227's "The Chili' Game!" Boise State vs. Michigan State | September 17, 2022 | Albertsons Stadium, Boise, ID | Chili' ESPN College Football!
227's JAMAAL Chili' AL-DIN, native of GRAND RAPIDS, MICHIGAN tributes the legendary
MICHIGAN STATE Chili' SPARTANS Alumni & Spicy' NBA Chili' GREAT - EARVIN "MAGIC" Chili' JOHNSON! MICHIGAN STATE Chili' SPARTANS - ROSE BOWL CHAMPIONS 2014!
227's GRAND RAPIDS, MICHIGAN native JAMAAL Chili' AL-DIN salutes FLOYD 'MONEY' Chili' MAYWEATHER, Jr., MICHIGAN FAB 5, ESPN's JALEN Chili' ROSE, CHRIS Chili' WEBBER
& MICHIGAN Chili' WOLVERINES Alumni!
227's BIG TEN CONFERENCE
Jamaal Al-Din's Hoops 227 (227's YouTube "Chili"), in Boise, Idaho
- Home of the 2007 & 2010 Tostitos Fiesta Bowl Champions - Boise State Chili' Broncos!
227's YouTube Chili' "KAREEM!" The Spicy' NBA's All-Time Leading Scorer! 38,387 Points!
227's YouTube Chili' "JORDAN!"
227's YouTube Chili' "KOBE!"
227's YouTube Chili' "LEBRON!"
Ford Motor Company From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search "Ford" redirects here. For the 38th President of the United States, see Gerald Ford. For other uses, see Ford (disambiguation). Ford Motor Company Type Public (NYSE: F) Founded June 16, 1903 Founder(s) Henry Ford Headquarters Dearborn, Michigan, USA Area served Worldwide Key people William C. Ford, Jr. (Executive Chairman) Alan R. Mulally (President) & (CEO) Industry Automotive Products Mainstream/Performance vehicles Automotive parts Services Automotive finance, Vehicle leasing, Vehicle service Revenue ▲ US$ 172.455 Billion (2007) Operating income ▼ US$ 5.296 Billion (2007) Net income ▼ US$ -2.723 Billion (2007) Total assets ▲ US$ 279.264 Billion (2007) Total equity ▲ US$ 5.628 Billion (2007) Employees 87,700 (US - 2008) 245,000 (worldwide) Divisions Ford Credit Ford division Lincoln Mercury Premier Automotive Group Subsidiaries Automotive Components Holdings Mazda (small 13%) Volvo (cars only) Website Ford.com The Ford Motor Company (NYSE: F) is an American multinational corporation and the world's fourth largest automaker based on worldwide vehicle sales, following Toyota, General Motors, and Volkswagen. Based in Dearborn, Michigan, a suburb of Detroit, the automaker was founded by Henry Ford and incorporated on June 16, 1903. In addition to the Ford, Lincoln, and Mercury brands, Ford also owns Volvo Cars of Sweden, and a small stake in Mazda of Japan and Aston Martin of England. Ford's former UK subsidiaries Jaguar and Land Rover were sold to Tata Motors of India in March 2008. In 2007, Ford fell from the second-ranked automaker to the third-ranked automaker in US sales for the first time in 56 years, behind General Motors and Toyota. Based on 2007 global sales, Ford fell to the fourth-ranked spot behind Volkswagen. Ford is the seventh-ranked overall American-based company in the 2007 Fortune 500 list, based on global revenues in 2007 of $172.5 billion. In 2007, Ford produced 6.553 million automobiles and employed about 245,000 employees at around 100 plants and facilities worldwide. Also in 2007, Ford received more initial quality survey awards from J. D. Power and Associates than any other automaker. Five of Ford's vehicles ranked at the top of their categories and fourteen vehicles ranked in the top three. Ford introduced methods for large-scale manufacturing of cars and large-scale management of an industrial workforce using elaborately engineered manufacturing sequences typified by moving assembly lines. Henry Ford's methods came to be known around the world as Fordism by 1914. Contents [hide] 1 History 2 Corporate governance 3 Recent company developments 3.1 "The Way Forward" 3.2 Online 4 Brands and marques 5 Global markets 5.1 Europe 5.2 Asia Pacific 5.3 South America 5.4 Africa and Middle East 6 Environmental record 6.1 Fuel efficiency 6.1.1 Record of Ford's environmental decisions 7 Small cars, alternative fuel and electric vehicles 7.1 Alternative fossil fuels 7.2 Biofuels 7.3 Hydrogen 7.4 Electric vehicles 7.4.1 Hybrid electric vehicles 7.4.2 All-electric vehicles 7.5 Small cars 8 Auto racing 8.1 NASCAR 8.2 Formula One 8.3 Rally 8.4 Sports cars 8.5 Touring cars 8.6 Other 9 Ford trucks 10 Bus products 11 Ford tractors 12 Criticism 12.1 Alleged Nazi collaboration 12.2 Argentine "Dirty War" 12.3 The Ford Pinto memo 13 See also 14 Notes 15 References and further reading 15.1 Ford Motor Company 16 External links History Henry Ford (ca. 1919) 1896 Ford QuadricycleMain article: History of Ford Motor Company Ford was launched in a converted factory in 1903 with $28,000 in cash from twelve investors, most notably John and Horace Dodge (who would later found their own car company). During its early years, the company produced just a few cars a day at its factory on Mack Avenue in Detroit, Michigan. Groups of two or three men worked on each car from components made to order by other companies. Henry Ford was 40 years old when he founded the Ford Motor Company, which would go on to become one of the world's largest and most profitable companies, as well as being one to survive the Great Depression. As one of the largest family-controlled companies in the world, the Ford Motor Company has been in continuous family control for over 100 years. Corporate governance Ford World Headquarters in Dearborn, Michigan, known as the Glass House.Members of the board as of early 2007 are: Chief Sir John Bond, Richard Manoogian, Stephen Butler, Ellen Marram, Kimberly Casiano, Alan Mulally (President and CEO), Edsel Ford II, Homer Neal, William Clay Ford Jr., Jorma Ollila, Irvine Hockaday Jr., John L. Thornton and William Clay Ford (Director Emeritus). The main corporate officers are: Lewis Booth (Executive Vice President, Chairman (PAG) and Ford of Europe), Mark Fields (Executive Vice President, President of The Americas), Donat Leclair (Executive Vice President and CFO), Mark A. Schulz (Executive Vice President, President of International Operations) and Michael E. Bannister (Group Vice President; Chairman & CEO Ford Motor Credit). Paul Mascarenas (Vice President of Engineering, The Americas
Product Development) Recent company developments During the mid to late 1990s, Ford sold large numbers of vehicles, in a booming American economy with soaring stock market and low fuel prices. With the dawn of the new century, legacy healthcare costs, higher fuel prices, and a faltering economy led to falling market shares, declining sales, and sliding profit margins. Most of the corporate profits came from financing consumer automobile loans through Ford Motor Credit Company. By 2005, corporate bond rating agencies had downgraded the bonds of both Ford and GM to junk status, citing high U.S. health care costs for an aging workforce, soaring gasoline prices, eroding market share, and dependence on declining SUV sales for revenues. Profit margins decreased on large vehicles due to increased "incentives" (in the form of rebates or low interest financing) to offset declining demand. In the face of demand for higher fuel efficiency and falling sales of minivans, Ford moved to introduce a range of new vehicles, including "Crossover SUVs" built on unibody car platforms, rather than more body-on-frame chassis. In developing the hybrid electric powertrain technologies for the Ford Escape Hybrid SUV, Ford licensed similar Toyota hybrid technologies to avoid patent infringements. Ford announced that it will team up with electricity supply company Southern California Edison (SCE) to examine the future of plug-in hybrids in terms of how home and vehicle energy systems will work with the electrical grid. Under the multi-million-dollar, multi-year project, Ford will convert a demonstration fleet of Ford Escape Hybrids into plug-in hybrids, and SCE will evaluate how the vehicles might interact with the home and the utility's electrical grid. Some of the vehicles will be evaluated "in typical customer settings," according to Ford. In December 2006, the company raised its borrowing capacity to about $25 billion, placing substantially all corporate assets as collateral to secure the line of credit. Chairman Bill Ford has stated that "bankruptcy is not an option". In order to control its skyrocketing labor costs (the most expensive in the world), the company and the United Auto Workers, representing approximately 46,000 hourly workers in North America, agreed to a historic contract settlement in November 2007 giving the company a substantial break in terms of its ongoing retiree health care costs and other economic issues. The agreement includes the establishment of a company-funded, independently-run Voluntary Employee Beneficiary Association (more commonly known as a VEBA) trust to shift the burden of retiree health care from the company's books, thereby improving its balance sheet. However, this arrangement will not begin to take effect until January 1, 2010. The agreement also gives hourly workers the job security they were seeking by having the company commit to substantial investments in most of