them." UNODC - United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime - Terrorism Prevention Terrorism and international humanitarian law Terrorism and international humanitarian law, International Committee of the Red Cross News monitoring websites specializing on articles on terrorism Insurgency Research Group – Multi-expert blog dedicated to the study of terrorism, insurgency and the development of counter-insurgency policy. A reliable and daily updated Open Sources Center that includes a "Terrorism" section. by ISRIA. Jihad Monitor Combating Terrorism Center at Westpoint Papers and articles on global terrorism "Al Qaeda Today: The New Face of the Global Jihad," by Marlena Telvick, PBS Frontline, January 2005."frontline: al qaeda's new front: al qaeda today". PBS. 2005-01-25. http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/front/etc/today.html. Retrieved 2009-08-10. Former CIA caseworker Dr. Marc Sageman explains how Al Qaeda has evolved from an operational organization into a larger social movement, and the implications for U.S. counterterror efforts. Bockstette, Carsten: "Jihadist Terrorist Use of Strategic Communication Management Techniques" George C. Marshall Center for European Security Studies Occasional Paper Series, Volume 20, Dezember 2008, ISSN 1863-6039, pp. 1–28 Audrey Kurth Cronin, "Behind the Curve: Globalization and International Terrorism," International Security, Vol. 27, No. 3 (Winter 2002/03), pp. 30–58. "European Union’s Security With Regard to the International Situation After September 2001". Archived from the original on 2007-05-14. http://web.archive.org/web/20070514163519/http://www.analyzingeu.eu/konrad/2007/european-union-security-after-september-2001/. – Special Report on Terrorism in the European Union on 'Analyzing EU' Stathis N. Kalyvas, The Paradox of Terrorism in Civil Wars (2004) in Journal of Ethics 8:1, 97–138. Prof. Troy Duster "From Theatre of War to Terrorism" Syed Ubaidur Rahman "Thousands of Muslims gather to denounce terrorism" Hans Köchler, The United Nations, the International Rule of Law and Terrorism. Supreme Court of the Philippines, Centenary Lecture (2002) Hans Köchler, The United Nations and International Terrorism. Challenges to Collective Security (2002) GTD, successor to the Terrorism Knowledge Base Global War on Terrorism / Strategic Studies Institute Terrorism Research Center – Terrorism research site started in 1996. Terror Finance Blog – Multi-expert website dealing with terrorism finance issues. Terrorism Research – International Terrorism and Security Research Scale invariance in global terrorism Security News Line: Global Terrorism and Counter-terrorism www.debriefed.org The Evolution of Terrorism in 2005. A statistical assessment An article by Rik Coolsaet and Teun Van de Voorde, University of Ghent Terrorism/Anti-terrorism – An analysis on the causes and uses of terrorism ["frontline: al qaeda's new front". PBS. 2005-01-25. http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/front/. Retrieved 2009-08-10. ] "Al Qaeda's New Front," PBS "Frontline" January 2005. In the aftermath of the 9/11 attacks, the locus of the investigation quickly shifted to Europe and the network of radical Islamic jihadis who are part of "Eurabia," the continent's expanding Muslim communities. Since 9/11 America has been spared what authorities feared and expected: a second wave of attacks. Instead Europe, once a logistical base for Islamic radicals and a safe haven, has itself become the target. Teaching Terrorism and Counterterrorism with lesson plans, bibliographies, resources; from US Military Academy Germany's contribution to the fight against global terrorism Quantitative World System Studies Contradict Current Islamophobia: World Political Cycles, Global Terrorism, and World Development. Arno Tausch, Innsbruck University – Faculty of Political Science and Sociology – Department of Political Science, Turkish Journal of International Relations, Vol. 6, No. 1 & 2, Spring-Summer 2007, available at: http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=976864 The Intelligence & Terrorism Information Center Information Terrorism: Can You Trust Your Toaster? Papers and articles on terrorism and the United States Library of Congress – Federal Research Division The Sociology and Psychology of Terrorism. by Robert L. Worden, Ph.D. Leonard Peikoff on Terrorism This article was published in the New York Times on October 2, 2001. Ivan Arreguín-Toft, "Tunnel at the End of the Light: A Critique of U.S. Counter-terrorist Grand Strategy,"Cambridge Review of International Affairs, Vol. 15, No. 3 (2002), pp. 549–563. The Terrorism Index – Terrorism "scorecard" from Foreign Policy Magazine and the Center for American