its factories. The automaker reported the largest annual loss in company history in 2006 of $12.7 billion, and estimated that it would not return to profitability until 2009. However, Ford surprised Wall Street in the second quarter of 2007 by posting a $750 million profit. Despite the gains, the company finished the year with a $2.7 billion loss, largely attributed to finance restructuring at Volvo. In June 2, 2008, Ford sold its Jaguar and Land Rover operations to Tata Motors for $2.3 billion. In January 2008, Ford launched a website listing the ten Built Ford Tough rules as well as a series of webisodes that parodied the show COPS (TV Series). During November 2008, Ford, together with Chrysler and General Motors, sought financial aid at Congressional hearings in Washington D.C. in the face of worsening conditions caused by the automotive industry crisis. The three companies presented action plans for the sustainability of the industry. The Detroit based automakers were unsuccessful at obtaining assistance through Congressional legislation. GM and Chrysler later received assistance through the Executive Branch from the T.A.R.P. funding provisions. On December 19, the cost of credit default swaps to insure the debt of Ford was 68 percent the sum insured for five years in addition to annual payments of 5 percent. That means it costs $6.8 million paid upfront to insure $10 million in debt, in addition to payments of $500,000 per year. In January 2009, Ford announced a $14.6 billion loss in the preceding year, making 2008 its worst year in history. Still, the company claimed to have sufficient liquidity to fund its business plans and thus, did not ask for government aid. "The Way Forward" Main article: The Way Forward In the latter half of 2005, Chairman Bill Ford asked newly-appointed Ford Americas Division President Mark Fields to develop a plan to return the company to profitability. Fields previewed the Plan, dubbed The Way Forward, at the December 7, 2005 board meeting of the company; and it was unveiled to the public on January 23, 2006. "The Way Forward" includes resizing the company to match current market realities, dropping some unprofitable and inefficient models, consolidating production lines, and shutting fourteen factories and cutting 30,000 jobs. These cutbacks are consistent with Ford's roughly 25% decline in U.S. automotive market share since the mid-late 1990s. Ford's target is to become profitable again in 2009, a year later than projected. Ford's realignment also includes the sale of its wholly owned subsidiary, Hertz Rent-a-Car to a private equity group for $15 billion in cash and debt acquisition. The sale was completed on December 22, 2005. A 50-50 joint venture with Mahindra and Mahindra Limited of India, called Mahindra Ford India, Limited (MIFL), ended with Ford buying out Mahindra's remaining stake in the company in 2005. Ford had previously upped its stake to 72% in 1998. Chairman and Chief Executive Officer Ford also became President of the company in April 2006, with the retirement of Jim Padilla. Five months later, in September, he stepped down as President and CEO, and naming Alan Mulally as his successor. Bill Ford continues as Executive Chairman, along with an executive operating committee made up of Mulally, Mark Schulz, Lewis Booth, Don Leclair, and Mark Fields. Online The domain ford.com attracted at least 11 million visitors annually by 2008 according to a Compete.com survey. Brands and marques Today, Ford Motor Company manufactures automobiles under several names including Lincoln and Mercury in the United States. In 1958, Ford introduced a new marque, the Edsel, but poor sales led to its discontinuation in 1960. Later, in 1985, the Merkur brand was introduced to market Fords from Europe in the United States; it met a similar fate in 1989. Ford has major manufacturing operations in Canada, Mexico, the United Kingdom, Germany, Turkey, Brazil, Argentina, Australia, the People's Republic of China, and several other countries, including South Africa where, following divestment during apartheid, it once again has a wholly owned subsidiary. Ford also has a cooperative agreement with Russian automaker GAZ. Ford acquired British sports car maker Aston Martin in 1989, but sold it on March 12, 2007, retaining a small minority stake, and Volvo Cars of Sweden. In November 2008 it reduced its 33.4% Controlling interest in Mazda of Japan, to a 13.4% non-controlling interest. It shares an American joint venture plant in Flat Rock, Michigan called Auto Alliance with Mazda. It has spun off its parts division under the name Visteon. Ford sold the United Kingdom-based Jaguar and Land Rover companies and brands to Tata Motors of India in March 2008. Also in 2008, Ford Motor is in negotiations with Shanghai Automotive Industry Corporation to sell its Volvo cars division. Ford's FoMoCo parts division sells aftermarket parts under the Motorcraft brand name. Ford's non-manufacturing operations include organizations such as automotive finance operation Ford Motor Credit Company. Ford also sponsors numerous events and sports facilities around the nation, most notably Ford Center in downtown Oklahoma City and Ford Field in downtown Detroit. Overall the Ford Motor Company controls the following operational car marques: Ford, Lincoln, Mercury, and Volvo Cars. Global markets Initially, Ford Motor Company models sold outside the U.S. were essentially versions of those sold on the home market, but later on, models specific to Europe were developed and sold. Attempts to globalize the model line have often failed, with Europe's Ford Mondeo selling poorly in the United States, while U.S. models such as the Ford Taurus have fared poorly in Japan and Australia, even when produced in right hand drive. The small European model Ka, a hit in its home market, did not catch on in Japan, as it was not available as an automatic. The Mondeo was dropped by Ford Australia, because the segment of the market in which it competes had been in steady decline, with buyers preferring the larger local model, the Falcon. One recent exception is the European model of the Focus, which has sold strongly on both sides of the Atlantic. From 2003, Toyota outsold Ford Motor worldwide. From the second quarter 2006, Toyota has passed Ford as the #2 automaker, by sales, in the United States. Ford is in partnership talks to license hybrid technology from the Toyota Motor Corporation in a deal that could help establish Toyota's system as a standard for the industry. Europe At first, Ford in Germany and Ford in Britain built different models from one another until the late 1960s, with the Ford Escort and then the Ford Capri being common to both companies. Later on, the Ford Taunus and Ford Cortina became identical, produced in left hand drive and right hand drive respectively. Rationalization of model ranges meant that production of many models in the UK switched to elsewhere in Europe, including Belgium and Spain as well as Germany. The Ford Sierra replaced the Taunus and Cortina in 1982, drawing criticism for its radical aerodynamic styling, which was soon given nicknames such as "Jellymould" and "The Salesman's Spaceship." Increasingly, the Ford Motor Company has looked to Ford of Europe for its "world cars," such as the Mondeo, Focus, and Fiesta, although sales of European-sourced Fords in the U.S. have been disappointing. In Asia, models from Europe are not as competitively priced as Japanese-built rivals, nor are they perceived as reliable. The Focus has been one exception to this, which has become America's best selling compact car since its launch in 2000. In February 2002, Ford ended car production in the UK. It was the first time in 90 years that Ford cars had not been made in Britain, although production of the Transit van continues at the company's Southampton facility, engines at Bridgend and Dagenham, and transmissions at Halewood. Development of European Ford is broadly split between Dunton in Essex (powertrain, Fiesta/Ka, and commercial vehicles) and Cologne (body, chassis, electrical, Focus, Mondeo) in Germany. Ford also produced the Thames range of commercial vehicles, although the use of this brand name was discontinued circa 1965. Elsewhere in continental Europe, Ford assembles the Mondeo range in Genk (Belgium), Fiesta in Valencia (Spain) and Cologne (Germany), Ka in Valencia, and Focus in Valencia, Saarlouis (Germany) and Vsevolozhsk (Russia). Transit production is in Kocaeli (Turkey), Southampton (UK), and Transit Connect in Kocaeli. Ford also owns a joint-venture production plant in Turkey. Ford-Otosan, established in the 1970s, manufactures the Transit Connect compact panel van as well as the "Jumbo" and long wheelbase versions of the full-size Transit. This new production facility was set up near Kocaeli in 2002, and its opening marked the end of Transit assembly in Genk. Another joint venture plant near Setubal in Portugal, set up in collaboration with Volkswagen, formerly assembled the Galaxy people-carrier as well as its sister ships, the VW Sharan and Seat Alhambra. With the introduction of the third generation of the Galaxy, Ford has moved the production of the people-carrier to the Genk plant, with Volkswagen taking over sole ownership of the Setubal facility. Ford Europe has broken new ground with a number of relatively futuristic car launches over the last 50 years. Its 1959 Anglia two-door saloon was one of the most quirky-looking small family cars in Europe at the time of its launch, but buyers soon became accustomed to its looks and it was hugely popular with British buyers in particular. It was still selling well when replaced by the more practical Escort in 1967. The third incarnation of the Ford Escort was launched in 1980 and marked the company's move from rear-wheel drive saloons to front-wheel drive hatchbacks in the small family car sector. It also offered levels of style, comfort and refinement which were almost unmatched on comparable cars of this era. The fourth generation Escort was produced from 1990 until 2000, although its successor - the Focus - had been on sale since 1998. On its launch, the Focus was arguably the most dramatic-looking and fine-handling small family cars on sale, and sold in huge volumes right up to the launch of the next generation Focus at the end of 2004. The 1982 Ford Sierra - replacement for the long-running and massively popular Cortina and Taunus models - was a style-setter at the time of its launch. Its ultramodern aerodynamic design was a world away from a boxy, sharp-edged Cortina, and it was massively popular just about everywhere it was sold. A series of updates kept it looking relatively fresh until it was replaced by the front-wheel drive Mondeo at the start of 1993. The rise in popularity of small cars during the 1970s saw Ford enter the mini-car market in 1976 with its Fiesta hatchback. Most of its production was concentrated at Valencia in Spain, and the Fiesta sold in huge figures from the very start. An update in 1983 and the launch of an all-new model in 1989 strengthened its position in the small car market. Asia Pacific Ford dealership in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam (August 2005)In New Zealand and Australia, the popular Ford Falcon has long been considered the average family car and is considerably larger than the Mondeo, Ford's largest car sold in Europe. Between 1960 and 1972, the Falcon was based on a U.S. madel of the same name, but since then has been entirely designed and manufactured in Australia, occasionlly being manufactured in New Zealand. Like its General Motors rival, the Holden Commodore, the Falcon utilizes a rear wheel drive layout. High performance variants of the Falcon running locally-built engines produce up to 362 hp (270 kW). A ute (short for "utility," known in the US as pickup truck) version is also available with the same range of drivetrains. In addition, Ford Australia sells highly-tuned limited production Falcon sedans and utes through its performance car division, Ford Performance Vehicles. In Australia, the Commodore and Falcon have traditionally outsold all other cars and comprise over 20% of the new car market. In New Zealand, Ford was second in market share in the first eight months of 2006 with 14.4 per cent. More recently Ford has axed it's Falcon-based LWB variant of its lineup - the Fairlane and LTD ranges, and announced that their Geelong engine manufacturing plant may be shut down from 2013. They have also announced local manufacturing of the Focus small car starting from 2011. Ford's presence in Asia has traditionally been much smaller. However, with the acquisition of a stake in Japanese manufacturer Mazda in 1979, Ford began selling Mazda's Familia and Capella (also known as the 323 and 626) as the Ford Laser and Telstar. The Laser was one of the most successful models sold by Ford in Australia and was manufactured in Ford's Homebush plant from 1981 until the plant's closure in September 1994. It outsold the Mazda 323, despite being almost identical to it, due to the fact the Laser was manufactured in Australia and Ford was perceived as a local brand. The Laser was also built in Mexico and sold in the U.S. as the Mercury Tracer, while the 1991 (and on through the end of the model in the early 2000s) American Ford Escort (and 1991-on Tracer) was based on the Laser/Mazda 323, assembled in the US and Mexico. Through its relationship with Mazda, Ford also acquired a stake in South Korean manufacturer Kia, which built the (Mazda-based) Ford Festiva from 1988-1993, and the Ford Aspire from 1994-1997 for export to the United States, but later sold their interest to Hyundai. Kia continued to market the Aspire as the Kia Avella, later replaced by the Rio and once again sold in the US. Ironically, Hyundai also manufactured the Ford Cortina until the 1980s. Ford also has a joint venture with Lio Ho in Taiwan, which assembled Ford models locally since the 1970s. Ford India began production in 1998 with its Ford Escort model, which was later replaced by locally produced Ford Ikon in 2001. It has since added Fusion, Fiesta, Mondeo and Endeavour to its product line. South America In South America, Ford has had to face protectionist government measures in each country, with the result that it built different models in different countries, without particular regard to rationalization or economy of scale inherent to producing and sharing similar vehicles between the nations. In many cases, new vehicles in a country were based on those of the other manufacturers it had entered into production agreements with, or whose factories it had acquired. For example, the Corcel and Del Rey in Brazil were originally based on Renault vehicles. In 1987, Ford merged its operations in Brazil and Argentina with those of Volkswagen to form a company called Autolatina, with which it shared models. Sales figures and profitability were disappointing, and Autolatina was dissolved in 1995. With the advent of Mercosur, the regional common market, Ford was finally able to rationalize its product line-ups in those countries. Consequently, the Ford Fiesta and Ford EcoSport are only built in Brazil, and the Ford Focus only built in Argentina, with each plant exporting in large volumes to the neighboring countries. Models like the Ford Mondeo from Europe could now be imported completely built up. Ford of Brazil produces a pick-up truck version of the Fiesta, the Courier, which is also produced in South Africa as the Ford Bantam in right hand drive versions. Africa and Middle East In Africa Ford's market presence has traditionally been strongest in South Africa and neighboring countries, with only trucks being sold elsewhere on the continent. Ford in South Africa began by importing kits from Canada to be assembled at its Port Elizabeth facility. Later Ford sourced its models from the UK and Australia, with local versions of the Ford Cortina including the XR6, with a 3.0 V6 engine, and a Cortina 'bakkie' or pick-up, which was exported to the UK. In the mid-1980s Ford merged with a rival company, owned by Anglo American, to form the South African Motor Corporation (Samcor). Following international condemnation of apartheid, Ford divested from South Africa in 1988, and sold its stake in Samcor, although it licensed the use of its brand name to the company. Samcor began to assemble Mazdas as well, which affected its product line-up, which saw the European Fords like the Escort and Sierra replaced by the Mazda-based Laser and Telstar. Ford bought a 45 per cent stake in Samcor following the demise of apartheid in 1994, and this later became, once again, a wholly owned subsidiary, the Ford Motor Company of Southern Africa. Ford now sells a local sedan version of the Fiesta (also built in India and Mexico), and the Focus and Mondeo Europe. The Falcon model from Australia was also sold in South Africa, but was dropped in 2003. Ford's market presence in the Middle East has traditionally been even smaller, partly due to previous Arab boycotts of companies dealing with Israel. Ford and Lincoln vehicles are currently marketed in ten countries in the region. Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, and the UAE are the biggest markets. Ford also established itself in Egypt in 1926, but faced an uphill battle during the 1950s due to the hostile nationalist business environment. Ford's distributor in Saudi Arabia announced in February 2003 that it had sold 100,000 Ford and Lincoln vehicles since commencing sales in November 1986. Half of the Ford/Lincoln vehicles sold in that country were Ford Crown Victorias. In 2004, Ford sold 30,000 units in the region, falling far short of General Motors' 88,852 units and Nissan Motors' 75,000 units. Environmental record Fuel efficiency In 2000, under the leadership of the current Ford chairman, William Clay Ford, the Company announced a planned 25 percent improvement in the average mileage of its light truck fleet – including its popular SUVs – to be completed by the 2005 calendar year. This promise, however, remains unfulfilled. In 2003, Ford announced that competitive market conditions and technological and cost challenges would prevent the company from achieving this goal. The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) released its 2005 fuel economy report ranking Ford cars, trucks and SUVs as having the lowest gas mileage of any automaker in America. Researchers at the University of Massachusetts have, however, listed Ford as the seventh-worst corporate producer of air pollution, primarily because of the manganese compounds, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, and glycol ethers released from its casting, truck, and assembly plants. The United States Environmental Protection Agency has linked Ford to 54 Superfund toxic waste sites, twelve of which have been cleaned up and deleted from the list. Record of Ford's environmental decisions Ford has a mixed record on environmental issues, consisting of both positive and negative reports. In 2003, Ford discarded its goal of improving mileage on sport-utility vehicles by 25 percent by 2005, saying that it would boost mileage of all vehicles instead. However, this plan had neither specific target nor goal. For the 2007 model year, Ford had thirteen U.S. models that achieve 30 miles per gallon or better (based on the highway fuel economy estimates of the EPA and several of Ford’s vehicles were recognized in the EPA and Department of Energy Fuel Economy Guide for best-in-class fuel economy. Ford claimed to have eliminated nearly three million pounds of smog-forming emissions from their U.S. cars and light trucks over the 2004 to 2006 model years. Small cars, alternative fuel and electric vehicles Further information: Automotive market The Lincoln-Mercury brand has dropped on the American Customer Satisfaction Index list, from 83 from 86 in 2007. Ford announced in late 2008 July that it will bring six of its more fuel-efficient European models to the U.S. Mulally (second from left) with former President George W. Bush at the Kansas City Assembly plant in Claycomo, Missouri on March 20, 2007, touting Ford's new hybrid cars Ford Research Center in Aachen Alternative fossil fuels The alternative fossil fuel vehicles, such as some versions of the Crown Victoria especially in fleet and taxi service, operate on compressed natural gas—or CNG. Some CNG vehicles have dual fuel tanks - one for gasoline, the other for CNG - the same engine can operate on either fuel via a selector switch. Biofuels Flexible fuel vehicles are designed to operate smoothly using a wide range of available fuel mixtures—from pure gasoline, to bioethanol-gasoline blends such as E85 (85% ethanol, 15% gasoline). Part of the challenge of successful marketing alternative and flexible fuel vehicles, is the general lack of establishment of sufficient fueling stations, which would be essential for these vehicles to be attractive to a wide range of consumers. Significant efforts to ramp up production and distribution of E85 fuels are underway and expanding. Ford is also planning to produce 250,000 E85-capable vehicles a year in the US, adding to some 1.6 million already sold in the last 10 years. Current Ford Flexible Fuel Vehicles: Ford F-150 Ford Crown Victoria Ford Focus / Focus C-MAX / Ford Focus FFV (Flexible-fuel vehicle). Ford Taurus Ford Ranger Ford Explorer Mercury Grand Marquis Lincoln Town Car Hydrogen Ford also continues to study Fuel Cell-powered electric powertrains, and has demonstrated hydrogen-fueled internal combustion engine technologies, as well as developing the next-generation hybrid-electric systems. Compared with conventional vehicles, hybrid vehicles and/or fuel cell vehicles decrease air pollution emissions as well as sound levels, with favorable impacts upon respiratory health and decrease of noise health effects. Ford has launched the production of hydrogen-powered shuttle buses, using hydrogen instead of gasoline in a standard internal combustion engine, for use at airports and convention centers. At the 2006 Greater Los Angeles Auto Show, Ford showcased a hydrogen fuel cell version of its Explorer SUV. The Fuel cell Explorer has a combined output of 174 hp (130 kW). It has a large hydrogen storage tank which is situated in the center of the car taking the original place of the conventional model’s automatic transmission. The centered position of the tank assists the vehicle reach a notable range of 350 miles (563 km), the farthest for a fuel cell vehicle so far. The fuel cell Explorer the first in a series of prototypes partly funded by the United States Department of Energy to expand efforts to determine the feasibility of hydrogen- powered vehicles. The fuel cell Explorer is one of several vehicles with green technology Ford being featured at the L.A. show, including the 2008 Ford Escape Hybrid, PZEV emissions compliant Fusion and Focus models and a 2008 Ford F-Series Super Duty outfitted with Ford's clean diesel technology. Electric vehicles Main article: Electric vehicle 2006 Ford Escape HybridFord Motor Co. expects electric vehicles will represent a "major portion" of its lineup a decade from now as the automaker breaks away from a recent reliance on pickup trucks and SUVs. The stakes are high because Ford's stepped-up investment is coming at a time when the U.S. government is demanding steep increases in fuel economy and has put money forward to help automakers adopt new fuel-saving technologies. Hybrid electric vehicles Main article: Hybrid electric vehicle Ford did improve fuel efficiency during 2005, with the introduction of the Hybrid-Electric Escape. With this vehicle, Ford was third to the automotive market with a hybrid electric vehicle and the first hybrid electric SUV to market. This was also the first hybrid electric vehicle with a flexible fuel capability to run on E85. The Escape's platform mate Mercury Mariner was also available with the hybrid-electric system in the 2006 model year—a full year ahead of schedule. The similar Mazda Tribute will also receive a hybrid-electric powertrain option, along with many other vehicles in the Ford vehicle line. In 2005 Ford announced its goal to make 250,000 hybrids a year by 2010, but by mid-2006 announced that it would not meet that goal, due to excessively high costs and the lack of sufficient supplies of the hybrid-electric batteries and drivetrain system components. Instead, Ford has committed to accelerating development of next-generation hybrid-electric power plants in Britain, in collaboration with Volvo. This engineering study is expected to yield more than 100 new hybrid-electric vehicle models and derivatives. Ford announced that other hybrids to come out will be the Ford Fusion and Mercury Milan Hybrid version in 2008. There are also plans for hybrid versions of the Ford Edge and Lincoln MKX. Ford announced on 2007-07-09 that it will team up with Southern California Edison (SCE) to examine the future of plug-in hybrids in terms of how home and vehicle energy systems will work with the electrical grid. Under the multi-million-dollar, multi-year project, Ford will convert a demonstration fleet of Ford Escape Hybrids into plug-in hybrids, and SCE will evaluate how the vehicles might interact with the home and the utility's electrical grid. Some of the vehicles will be evaluated "in typical customer settings," according to Ford. On June 12, 2008 USDOE expanded its own fleet of alternative fuel and advanced technology vehicles with the addition of a Ford Escape Plug-In Hybrid Flex-Fuel Vehicle. The vehicle is equipped with a 10-kilowatt lithium-ion battery supplied by Johnson Controls-Saft that stores enough electric energy to drive up to 30 miles (48 km) at speeds of up to 40 mph (64 km/h). Ford is going to introduce a plug-in hybrid challenge the Chevy Volt by 2012 and more charge-maintaining hybrids (traditional gas-electric hybrids), beginning with one in 2011. Current and planned Ford hybrid electric vehicles: 2004– Ford Escape Hybrid 2006– Mercury Mariner 2008– Ford Fusion/Mercury Milan 2009– Ford Edge/Lincoln MKX All-electric vehicles Main article: All-electric vehicle Ford ended the Think City experiment and ordered all the cars repossessed and destroyed, even as many of the people leasing them begged to be able to buy the cars from Ford. After outcry from the lessees and activists in the US and Norway, Ford returned the cars to Norway for sale. Bill Ford was one of the first top industry executives to make regular use of an battery electric vehicle, a Ford Ranger EV, while the company contracted with the United States Postal Service to deliver electric postal vans based on the Ranger EV platform..Ford discontinued a line of electric Ranger pickup trucks and ordered them destroyed, though it reversed in January 2005, after environmentalist protest. The North American Focus has been modified to take batteries. The variant, known as the