Progress Most Wanted Terrorists- Rewards for Justice Law, Terrorism and Homeland Security. A collection of articles. "The Security Constitution," UCLA Law Review, Vol. 53, No. 29, 2005 The Enemy Within, PBS Frontline October 2006 Terrorist Network Operating Openly In The United States by Jane Franklin, ZNET, April 30, 2005 Papers and articles on terrorism and Israel Ariel Merari, "Terrorism as a Strategy in Insurgency," Terrorism and Political Violence, Vol. 5, No. 4 (Winter 1993), pp. 213–251. Israel Global Terror desk Victims of Palestinian Violence and Terrorism since September 2000 of Terrorist Analysis of Terrorist Other Terrorism Resources from UCB Libraries GovPubs Terrorism at the Open Directory Project START National Consortium for the Study of Terrorism and Responses to Terrorism The European Union counterterrorism policy before and after the 9/11 attacks Video: Dr Adam Dolnik: What makes a terrorist? A Lowy Institute lecture on SlowTV, August 2008 About the Qassam-sderot media center Paradise Poisoned: Learning About Conflict, Development and Terrorism from Sri Lanka's Civil Wars by John M. Richardson Ontologies of Weapons of Mass Destruction and Terrorism The Supreme Court of India adopted Alex P. Schmid's definition of terrorism in a 2003 ruling (Madan Singh vs. State of Bihar), "defin[ing] acts of terrorism veritably as 'peacetime equivalents of war crimes."  Jack Goody What is a terrorist? Published in: journal History and Anthropology, Volume 13, Issue 2 2002 , pages 139–142 DOI: 10.1080/0275720022000001219 Schmid and Jongman (1988): "Terrorism is an anxiety-inspiring method of repeated violent action, employed by (semi-)clandestine individual, group, or state actors, for idiosyncratic, criminal, or political reasons, whereby—in contrast to assassination—the direct targets of violence are not the main targets. The immediate human victims of violence are generally chosen randomly (targets of opportunity) or selectively (representative or symbolic targets) from a target population, and serve as message generators. Threat- and violence-based communication processes between terrorist (organization), (imperiled) victims, and main targets are use to manipulate the main target (audience(s), turning it into a target of terror, a target of demands, or a target of attention, depending on whether intimidation, coercion, or propaganda is primarily sought"."Academic Consensus Definition of "Terrorism," Schmid 1988, United Nations website". Archived from the original on 2007-06-27. http://web.archive.org/web/20070627231104/http://www.unodc.org/unodc/terrorism_definitions.html. . For more detailed information, see: Schmid, Jongman et al. Political terrorism: a new guide to actors, authors, concepts, data bases, theories, and literature. Amsterdam: North Holland, Transaction Books, 1988. ISBN 1412804698 Staff. U.S. Terrorism in the Americas an Encyclopedia "on violence promoted, supported and carried out by both the U.S. government and its servants in Latin America "Terror on the Streets of New York, Take One" by David Wallace-Wells, Newsweek, February 16, 2009 [show]v • d • eWar on Terrorism Timeline · Casualties · Theaters · Criticism · ISAF Participants Operational ISAF · Operation Enduring Freedom participants · Multinational Force - Iraq · Afghanistan · Northern Alliance · Iraq (Iraqi Army) · NATO · Pakistan · United Kingdom · United States · Philippines · Ethiopia Targets al-Qaeda · Osama bin Laden · Abu Sayyaf · Iraqi insurgency · Hamas · Islamic Courts Union · Jemaah Islamiyah · Taliban · Jaish-e-Mohammed · Harkat-ul-Jihad-al-Islami · Hizbul Mujahideen · Hezbollah · Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan · Lashkar-e-Taiba Conflicts Operation Enduring Freedom War in Afghanistan · OEF - Philippines · Georgia Train and Equip Program · Georgia Sustainment and Stability · OEF - Horn of Africa · OEF - Trans Sahara · Missile strikes in Pakistan Other Insurgency in the Maghreb · Iraq insurgency and operations · Insurgency in Saudi Arabia · War in North-West Pakistan · South Thailand insurgency · Lebanon War · War in Somalia · Lebanon-Fatah al-Islam conflict · Insurgency in the Philippines · Yemeni al-Qaeda crackdown Terrorist attacks 2001–2002 Assassination of Ahmad Shah Massoud · September 11 attacks · Bahawalpur church attack · Indian Parliament attack · Shoe bomb plot · Ghriba synagogue bombing · Karachi bus bomb · Jaunpur train crash · Karachi US Consulate bombing · Akshardham Temple attack · 1st Bali bombing · Zamboanga bombings · Kurnool train crash 2003–2004 Riyadh compound bombings · Casablanca bombings · 2003 Mumbai bombings · Jakarta Marriott Hotel bombing · Istanbul bombings · SuperFerry 14 bombing · Madrid train bombings · Khobar massacre · Beslan school hostage crisis · Jakarta Australian embassy bombing 2005–2006 1st London bombings · 2nd London bombings · Sharm el-Sheikh attacks · 2nd Bali bombing · 1st Delhi bombings · Amman bombings · 2006 Varanasi bombings · 2006 Mumbai train bombings · Transatlantic aircraft plot · Toronto terrorism plot 2007–2008 1st Algiers bombings · Fort Dix attack plot · Ankara bombing · London car bomb plot · Glasgow Airport attack · 2007 Yemen tourist attack · Hyderabad bombings · Qahtaniya bombings · Karachi bombing · Baghlan bombing · Philippine Congress bombing · 2nd Algiers bombings · Assassination of Benazir Bhutto · Jaipur bombings · Danish embassy · Indian embassy · United States consulate · Bangalore bombings-Ahmedabad · 2nd Delhi bombings · American embassy · Islamabad bombing · 3rd Delhi bombing · 2008 Assam bombings · 2008 Mumbai attacks 2009–current Attack on Sri Lankan cricket team · 2009 Yemen tourist attack · 2009 Lahore bombing · Pearl Continental hotel bombing · Jakarta bombings · Peshawar Peepal Mindi bombing · Northwest Airlines Flight 253 · 2010 Lakki Marwat suicide bombing See also Abu Ghraib prison · Axis of evil · Bush Doctrine · CIA-run Black sites · Combatant Status Review Tribunal · Enhanced interrogation techniques · Extrajudicial prisoners of the US · Extraordinary rendition · Guantanamo Bay detention camp · Military Commissions Act · NSA electronic surveillance program · President's Surveillance Program · Protect America Act of 2007 · Unitary executive theory · Unlawful combatant · USA PATRIOT Act Terrorism · War ‹ The template below (Abuse) is being considered for deletion. See templates for discussion to help reach a consensus. › [show]v • d • eAbuse Types Clandestine abuse • Harassment • Human rights abuse • Humiliation • Intimidation • Misconduct • Neglect • Negligence • Peer abuse • Self abuse • Stalking Sexual abuse War rape • Rape • Dating abuse Abuse of minors Child abuse • Child-on-child sexual abuse • Child sexual abuse Religious abuse Spiritual abuse • Satanic ritual abuse Abuse in society Character assassination • Whisper campaign • Smear campaign • Defamation • Racial abuse • Dehumanization • Discriminatory abuse • Hate crimes • Relational aggression • Disability abuse • Elder abuse • Gay bashing • Prejudice • Persecution • Structural abuse • Ragging • Hazing Physical abuse Terrorism • Torture • Bullying • School bullying • Mobbing • Workplace bullying • Animal abuse Non-physical abuse Insult • Verbal abuse • Taunting • Teasing • Abuse of information • Cyber-bullying • Surveillance abuse Professional abuse Legal abuse • Medical abuse • Group psychological abuse • Psychological abuse • Financial abuse • Economic abuse • Corporate corruption • Institutional abuse Abuse at organizations and authority Military abuse • Police abuse • Prisoner abuse • Political abuse • Political corruption • Abuse of power • Abuse of rank • Umpire abuse Family abuse Sibling abuse • Domestic abuse Personality disorders and behaviours Anti-social behaviour • Complex post-traumatic stress disorder • Passive–aggressive behavior • Manipulation • Minimisation • Psychological trauma • Psychopathy • Denial • Lying • Victim blaming Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Terrorism" Categories: Terrorism | Words coined in the 20th century | Fear | Abuse | Dispositional beliefs
227's YouTube "Chili" - STOMP THE YARD (BLACK COLLEGE STEP SHOW MOVIE) Starring Columbus Short, Meagan Good, Ne-Yo, Darrin Henson, Chris Brown, Brian White, Las Alonso, Valerie Pettiford & Harry Lennix (NBA Mix)!
Beyonce * Maxwell * Mario ft. Gucci Mane & sean Garrett * Drake ft. Lil Wayne * Ginuwine * Fabolous Featuring The-Dream * Keyshia Cole Duet With Monica * Jay-Z, Rihanna & Kanye West * Gucci Mane Featuring Plies * Mary Mary Featuring Kierra "KiKi" Sheard * Ice Cream Paint Job * Pleasure P * Mariah Carey * Trey Songz * Trey Songz Featuring Gucci Mane & Soulja Boy Tell'em * R. Kelly Featuring Keri Hilson * K'Jon * Young Money * Twista Featuring Erika Shevon * Yo Gotti * New Boyz * Jeremih * Keri Hilson Featuring Kanye West & Ne-Yo * Musiq Soulchild * Whitney Houston * Anthony Hamilton * Charlie Wilson * Chrisette Michele * Jamie Foxx Featuring T-Pain * Plies * LeToya Featuring Ludacris * Mary J. Blige Featuring Drake * Mullage * Charlie Wilson * Jamie Foxx Featuring Drake, Kanye West + The-Dream * Jamie Foxx Featuring Drake, Kanye West + The-Dream * Jeremih * Mishon * Jennifer Hudson * Clipse Featuring Pharrell Williams * Kid Cudi Featuring Kanye West & Common * Raphael Saadiq Featuring Stevie Wonder & CJ * Anthony Hamilton Featuring David Banner * Jazmine Sullivan * Trey Songz Featuring Drake * F.L.Y. (Fast Life Yungstaz) * Laura Izibor
Jamaal Al-Din's Hoops 227 (227's YouTube Chili")!