Focus RV, is planned to be launched in 2011. Ford plans to have 10,000 of these battery-powered cars on the road beginning in 2011 in partnership with Magna International and it will be a global vehicle that will be sold in the three key markets of North America, Europe and Asia-Pacific. The Focus compact can travel about 160 kilometres before it needs to be charged. Current and planned Ford hybrid electric vehicles: 2010 All-electric commercial van. 2011 All-electric small car in 2011 (Ford Focus RV). Small cars Ford Motor Company announced it will accelerate its plans to transform itself into a maker of smaller and more fuel-efficient cars, changing both its North American manufacturing plans and its lineup of vehicles available in the United States. In terms of North American manufacturing, the company will convert three existing truck and sport utility vehicle (SUV) plants for small car production, with the first conversion starting in December at its Michigan Truck Plant. In addition, Ford's assembly plants near Mexico City, Mexico, and in Louisville, Kentucky, will convert from pickups and SUVs to small cars, including the Ford Fiesta, by 2011. Ford will also introduce to North America six of its European small vehicles, including two versions of the Ford Fiesta, by the end of 2012. And last but not least, Ford is stepping up its production of fuel-efficient "EcoBoost" V-6 and four-cylinder engines, while increasing its production of hybrid vehicles. See the Ford press release. Given Ford's new emphasis on its European vehicles, a virtual trip to the British International Motor Show in London is in order. Ford is displaying five models of its all-new Fiesta at the auto show, which opened to the public on July 23. Among the models on display is the world debut of Ford's "ECOnetic" version of the Ford Fiesta, which combines more aerodynamic styling, a lowered suspension, low-rolling-resistance tires, low-friction oil, and a specially tuned, turbocharged, direct-injection diesel engine. As a result, it achieves 63.6 miles per US gallon (3.70 L/100 km; 76.4 mpg-imp) on the European combined test cycle, which generally yields higher fuel economy numbers than the U.S. test methods (note also that the U.K. gallon is about 20% larger than the U.S. gallon, so we've adjusted these numbers accordingly). The standard diesel version of the Fiesta achieves 52.3 mpg, while diesel versions of the European Ford Focus achieve 52.3 mpg for most body styles and 54.7 mpg for the ECOnetic model. Of course, the United States has stricter emissions rules than in Europe, so it may not be possible for Ford to offer similar models in the United States. Ford has challenged University teams to create a vehicle that is simple, durable, lightweight and come equipped with a base target price of only $7,000 The students from Aachen University created the “2015 Ford Model T”. Auto racing NASCAR NASCAR Ford Fusion race carFord is one of four manufacturers in NASCAR's three major series: Sprint Cup Series, Nationwide Series, and Camping World Truck Series. Major teams include Roush Fenway Racing and Yates Racing. Ford is represented by the mid-size Fusion in the Sprint Cup and Nationwide Series, and by the F-150 in the Camping World Truck Series. Some of the most successful NASCAR Fords were the aerodynamic fastback Ford Torino and Mercury Montegos, and the aero-era Ford Thunderbirds. The Ford nameplate has won eight manufacturer's championships in Sprint Cup, while Mercury has won one. Formula One Rubens Barrichello driving for the Stewart Grand Prix team in 1997Ford was heavily involved in Formula One for many years, and supplied engines to a large number of teams from 1967 until 2004. These engines were designed and manufactured by Cosworth, the racing division that was owned by Ford from 1998 to 2004. Ford-badged engines won 176 Grands Prix between 1967 and 2003 for teams such as Team Lotus and McLaren. Ford entered Formula One as a constructor in 2000 under the Jaguar Racing name, after buying the Stewart Grand Prix team which had been its primary 'works' team in the series since 1997. Jaguar achieved little success in Formula One, and after a turbulent five seasons, Ford withdrew from the category after the 2004 season, selling both Jaguar Racing (which became Red Bull Racing) and Cosworth (to Gerald Forsythe and Kevin Kalkhoven). Rally Mikko Hirvonen driving the Ford Focus RS WRC 08 in 2008.Main article: BP-Ford World Rally Team Ford has a long history in rallying and has been active in the World Rally Championship since the beginning of the world championship, the 1973 season. Ford took the 1979 manufacturers' title with Hannu Mikkola, Björn Waldegård and Ari Vatanen driving the Ford Escort RS1800. In the Group B era, Ford achieved success with Ford RS200. Since the 1999 season, Ford has used various versions of the Ford Focus WRC to much success. In the 2006 season, BP-Ford World Rally Team secured Ford its second manufacturers' title, with the Focus RS WRC 06 built by M-Sport and driven by Flying Finns Marcus Grönholm and Mikko Hirvonen. Continuing with Grönholm and Hirvonen, Ford successfully defended the manufacturers' world championship in the 2007 season. Ford is the only manufacturer to score in the points for 92 consecutive races; since the 2002 season opener Monte Carlo Rally. Sports cars Ford GT40Main article: Ford GT#Racing Ford sports cars have always been visible in the world of endurance racing. Most notably the GT40 won the prestigious 24 Hours of Le Mans four times in the 1960s and still stands today as one of the all-time greatest racing cars. The GT40 is the only American car to ever win overall at Le Mans. In 2007 Swiss Matech Racing in collaboration with Ford Racing is opened a new chapter in the annals of the Ford GT. A winning chapter Ford GT Matech team won win title in the European FIA GT3 Championship 2008. Ford Mustang GT (racing GT car)Main article: Ford Mustang#Racing The Ford Mustang has arguably been Ford's most successful sports car. The Mustang won the SCCA Pro B National Championship in 1965 at the hands of Jerry Titus who went on to win the SCCA Trans-Am Championship in another Mustang two year later in 1967. Ford won the Trans-Am Championship again in 1970 with Parnelli Jones and George Folmer driving Boss 302s for Bud Moore Engineering. Ford took the 1985 and 1986 IMSA GTO Chmapionship with Mustangs driven by John Jones and Scott Pruett before returning to Trans-Am glory with a chamiponship in 1989 with Dorsey Schrader. Ford dominated Trans-Am in the 1990s with Tommy Kendal winning championships in 1993, 1995, 1996, and 1997 with Paul Gentilozi adding yet another title in 1999. In 2005 the Ford Mustang FR500C took the championship in the Rolex Koni Challenge Series in its first year on the circuit. In 2007 Ford added a championship in the GT4 European Championship. In 2008 Ford added FR500GT at Ford GT a championship in the FIA GT3 European Championship. 2008 is the first year of the Mustang Challenge for the Miller Cup a new series which pits a full field of identical factory built Ford Mustang race cars against each other. Also in 2008 Ford won both the drivers and manufacturers championship in the Koni Challenge Series with Joe Foster and Steve Maxwell driving HyperSport. Touring cars Ford Performance Racing car Ford Falcon at Eastern Creek in Australia 2008.Main article: Ford Performance Racing Ford has campaigned touring cars such as the Focus, Falcon, and Contour/Mondeo and the Sierra Cosworth in many different series throughout the years. Notably, the Mondeo finished 1,2,3 in the British Touring Car Championship in 2000, and the Falcon finished 1,2,3 in the Australian V8 Supercar Series in 2005. Other In the Indianapolis 500, Ford powered IndyCars won 17 times between 1965 and 1996. Ford has also branched out into drifting with the introduction of the new model Mustang. Most noticeable is the Turquoise and Blue Falken Tires Mustang driven by Vaughn Gittin Jr, A.K.A. "JR". with 750 RWHP (Rear Wheel Horsepower). In drag racing, John Force has piloted his Drag Ford Mustang to several NHRA funny-car titles in recent seasons. Formula Ford, a formula for single-seater cars without wings and originally on road tires were conceived in 1966 in the UK as an entry-level formula for racing drivers. Many of today's racing drivers started their car racing careers in this category. Ford trucks 1961 Ford H-Series trucks 1939 Ford pick-up truckFord has produced trucks since 1908. Countries where Ford commercial vehicles are or were made include Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada (badged Mercury too), France, Germany, India, Netherlands, Philippines, Spain (badged Ebro too), Turkey, UK (badged also Fordson and Thames) and USA. Most of all these ventures are now extinct. The European one that lasted longer was the lorries arm of Ford of Britain, that was eventually sold to Iveco group in 1986, and whose last significant models were the