Beyonce * Shakira * Jordin Sparks * Mariah Carey * New Boyz * Jason DeRulo * Mario ft. Gucci Mane & Sean Garrett * Katy Perry * The Black Eyed Peas * Colby Caillat * Fabolous ft. The Dream * Jason Aldean * Daughtry * Lady Gaga * Michael Franti & Spearhead Featuring Cherine Anderson * Boys Like Girls * Flo Rida Featuring Ne-Yo * Dorrough * Green Day * Linkin Park * Pink * Justin Bieber * Rob Thomas * Maxwell * Jason Mraz * Young Money * The Fray * Rascal Flatts * Zac Brown Band * Shinedown * Disney's Friends For Change * Toby Keith * Darius Rucker * Cascada * Billy Currington * Justin Moore * Kid Cudi Featuring Kanye West & Common * Keith Urban * Randy Houser * Drake Featuring Lil Wayne * Jeremih * Pearl Jam * Kelly Clarkson * George Strait * LMFAO * Twista Featuring Erika Shevon * Uncle Kracker * Eric Church * Jack Ingram * Love And Theft * Parachute * Chris Young * Theory Of A Deadman * Tim McGraw * Sean Paul * Gloriana * Creed * Ginuwine * Keyshia Cole Duet With Monica * Blake Shelton * Iyaz
2009 NCAA Basketball Tournament! List of NCAA Division 1 Teams & Coaches at 227!
America East Conference Albany - Will Brown Binghamton - Kevin Broadus Boston University - Dennis Wolff Hartford - Dan Leibovitz Maine - Ted Woodward New Hampshire - Bill Herrion Stony Brook - Steve Pikiell UMBC - Randy Monroe Vermont - Mike Lonergan 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! America East Conference
Atlantic 10 Conference Charlotte - Bobby Lutz Dayton - Brian Gregory Duquesne - Ron Everhart Fordham - Dereck Whittenburg George Washington - Karl Hobbs La Salle - John Giannini Rhode Island - Jim Baron Richmond - Chris Mooney St. Bonaventure - Mark Schmidt Saint Joseph's - Phil Martelli Saint Louis - Rick Majerus Temple - Fran Dunphy UMass - Derek Kellogg Xavier - Sean Miller 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Atlantic 10 Conference
Atlantic Coast Conference Boston College - Al Skinner Clemson - Oliver Purnell Duke - Mike Krzyzewski Florida State - Leonard Hamilton Georgia Tech - Paul Hewitt Maryland - Gary Williams Miami (Florida) - Frank Haith North Carolina - Roy Williams North Carolina State - Sidney Lowe Virginia - Dave Leitao Virginia Tech - Seth Greenberg Wake Forest - Dino Gaudio 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Atlantic Coast Conference
Atlantic Sun Conference Belmont - Rick Byrd Campbell - Robbie Laing East Tennessee State - Murry Bartow Florida Gulf Coast - Dave Balza Jacksonville - Cliff Warren Kennesaw State - Tony Ingle Lipscomb - Scott Sanderson Mercer - Bob Hoffman North Florida - Matt Kilcullen Stetson - Derek Waugh USC Upstate - Eddie Payne 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Atlantic Sun Conference
Big 12 Conference Baylor - Scott Drew Colorado - Jeff Bzdelik Iowa State - Greg McDermott Kansas - Bill Self Kansas State - Frank Martin Missouri - Mike Anderson Nebraska - Doc Sadler Oklahoma - Jeff Capel III Oklahoma State - Travis Ford Texas - Rick Barnes Texas A&M - Mark Turgeon Texas Tech - Pat Knight 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Big 12 Conference
Big East Conference Cincinnati - Mick Cronin Connecticut - Jim Calhoun DePaul - Jerry Wainwright Georgetown - John Thompson III Louisville - Rick Pitino Marquette - Buzz Williams Notre Dame - Mike Brey Pittsburgh - Jamie Dixon Providence - Keno Davis Rutgers - Fred Hill St. John's - Norm Roberts Seton Hall - Bobby Gonzalez South Florida - Stan Heath Syracuse - Jim Boeheim Villanova - Jay Wright West Virginia - Bobby Huggins 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Big East Conference
Big Sky Conference Eastern Washington - Kirk Earlywine Idaho State - Joe O'Brien Montana - Wayne Tinkle Montana State - Brad Huse Northern Arizona - Mike Adras Northern Colorado - Tad Boyle Portland State - Ken Bone Sacramento State - Brian Katz Weber State - Randy Rahe 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Big Sky Conference
Big South Conference Charleston Southern - Barclay Radebaugh Coastal Carolina - Cliff Ellis Gardner-Webb - Rick Scruggs High Point - Bart Lundy Liberty - Ritchie McKay Presbyterian - Gregg Nibert Radford - Brad Greenberg UNC-Asheville - Eddie Biedenbach VMI - Duggar Baucom Winthrop - Randy Peele 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Big South Conference
Big Ten Conference Illinois - Bruce Weber Indiana - Tom Crean Iowa - Todd Lickliter Michigan - John Beilein Michigan State - Tom Izzo Minnesota - Tubby Smith Northwestern - Bill Carmody Ohio State - Thad Matta Penn State - Ed DeChellis Purdue - Matt Painter Wisconsin - Bo Ryan 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Big Ten Conference
Big West Conference Cal Poly - Kevin Bromley Cal State Fullerton - Bob Burton Cal State Northridge - Bobby Braswell Long Beach State - Dan Monson Pacific - Bob Thomason UC Davis - Gary Stewart UC Irvine - Pat Douglass UC Riverside - Jim Wooldridge UC Santa Barbara - Bob Williams 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Big West Conference
Colonial Athletic Association Delaware - Monte Ross Drexel - Bruiser Flint George Mason - Jim Larranaga Georgia State - Rod Barnes Hofstra - Tom Pecora James Madison - Matt Brady Northeastern - Bill Coen Old Dominion - Blaine Taylor Towson - Pat Kennedy UNC-Wilmington - Benny Moss Virginia Commonwealth - Anthony Grant William & Mary - Tony Shaver 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Colonial Athletic Association
Conference USA East Carolina - Mack McCarthy Houston - Tom Penders Marshall - Donnie Jones Memphis - John Calipari Rice - Ben Braun Southern Methodist - Matt Doherty Southern Mississippi - Larry Eustachy Tulane - Dave Dickerson Tulsa - Doug Wojcik UAB - Mike Davis UCF - Kirk Speraw UTEP - Tony Barbee 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Conference USA
Horizon League - Butler - Brad Stevens Cleveland State - Gary Waters Detroit - Ray McCallum Loyola (Chicago) - Jim Whitesell UIC - Jimmy Collins UW-Green Bay - Tod Kowalczyk UW-Milwaukee - Rob Jeter Valparaiso - Homer Drew Wright State - Brad Brownell Youngstown State - Jerry Slocum 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Horizon League
Independents Bryant - Tim O'Shea Cal State Bakersfield - Keith Brown Chicago State - Benjy Taylor Houston Baptist - Ron Cottrell Longwood - Mike Gillian New Jersey Institute of Technology - Jim Engles North Carolina Central - Henry Dickerson Savannah State - Horace Broadnax SIU-Edwardsville - Lennox Forrester Texas-Pan American - Tom Schuberth Utah Valley - Dick Hunsaker 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! NCAA Division I independent schools (basketball)
Ivy League Brown - Jesse Agel Columbia - Joe Jones Cornell - Steve Donahue Dartmouth - Terry Dunn Harvard - Tommy Amaker Penn - Glen Miller Princeton - Sydney Johnson Yale - James Jones 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Ivy League
Metro Atlantic Athletic Conference Canisius - Tom Parrotta Fairfield - Ed Cooley Iona - Kevin Willard Loyola (Maryland) - Jimmy Patsos Manhattan - Barry Rohrssen Marist - Chuck Martin Niagara - Joe Mihalich Rider - Tommy Dempsey St. Peter's - John Dunne Siena - Fran McCaffery 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Mid-American Conference
Mid-American Conference Akron – Keith Dambrot Ball State – Billy Taylor Bowling Green – Louis Orr Buffalo – Reggie Witherspoon Central Michigan – Ernie Ziegler Eastern Michigan – Charles Ramsey Kent State – Geno Ford Miami – Charlie Coles Northern Illinois – Ricardo Patton Ohio – John Groce Toledo – Gene Cross Western Michigan – Steve Hawkins 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Mid-American Conference
Mid-Eastern Athletic Conference Bethune-Cookman - Clifford Reed Coppin State - Ron Mitchell Delaware State - Greg Jackson Florida A&M - Mike Gillespie Hampton - Kevin Nickelberry Howard - Gil Jackson Maryland-Eastern Shore - Meredith Smith Morgan State - Todd Bozeman Norfolk State - Anthony Evans North Carolina A&T - Jerry Eaves South Carolina State - Tim Carter Winston-Salem State - Bobby Collins 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Mid-Eastern Athletic Conference
Missouri Valley Conference Bradley - Jim Les Creighton - Dana Altman Drake - Mark Phelps Evansville - Marty Simmons Illinois State - Tim Jankovich Indiana State - Kevin McKenna Missouri State - Cuonzo Martin Northern Iowa - Ben Jacobson Southern Illinois - Chris Lowery Wichita State - Gregg Marshall 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Missouri Valley Conference
Mountain West Conference Air Force - Jeff Reynolds Brigham Young - Dave Rose Colorado State - Tim Miles New Mexico - Steve Alford San Diego State - Steve Fisher Texas Christian - Neil Dougherty UNLV - Lon Kruger Utah - Jim Boylen Wyoming - Heath Schroyer 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Mountain West Conference