Transcontinental and the Cargo. In the USA, Ford's heavy trucks division (Classes 7 and 8) was sold in 1997 to Freightliner Trucks, now part of Daimler AG, which rebranded it as Sterling and augmented the lineup with rebranded trucks from Freightliner and Dodge; the division is currently shutting down operations. Ford continues building medium class trucks with the F-650 and F-750 Ford F-Series and recently introduced the LCF series similar in design to the Ford Cargo trucks of the past. Bus products Ford has manufactured buses in the company's early history, but most Ford buses are built on Ford chassis by other manufacturers. Ford tractors Ford tractorThe "Henry Ford and Son Company" began making Fordson tractors in Henry's hometown of Springwells (later part of Dearborn, Michigan from 1907 to 1928, from 1919 to 1932, at Cork, Ireland and 1933-1964 at Dagenham, England(later transferred to Basildon0. They were also produced in Leningrad beginning in 1924. In 1986, Ford expanded its tractor business when it purchased the Sperry-New Holland skid-steer loader and hay baler, hay tools and implement company from Sperry Corporation and formed Ford-New Holland which bought out Versatile tractors in 1988. This company was bought by Fiat in 1993 and the name changed from Ford New Holland to New Holland. New Holland is now part of CNH Global. Criticism Further information: Firestone and Ford tire controversy, The Battle of the Overpass Throughout its history, the company has faced a wide range of criticisms. Some have accused the early Fordist model of production of being exploitative, and Ford has been criticized as being willing to collaborate with dictatorships or hire mobs to intimidate union leaders and increase their profits through unethical means. Ford refused to allow collective bargaining until 1941, with the Ford Service Department being set up as an internal security, intimidation, and espionage unit within the company, and quickly gained a reputation of using violence against union organizers and sympathizers. Ford was also criticized for wearing down Firestone tires during driving, which caused many wrecks during a short time period in 2003. Many people were injured and killed due to the wearing down of the tires. Although Firestone received most of the blame, some blame fell on Ford, which advised customers to under-inflate the tires. Alleged Nazi collaboration Further information: Henry Ford Other accusations were that the company collaborated with the German Nazi regime and relied on Germany. The German Ford company used slave labor in Cologne between 1941 and 1945 and it had produced military vehicles such as jeeps, planes, and ships used by a fascist regime. Many of these allegations were made in a series of United States lawsuits in 1998. The lawsuit was dismissed in 1999 because the judge concluded "the issues...concerned international treaties between nations and foreign policy and were thus in the realm of the executive branch." Detractors point to Henry Ford's outspoken anti-semitism, including his newspaper, The Dearborn Independent, which published The Protocols of the Elders of Zion. They also point to the fact that in 1938, four months after the German annexation of Austria, Ford accepted the Grand Cross of the German Eagle, the Nazi regime's highest honor for foreigners before the outbreak of the war. Defenders of the company argue that the Ford German division, Fordwerke, had been taken over by the Nazi government after it rose to power, claiming that it was not under the company's control, though Henry Ford, according to court records, did stay in touch with the company. Although Ford's initial motivations were anti-war, the company was heavily involved in the United States Allied war effort after the outbreak of war. Argentine "Dirty War" Further information: Dirty War Ford's Argentine subsidiary was accused of collaborating with the Argentine 1976-1983 military dictatorship, actively helping in the political repression of intellectuals and dissidents that was pursued by said government. No result was proven and the company denied the allegations. In a lawsuit initiated in 1996 by relatives of some of the estimated 600 Spanish citizens who disappeared in Argentina during the "Dirty War", evidence was presented to support the allegation that much of this repression was directed by Ford and the other major industrial firms. According to a 5,000-page report, Ford executives drew up lists of "subversive" workers and handed them over to the military task-forces which were allowed to operate within the factories. These groups allegedly kidnapped, tortured and murdered workers—at times allegedly within the plants themselves. The company denied the allegations. In a second trial, a report brought by the CTA, and the testimonies of former Ford workers themselves, claimed that the company's Argentine factory was used between 1976 and 1978 as a detention center, and that management allowed the military to set up its own bunker inside the plant. The company denied the allegations. The Ford Pinto memo Further information: Ford Pinto In September 1971 the Ford Motor Company launched the Pinto for the North American market. Through early production of this model it emerged that design flaws could result in fuel tank explosions when the vehicle was subject to a rear-end collision. Some sources even allege this safety data was available to Ford prior to production, but was ignored for economic reasons. Either way, a major scandal followed with the leaking to San Francisco magazine Mother Jones of the notorious "Ford Pinto Memo", an internal Ford cost-benefit analysis showing that the cost of implementing design changes to the subcompact's fuel system was greater than the economic cost of the burn injuries and deaths that could be prevented by doing so. Subsequently some have played down the importance of this case as Pinto explosion fatality estimates range widely from 27 to 900, with the lowest figures being allegedly in line with comparable fatality statistics for other car models. Nevertheless, the affair is an infamous example of a big corporation putting profit before human life because one senior Ford executive, at the time of the memo, is alleged to have written of his Pinto customers: it's "cheaper to let them burn". In the related Ford Pinto product liability case Grimshaw v. Ford Motor Co., 119 Cal. App. 3d 757 (4th Dist. 1981) the California Court of Appeal for the Fourth Appellate District reviewed Ford's conduct and upheld compensatory damages of $2.5 million and punitive damages of $3.5 million against Ford. Of the two plaintiffs, one was killed in the collision that caused her Pinto to explode, and her passenger, 13-year old Richard Grimshaw, was badly burned and scarred for life. See also NASCAR Derrick Kuzak Detroit Automobile Company Dodge v. Ford Motor Company Ford F-Series Ford V-8 Fordson tractor Firestone vs Ford Motor Company controversy The Henry Ford Henry Ford Company History of Ford Motor Company List of Ford vehicles List of Ford factories List of Ford engines List of Ford platforms List of Ford VIN codes List of CEOs of Ford Motor Company Plug-in hybrid Smith Electric Vehicles Southern California Edison Ford Special Vehicle Team (SVT) Ford Special Vehicle Operations (SVO) United States Council for Automotive Research Notes ^ a b c d Media.Ford.com Press Release: Ford Announces 2007 Fourth Quarter and Full Year Preliminary Results - 24 January 2008 ^ "Company Profile for Ford Motor Co (F)". http://zenobank.com/index.php?symbol=F&page=quotesearch. Retrieved on 2008-09-29. ^ Fortune 1000 list for 2008 - based on 2007 sales ^ Money.CNN.com - Ford gets 5 top quality awards - 7 June 2007 ^ Edmunds AutoObserver.com - J.D Power: Ford Is a Winner - 7 June 2007 ^ a b Ford Motor Company Information - Ford ^ Ford fighting to keep its shine ^ GM, Ford Bond Ratings Cut to Junk Status ^ Rebate wars ^ NY Times - Ford to License Toyota's Hybrid Technology - 10 March 2004 ^ Business Week - Is Ford Innovative? Part Two ^ a b EERE News: EERE Network News ^ a b Ford Motor Company - Press Release - Ford Motor Company And Southern California Edison Join Forces To Advance A New Transportation And Energy Vision ^ Ford Bets The House ^ Ford CEO: Bankruptcy 'Not an Option' ^ Ford posts worse than expected quarter loss, record '06 loss - January 25, 2007 ^ Ford hit by record $12.7bn loss ^ FinancialTimes.com - Ford takes $2.4bn writedown for Volvo - 24 January 2008 ^ "Tata Motors completes acquisition of Jag, Land Rover". Thomson Reuters. 2 June 2008. http://www.reuters.com/article/ousiv/idUSBMA00084220080602. Retrieved on 2008-06-02. ^ http://www.autoweek.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20080630/FREE/940478590/1528/newsletter01 ^ Detroit Chiefs Plead for Aid. New York Times on November 18, 2008. Retrieved 21 November 2008. ^ CNBC.com - GM and Chrysler to Receive Up to $17.4 Billion in Loans - 19 December 2008 ^ GM, Ford default swaps fall on Bush bailout plan, Karen Brettell, Reuters, 19 December 2008 ^ "Ford to Cut Up to 30,000 Jobs and 14 Plants in Next 6 Years". The New York Times. 