Northeast Conference Central Connecticut State - Howie Dickenman Fairleigh Dickinson - Tom Green LIU-Brooklyn - Jim Ferry Monmouth - Dave Calloway Mount St. Mary's - Milan Brown Quinnipiac - Tom Moore Robert Morris - Mike Rice Jr. Sacred Heart - Dave Bike St. Francis (PA) - Don Friday St. Francis (NY) - Brian Nash Wagner - Mike Deane 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Northeast Conference
Ohio Valley Conference Austin Peay - Dave Loos Eastern Illinois - Mike Miller Eastern Kentucky - Jeff Neubauer Jacksonville State - James Green Morehead State - Donnie Tyndall Murray State - Billy Kennedy Southeast Missouri - Zac Roman Tennessee-Martin - Bret Campbell Tennessee State - Cy Alexander Tennessee Tech - Mike Sutton 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Ohio Valley Conference
Pacific-10 Conference Arizona - Russ Pennell Arizona State - Herb Sendek California - Mike Montgomery Oregon - Ernie Kent Oregon State - Craig Robinson Stanford - Johnny Dawkins UCLA - Ben Howland USC - Tim Floyd Washington - Lorenzo Romar Washington State - Tony Bennett 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Pacific-10 Conference
Patriot League American - Jeff Jones Army - Jim Crews Bucknell - Dave Paulsen Colgate - Emmett Davis Holy Cross - Ralph Willard Lafayette - Fran O'Hanlon Lehigh - Brett Reed Navy - Billy Lange 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Patriot League
Southeastern Conference Alabama - Philip Pearson Arkansas - John Pelphrey Auburn - Jeff Lebo Florida - Billy Donovan Georgia - Pete Herrmann Kentucky - Billy Gillispie LSU - Trent Johnson Mississippi - Andy Kennedy Mississippi State - Rick Stansbury South Carolina - Darrin Horn Tennessee - Bruce Pearl Vanderbilt - Kevin Stallings 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Southeastern Conference
Southern Conference Appalachian State - Houston Fancher Chattanooga - John Shulman The Citadel - Ed Conroy College of Charleston - Bobby Cremins Davidson - Bob McKillop Elon - Ernie Nestor Furman - Jeff Jackson Georgia Southern - Jeff Price Samford - Jimmy Tillette UNC-Greensboro - Mike Dement Western Carolina - Larry Hunter Wofford - Mike Young 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Southern Conference
Southland Conference Central Arkansas - Rand Chappell Lamar - Steve Roccaforte McNeese State - Dave Simmons Nicholls State - J. P. Piper Northwestern State - Mike McConathy Sam Houston State - Bob Marlin Southeastern Louisiana - Jim Yarbrough Stephen F. Austin - Danny Kaspar Texas A&M-Corpus Christi - Perry Clark Texas-Arlington - Scott Cross Texas-San Antonio - Brooks Thompson Texas State - Doug Davalos 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Southland Conference
Southwestern Athletic Conference Alabama A&M - L. Vann Pettaway Alabama State - Lewis Jackson Alcorn State - Samuel West Arkansas-Pine Bluff - George Ivory Grambling State - Larry Wright Jackson State - Tevester Anderson Mississippi Valley State - Sean Woods Prairie View A&M - Byron Rimm II Southern - Rob Spivery Texas Southern - Tony Harvey 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Southwestern Athletic Conference
The Summit League Centenary - Greg Gary IPFW - Dane Fife IUPUI - Ron Hunter North Dakota State - Saul Phillips Oakland - Greg Kampe Oral Roberts - Scott Sutton South Dakota State - Scott Nagy Southern Utah - Roger Reid UMKC - Matt Brown Western Illinois - Derek Thomas 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! The Summit League
Sun Belt Conference Arkansas-Little Rock - Steve Shields Arkansas State - Dickey Nutt Denver - Joe Scott Florida Atlantic - Mike Jarvis Florida International - Sergio Rouco Louisiana-Lafayette - Robert Lee Louisiana-Monroe - Orlando Early Middle Tennessee - Kermit Davis New Orleans - Joe Pasternack North Texas - Johnny Jones South Alabama - Ronnie Arrow Troy - Don Maestri Western Kentucky - Ken McDonald 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Sun Belt Conference
West Coast Conference Gonzaga - Mark Few Loyola Marymount - Rodney Tention Pepperdine - Vance Walberg Portland - Eric Reveno Saint Mary's - Randy Bennett San Diego - Bill Grier San Francisco - Rex Walters Santa Clara - Kerry Keating 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! West Coast Conference