2006-01-23. http://www.nytimes.com/2006/01/23/automobiles/23cnd-ford.html?ei=5090&en=cf46b8ec2384929d&ex=1295672400&adxnnl=1&partner=rssuserland&emc=rss&adxnnlx=1163187340-bR8cdDJ67iqlJbzzYR/lig. ^ Ford Commits $75 Million For India Operations ^ Ford India Private Ltd, Ford Cars India, Ford Motors India, Ford Fiesta India, Ford in India ^ Ford Motor Company (2007-03-12). FORD ANNOUNCES AGREEMENT TO SELL ASTON MARTIN. Press release. http://media.ford.com/newsroom/release_display.cfm?release=25635. ^ Ford Sells Major Stake in Aston Martin. March 12, 2007. ^ http://miscstuff.wordpress.com/2008/11/18/ford-to-dump-mazda-sell-20-stake/ ^ http://www.google.com/hostednews/ap/article/ALeqM5ijnTbIWCfIBkF8Cxsv1ckWMkmfngD94H8SR03 ^ AUTOSAVANT: Ford to Send Volvo to the Chinese? ^ USATODAY.com - Toyota outsells Ford worldwide ^ » Toyota moves past Ford fordmuscle.com ^ Ford to License Toyota’s Hybrid Technology ^ "Kia soars ahead of the others". 2006-09-20. http://subs.nzherald.co.nz/search/story.cfm?storyid=0008D79C-84BE-150F-80B783027AF100AD. ^ "Ford Motor Company: Global Websites". http://www.ford.com/en/company/about/countrySites/default.htm. ^ Tignor, Robert, L. (Summer 1990). "In The Grip Of Politics: The Ford Motor Company Of Egypt, 1945-1960". Middle East Journal 44 (3): 383–198. ^ "Al Jazirah Vehicles Hits 100,000 Mark with Ford and Lincoln in Saudi Arabia". http://media.ford.com/article_display.cfm?article_id=14319. ^ Ford Commits to Major SUV Fuel Economy Gains ^ EPA Fails Ford On Fuel Efficiency...Again; Energy Bill Gives Automakers Another Free Ride ^ Political Economy Research Institute ^ Center for Public Integrity ^ http://www.bloomberg.com/apps/news?pid=20601103&sid=aMlQX0p5EMyI&refer=us "Ford to Cut New-Car Greenhouse Emissions 30% by 2020" April 9, 2008 Bloomberg.com May 1, 2008 ^ http://www.ford.com/aboutford/microsites/sustainability-report-2006-07/env.htm Ford Motor Company, May 1, 2008 ^ http://www.forbes.com/vehicles/2008/08/18/cars-americans-love-forbeslife-cx_jm_0819cars.html?partner=autos_newsletter ^ "Alternative Power: Michigan sets sights on ethanol to become an energy hotbed". http://www.freep.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=2006603290456. ^ "Leading the Way with Ethanol-Capable Vehicles". http://www.ford.com/en/innovation/technology/ethanolCapableVehicles/default.htm. ^ "Ford Motor Company". http://www.e85fuel.com/information/ford.php. ^ Hoffman, Bryce G (2006-07-18). "Ford to produce 'green' buses". The Detroit News. http://www.detnews.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20060718/AUTO01/607180312. ^ http://www.autonews.com/article/20090305/ANE02/903059997/1186 ^ "Ford Develops World's First Ethanol-Fueled Hybrid Marrying Two Gasoline-Saving Technologies". http://media.ford.com/article_display.cfm?article_id=22474. ^ http://apps1.eere.energy.gov/news/news_detail.cfm/news_id=11816 ^ http://apps1.eere.energy.gov/news/news_detail.cfm/news_id=12178 ^ http://www.autonews.com/article/20090305/ANE02/903059997/1186 ^ Activists Deride Ford over Fuel Inefficiency, ?Greenwashing? - The NewStandard ^ http://www.theglobeandmail.com/servlet/story/LAC.20090112.RAUTOMAGNA12/TPStory/TPBusiness/?page=rss&id=GAM.20090112.RAUTOMAGNA12 ^ http://www.motorauthority.com/report-magna-international-may-build-fords-electric-car.html ^ http://apps1.eere.energy.gov/news/news_detail.cfm/news_id=12178 ^ http://www.autonews.com/article/20090305/ANE02/903059997/1186 ^ http://media.ford.com/article_display.cfm?article_id=29155 ^ http://www.edmunds.com/insideline/do/News/articleId=132692 ^ Moffitt, Alastair (2004-11-15). "Red Bull give Jaguar F1 wings". Red Bull give Jaguar F1 wings. http://sport.independent.co.uk/motor_racing/article20376.ece. ^ Rallying: Gronholm victory delivers manufacturers' title to Ford - Motor Racing, Sport - Independent.co.uk ^ juwra.com | Statistics - Longest make points finish streaks ^ "Sterling to cease operations, Bullet dropped". http://www.allpar.com/news/index.php/2008/11/sterling-to-cease-operations-bullet-dropped/. Retrieved on 2008-11-12. ^ "Ford Motor Company Chronology". http://www.hfmgv.org/exhibits/fmc/battle.asp. ^ "Detroit News: The Battle of the Overpass". http://info.detnews.com/history/story/index.cfm?id=172&category=events. ^ "[After December 1941...At GM and Ford plants in Germany, reliance on forced labor increased." "Ford and GM scrutinized for Alleged Nazi Collaboration"]. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/national/daily/nov98/nazicars30.htm "[After December 1941]...At GM and Ford plants in Germany, reliance on forced labor increased.". ^ a b "The Ford Motor Company and the Third Reich". http://www.adl.org/Braun/dim_13_2_ford.asp. ^ "Corporations and Nazis: Ford and the Führer". http://www.thirdworldtraveler.com/Corporations/Ford_Fuhrer.html. ^ "BBC News: Argentina checks Ford's 'military ties'". http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/2410551.stm. ^ "BBC News: Ford sued over Argentine abuses". http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/4746236.stm. ^ "Ford complicit in Argentine repression". http://www.wsws.org/news/1998/mar1998/arg-m20.shtml. ^ a b Mark Dowie (September/October 1977). "Pinto Madness". Mother Jones. http://www.motherjones.com/news/feature/1977/09/dowie.html. Retrieved on 2009-02-27. ^ "Myth of the Ford Pinto Case" (PDF). http://www.pointoflaw.com/articles/The_Myth_of_the_Ford_Pinto_Case.pdf. ^ "How Free is America's Information?". http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/4146307.stm. References and further reading Ford Motor Company Bak, Richard. Henry and Edsel: The Creation of the Ford Empire (2003) Bardou; Jean-Pierre, Jean-Jacques Chanaron, Patrick Fridenson, and James M. Laux. The Automobile Revolution: The Impact of an Industry University of North Carolina Press, 1982 Batchelor, Ray. Henry Ford: Mass Production, Modernism and Design Manchester U. Press, 1994 Bonin, Huber et al. Ford, 1902-2003: The European History 2 vol Paris 2003. ISBN 2-914369-06-9 scholarly essays in English on Ford operations in Europe; reviewed in Len Holden, Len. "Fording the Atlantic: Ford and Fordism in Europe" in Business History Volume 47, #1 January 2005 pp 122–127 Brinkley, Douglas G. Wheels for the World: Henry Ford, His Company, and a Century of Progress (2003) Brinkley, Douglas. "Prime Mover". American Heritage 2003 54(3): 44-53. on Model T Bryan, Ford R. Henry's Lieutenants, 1993; ISBN 0-8143-2428-2 Bucci, Federico. Albert Kahn: Architect of Ford Princeton Architectural Press, 1993 Cabadas, Joseph P. River Rouge: Ford's Industrial Colossus (2004), heavily illustrated Dempsey, Mary A. "Fordlandia' Michigan History 1994 78(4): 24-33. Ford's rubber plantation in Brazil Flink, James. America Adopts the Automobile, 1895-1910 MIT Press, 1970 Foster, Mark S. "The Model T, The Hard Sell, and Los Angeles Urban Growth: The Decentralization of Los Angeles During the 1920s." Pacific Historical Review 44.4 (November 1975): 459-84 David Halberstam, The Reckoning (1986) detailed reporting on the crises of 1973-mid 1980s Iacocca, Lee and William Novak. Iacocca: An Autobiography (1984) Jacobson, D. S. "The Political Economy of Industrial Location: the Ford Motor Company at Cork 1912-26." Irish Economic and Social History [Ireland] 1977 4: 36-55. Ford and Irish politics Lacey, Robert "Ford: The Men and the Machine" (Heinnemann, London) 0 414 401027 (1986) Levinson, William A. Henry Ford's Lean Vision: Enduring Principles from the First Ford Motor Plant, 2002; ISBN 1-56327-260-1 Kuhn, Arthur J. GM Passes Ford, 1918-1938: Designing the General Motors Performance-Control System. Pennsylvania State University Press, 1986 Magee, David. Ford Tough: Bill Ford and the Battle to Rebuild America's Automaker (2004) Maxton, Graeme P. and John Wormald, Time for a Model Change: Re-engineering the Global Automotive Industry (2004) May, George S. A Most Unique Machine: The Michigan Origins of the American Automobile Industry Eerdman's, 1975 Maynard, Micheline. The End of Detroit: How the Big Three Lost Their Grip on the American Car Market (2003) McIntyre, Stephen L. "The Failure of Fordism: Reform of the Automobile Repair Industry, 1913-1940: Technology and Culture 2000 41(2): 269-299. repair shops rejected flat rates Nevins, Allan; Frank Ernest Hill (1954). Ford: The Times, The Man, The Company. New York: Charles Scribners' Sons. Nevins, Allan; Frank Ernest Hill (1957). Ford: Expansion and Challenge, 1915-1933. New York: Charles Scribners' Sons. Nevins, Allan; Frank Ernest Hill (1962). Ford: Decline and Rebirth, 1933-1962. New York: Charles Scribners' Sons. Rubenstein; James M. The Changing U.S. Auto Industry: A Geographical Analysis Routledge, 1992 Shiomi, Haruhito and Kazuo Wada. Fordism Transformed: The Development of Production Methods in the Automobile Industry Oxford University Press, 1995 