Western Athletic Conference Boise State - Greg Graham Fresno State - Steve Cleveland Hawai?i - Bob Nash Idaho - Don Verlin Louisiana Tech - Kerry Rupp Nevada - Mark Fox New Mexico State - Marvin Menzies San Jose State - George Nessman Utah State - Stew Morrill 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Western Athletic Conference
2Pac 50 Cent A Adam Tensta Akon Aaliyah Ashanti Andre 3000 B Bow Wow Bobby Valentino Beyonce Bone Thugs n Harmony Birdman (rapper) Busta Rhymes Bobby Fischer C Chris Brown Cherish Cassidy Chingy Chamillionaire Christina Milian Chrisette Michele Cashis Ciara Cypress Hill Calzone Mafia Cuban Link D Destiny's Child DJ Clue Demetri Montaque Danity Kane Day 26 Donnie D12 DJ Khaled Dr. Dre E E-40 Eminem Eazy-E F Fabolous Flo Rida Fat Joe Frankie J G G-Unit The Game H Hurricane Chris I Ice Cube J Jay-Z J.R. Rotem J Holiday Jordan Sparks K Kanye West Kelly Rowland keri hilson The Kreators L Lil' Kim Lil' Mo Lil Jon Lil Mama Lloyd Banks Lil Wayne Ludacris Lloyd Lil Mama Lil Eazy-E Leona lewis M MC Hammer Mike Shorey MF Doom Mariah Carey Mario Mary J. Blige N Ne-Yo Nate Dogg Niia N.W.A. Notorious B.I.G. Nas Nick Cannon Nelly Necro O Olivia Omarion Obie Trice Old Dirty Bastard P Public Enemy Plies P Diddy pink Pharcyde Q R Red Cafe Run DMC Ray J R Kelly Rihanna Rick Ross (rapper) S Sean Combs Sean Kingston Snoop Dogg Stargate Sean Garrett Suge Knight Soulja Boy Tell 'Em Stat Quo shakira T The Notorious B.I.G. Tupac Shakur Trina Tyrese T-Pain Three 6 Mafia T.I. Too Phat U Usher V V.I.C. W Warren G Wyclef Jean Wu Tang Clan will.i.am X Xzibit Y Young Jeezy Yung Berg Z
Michael Jackson Bing Crosby U.S. The Beatles AC/DC ABBA Alla Bee Gees Bob Marley Celine Dion Cliff Richard The Drifters Elton John Herbert von Karajan Julio Iglesias Led Zeppelin Madonna Mariah Carey Elvis Presley Nana Mouskouri Pink Floyd The Rolling Stones Tino Rossi Wei Wei
Adriano Celentano Aerosmith Backstreet Boys Barry White Billy Joel Bon Jovi Boney M. The Carpenters Charles Aznavour Cher Chicago Dave Clark Five David Bowie Deep Purple Depeche Mode Dire Straits Dolly Parton The Eagles Electric Engelbert Humperdinck Fats Domino Fleetwood Mac The Four Seasons Frank Sinatra Garth Brooks Genesis George Michael Guns N' Roses James Last The Jackson 5 Janet Jackson Johnny Hallyday Kenny Rogers Lionel Richie Luciano Pavarotti Metallica Michiya Mihashi Mireille Mathieu Modern Talking Neil Diamond Olivia Newton-John Patti Page Paul McCartney Perry Como Pet Shop Boys Phil Collins Prince Queen Ricky Nelson Roberto Carlos Rod Stewart Salvatore Adamo Status Quo Stevie Wonder Teresa Teng Tina Turner Tom Jones U2 Valeriya The Ventures Whitney Houston The Who
Annie Lennox B'z Britney Spears Carlos Santana Dalida Earth, Wind & Fire Eddy Arnold Eminem Eurythmics Gloria Estefan Hibari Misora Journey Scorpions Van Halen Ace of Base Alan Jackson Country Alice Cooper Hard rock Andrea Bocelli Opera The Andrews Sisters Swing Ayumi Hamasaki Pop Black Sabbath Heavy metal Barbra Streisand Pop / Adult contemporary Beach Boys Rock Pop Bob Dylan Folk / Rock Bob Seger Rock Boston Arena rock Boyz II Men R&B Bruce Springsteen Rock Bryan Adams Def Leppard Destiny's Child R&B / Pop Dreams Come True Pop / Jazz Duran Duran Enya Ireland Four Tops George Strait Glay Iron Maiden Jay-Z Hip hop Jean Michel Jarre Jethro Tull Johnny Cash Kazuhiro Moriuchi Kiss Hard rock Kenny G Kylie Minogue Luis Miguel Linkin Park Meat Loaf Michael Bolton Mills Brothers Mötley Crüe Mr.Children Nat King Cole New Kids on the Block Nirvana 'N Sync Oasis Orhan Gencebay Pearl Jam Petula Clark Red Hot Chili Peppers The Police Ray Conniff Reba McEntire R.E.M. Richard Clayderman Ricky Martin Robbie Williams Roxette Sweden Shakira Colombia
The Seekers Australia Spice Girls Tom Petty & The Heartbreakers Tony Bennett T.Rex UB40 Vicente Fernandez Village People Willie Nelson
Jamaal Al-Din, a native of Grand Rapids, Michigan and former leading scorer of Olympic Basketball and LSU great, Ed Palubinskas brings to you Michigan State University's and the NBA's Earvin "Magic" Johnson at 227's YouTube "MAGIC!" provided by Jamaal Al-Din's Hoops 227-the everything basketball website, featuring YouTube Videos and Wikipedia information on the legendary Earvin "Magic" Johnson, The Magic Johnson Foundation, Magic Johnson Enterprises, and everything including the magical phrase..."MAGIC!" 227's YouTube "MAGIC!"
As we look to expand basketball marketing, camps and clinics nationally, our basketball affiliate programs are scheduled to begin in March of 2008. Our affiliates, exciting, take a look at this list: ebay, StubHub.com, Yahoo Affiliate Program!, TickCo Premium Seating, RazorGator Affiliate Program, SightSell, VistaPrint.com, Pokeorder and WeHaveSeats.com. Jamaal Al-Din's Hoops 227 welcomes our affiliate partners for 2008. Among the items offered our NCAA & NBA basketball tickets both premium and discounted rates. Basketball shoes and apparel for kids, fans, players and coaches ranging from Air Jordans, LeBron James, NIKE, Adidas, AND1, hats, collectibles and memoralbilia! Jamaal Al-Din's Hoops 227- The everything basketball website!
?227's YouTube "Chili" features these exciting YouTube music and entertainment celebrities...click onto to these 227 YouTube "Chili" links, channels and articles for the most watched YouTube hip-hop music videos in the world!
Sean Kingston, Justin Timberlake, M.I.A'"Paper Planes!" , Timbaland, 50 Cent, P-Diddy, Kanye West. Rihanna, Chris Brown, T.I.-"Big Things Poppin!" , Rihanna- Hate That I Love You (over 29 million views on YouTube)!, Leona Lewis, Soulja Boy, Britney Spears, Alicia Keys, Avril Lavigne, Alicia Keys- No One, Akon, NE-YO, LL Cool J, Dr. Dre, Snoop Dogg, Dmx, Jay-z, The Notorious B.I.G, 2PAC, Will Smith, Jonas Brothers, Pink "So What!" , Jordin Sparks feta. Chris Brown- "No Air" Official Music Video-over 33 million views on YouTube!), Lil Jon- get low music movie, Ludacris, Ice Cube, Flo Rida feat. T.Pain Music from the Movie Step Up 2 "Low," Chris Brown*Chris Brown feat. T.Pain- Kiss Kiss (over 51 million views on YouTube)!, Chris Brown-"With You," Chris Brown feat. Lil' Wayne (over 56 million views on YouTube!, Chris Brown "YO," Chris Brown-Run It, Chris Brown- Forever, Wu Tang Clan, The Fugees, Jordin Sparks-Tattoo, Rhianna- Cry, Rihanna- unfaithful, Rhianna- Umbrella (over 43 million views on YouTube/You Tube)!, Ashanti, Fergie Fergalicious, Fergie- Clumsy!, Rhianna- Dont' Stop The Music (over 62 million views on YouTube), Avril Lavign- Girlfriend (over 92 million views on YouTube)!, Clay Aiken, Akon, Christina Aguilera-Hurt, Clay Aiken-On My Way Here, All-American Rejects, All-American Rejects-Move Along, All-American Rejects-It Ends Tonight, Ashley Parker Angel, Michael Jackson ("Thriller"), Backstreet Boys, Augustana, Natasha Bedingfeild, Michael Jackson, Natasha Bedingfield feat. Sean Kingston-Love Like This, Natasha Bedingfield-Pocketful of Sunshine and lots more at 227's YouTube Chili!!! Your source for the world's most watched YouTube Music Videos at Jamaal Al-Din's Hoops 227- the everything basketball website!
Also: Jesse McCartney, Ray J,Usher,Elliott Yamin,Jonas Brothers,Fergie,Taylor Swift, Nelly Furtado, Jennifer Lopez, Flyleaf,Maroon 5,Kanye West,Keyshia Cole, The Pussycat Dolls,Colby O'Donis,Ashanti,R. Kelly,Girlicious, Colbi Calliat, Boy George,Mario,Three Days Grace,Beyonce', Gorillaz,Carrie Underwood,3 Doors Down,Finger Eleven, Ginuwine,Baby Bash,Kid Rock,Joe, Gwen Steffani, Billy Ray Cyrus, Danity Kane, Janel Parrish, Ciara, NLT, Fall Out Boy, Josh Turner, Fantasia and more!