Sorensen, Charles E. My Forty Years with Ford Norton, 1956 Studer-Noguez; Isabel. Ford and the Global Strategies of Multinationals: The North American Auto Industry Routledge, 2002 Tedlow, Richard S. "The Struggle for Dominance in the Automobile Market: the Early Years of Ford and General Motors" Business and Economic History 1988 17: 49-62. Ford stressed low price based on efficient factories but GM did better in oligopolistic competition by including investment in manufacturing, marketing, and management Thomas, Robert Paul. "The Automobile Industry and its Tycoon" Explorations in Entrepreneurial History 1969 6(2): 139-157. argues Ford did NOT have much influence on US industry Watts, Steven. The People's Tycoon: Henry Ford and the American Century (2005) Wik, Reynold M. Henry Ford and Grass-Roots America. University of Michigan Press, 1972. impact on farmers Wilkins, Mira and Frank Ernest Hill, American Business Abroad: Ford on Six Continents Wayne State University Press, 1964 Williams, Karel, Colin Haslam and John Williams, "Ford versus `Fordism': The Beginning of Mass Production?" Work, Employment & Society, Vol. 6, No. 4, 517-555 (1992), stress on Ford's flexibility and commitment to continuous improvements. External links Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Ford Companies portal Official gateway to global websites Ford News Blog Ford and environment: Greener miles Hybrid vehicles http://www.ford-problems.com/ Ford's Pensions & Health Insurance. Ford forms 'Transformation Advisory Council' [show]v • d • eMembers of the Ford Motor Company Current Ford · Lincoln · Mercury · Volvo Former Daimler · Land Rover · Jaguar · Aston Martin · Mazda Defunct Edsel · Merkur [show]v • d • eFord Motor Company Platforms • Engines • Vehicles • Category Current and future models Cars Activa • Crown Victoria/Police Interceptor • Fairlane • Falcon / FPV models • Fiesta / Ikon / Fusion / EcoSport • Focus / C-Max / Kuga • Fusion • Galaxy • Ka / Sportka / Streetka • Laser / Lynx / Tierra • Mondeo / Metrostar • Mustang • S-Max • Taurus Trucks/SUVs Cargo • Courier (Brazilian)/Bantam • E-Series/Chateau Wagon • Econovan • Edge • Escape/Hybrid/Maverick • Expedition • Explorer • Everest/Endeavour • F-Series (includes Super Duty) • Flex • Pronto • Ranger/Courier • Territory • Tourneo • Tourneo Connect • Transit • Transit Connect Historic models 1900s Model A/AC • Model B • Model C • Model F • Model K • Model N • Model R • Model S • Model T 1910s–1920s Model TT • Model A • Model AA 1930s–1940s Ford Model B • Ford Model Y • Ford Model C • Ford Model CX • Ford Junior Popular • 1937 Ford • Ford Junior De Luxe • Ford Köln • Rheinland • Ford Eifel • Ford Model 7Y • Ford Model 7W • Ford Anglia • Ford Prefect • Country Squire • Ford Meteor • Ford Pilot • Ford Vedette 1950s C-Series Trucks • Consul • Country Sedan • Del Rio • Edsel (Brand) • Fairlane • Galaxie • Mainline • Parklane • Popular • Ranchero • Squire • Taunus • Thunderbird • Versailles • Zephyr 1960s Bronco • Capri • Corcel • Corsair • Cortina • Escort • Falcon • GT40 • H-Series Trucks • LTD • N-Series Trucks • Torino • W-Series Trucks 1970s Elite • Fairmont • Granada • L-Series Trucks • Maverick • Pinto 1980s Aerostar • Bantam • Bronco II • Del Rey • Escort • EXP • Festiva • Laser • LTD Crown Victoria • Orion • Probe • Scorpio • Sierra • Telstar • Tempo • Verona 1990s Aspire • Contour • Cougar • Maverick • Puma • Windstar • ZX2 2000s Excursion • Freestar • GT • Five Hundred • Freestyle/Taurus X Globally Corporate/Subsidiaries/ joint ventures Ford Motor Company • Ford of Canada • Ford of Britain • Ford of Argentina • Ford Germany • Ford of Australia • Ford of Brazil • Ford Europe • Ford France • Ford India • Ford Motor Company Philippines • Arabian Motors Group • AutoAlliance International • AutoAlliance Thailand • Chang'an Ford • Jiangling Motors • Volvo Cars • Ford-Otosan • Mazda [show]v • d • eNorth American bus builders Active Advanced Bus Industries • Blue Bird Corporation • Champion Bus Incorporated • Coach and Equipment • Collins Bus Corporation • Dupon Trolley Industries • Eagle Bus • ElDorado National • Federal Coach • Ford Motor Company • Glaval Bus • Gillig • Girardin Minibus • Goshen Coaches • IC Bus • Millennium Transit Services • Motor Coach Industries • North American Bus Industries • New Flyer Industries • Nova Bus • Optima Bus Corporation • Orion International • Prevost Car • Setra • Stallion Bus Industries • Starcraft Bus • Thomas Built Buses • Trident Bus Industries Defunct Aerocoach • AM General • Canada Car and Foundry • Carpenter Body Company • Corbeil Buses • Crown Coach Corporation • Fageol • Fifth Avenue Bus Company • Flxible • General Motors Corporation (buses)/General Motors Diesel Division • Kenworth • Mack Trucks • Neoplan USA • Superior Coach Company • Transportation Manufacturing Corporation • Twin Coach • U.S. Bus Corporation • Wayne Corporation • Yellow Coach [show]v • d • eFord road car timeline, North American market, 1946–1979 — next » Type 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Subcompact Pinto Pinto Pinto Fiesta Compact Falcon Falcon Falcon Maverick Fairmont Mid-size Fairlane Fairlane Fairlane Fairlane Granada Torino Torino Torino LTD II Full-size Ford Ford Ford Fairlane LTD LTD LTD LTD Galaxie Galaxie Galaxie Galaxie Galaxie Custom Custom Custom Custom Luxury Thunderbird Thunderbird Thunderbird Thunderbird Thunderbird Thunderbird Thunderbird Sports Thunderbird Mustang Mustang Mustang Mustang Mustang II Mustang [show]v • d • e« previous — Ford road car timeline, North American market, 1980s–present Type 1980s 1990s 2000s 2010s 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 Subcompact Fiesta Festiva Aspire Pinto Compact Escort Escort Escort Fairmont Tempo Tempo Contour Focus Focus Mid-size Granada LTD Fusion Fusion Taurus Taurus Taurus Taurus Full-size Five Hundred Taurus Taurus LTD LTD Crown Victoria Crown Victoria Crown Victoria Personal Luxury Thunderbird Thunderbird Thunderbird Thunderbird Sport compact EXP EXP Probe Probe Escort ZX2 ZX2 Sports Mustang Mustang Mustang GT [show]v • d • eFord Motor Company light truck timeline, United States and Canada, 1980s–present Type 1980s 1990s 2000s 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Mid-size Crossover Edge Full-size Crossover Flex Freestyle Taurus X Compact SUV Bronco II Escape Escape Mid-size SUV Explorer Explorer Explorer Explorer Full-size SUV Bronco Expedition Expedition Expedition Excursion Expedition EL/Max Compact pickup Courier Ranger Ranger Ranger Ranger Mid-size Pickup Explorer Sport Trac Explorer Sport Trac Full-size pickup F-Series F-Series F-Series F-Series F-Series F-Series Super Duty Super Duty Super Duty Minivan Aerostar Windstar Freestar Van Econoline Econoline/E-Series E-Series [show]v • d • eBritish Leyland – car companies & marques Marque 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s 2000s Jaguar SS Cars Jaguar Jaguar & Daimler BMH British Leyland Jaguar & Daimler PAG (Ford) Tata Daimler Daimler BSA BSA Lanchester Lanchester Rover Rover Rover Rover Austin Rover Group & Land Rover Group (BL plc) Rover Group (BAe) Rover Group (BMW) MG & Rover (BMW) Land Rover PAG (Ford) Alvis Alvis BAE Systems Standard Standard Standard Triumph Leyland Motors British Motor Heritage Triumph Dawson Triumph BMW Riley Riley Nuffield Organisation BMC BMH MG Morris Garages (MG) Rover Group (BMW) MG Rover Group (Phoenix) SAIC + NAC SAIC Morris Morris Morris Wolseley Wolseley Austin Austin Austin Vanden Plas Vanden Plas Mini Mini (BMW) Austin-Healey Austin (BMC) & Donald Healey Marque 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s 2000s [show]v • d • eThe British car industry – companies & marques Marque 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s 2000s Rolls-Royce Rolls-Royce Limited Rolls-Royce Limited & Bentley Rolls-Royce Motors Rolls-Royce Motors (Vickers) BMW & VW Group BMW Bentley Bentley VW Group Armstrong Siddeley Siddeley-Deasy Armstrong Whitworth Armstrong Siddeley Bristol Siddeley Rolls-Royce Limited Rolls-Royce plc Aston Martin Aston Martin Aston Martin Lagonda PAG (Ford) Aston Martin Lagonda Lagonda Lagonda Jaguar SS Cars Jaguar Jaguar & Daimler BMH British Leyland Jaguar & Daimler PAG (Ford) Tata Daimler Daimler BSA BSA Lanchester Lanchester Rover Rover Rover Rover Austin Rover Group & Land Rover Group (BL plc) Rover Group (BAe) Rover Group (BMW) MG & Rover (BMW) Land Rover PAG (Ford) Alvis Alvis BAE Systems Standard Standard Standard Triumph Leyland Motors British Motor Heritage Triumph Dawson Triumph BMW Riley Riley Nuffield Organisation BMC BMH MG Morris Garages (MG) Rover Group (BMW) MG Rover Group (Phoenix) SAIC + NAC SAIC Morris Morris Morris Wolseley Wolseley Austin Austin Austin Vanden Plas Vanden Plas Mini Mini (BMW) Austin-Healey Austin (BMC) & Donald Healey Jensen Jensen Motors Britcar Holdings Jensen Cars Reliant Reliant Reliant Bond Bond AC AC Cars (several ownership & company name changes) Argyll Argyll Argyll Bristol (cars) Bristol Cars Caterham Caterham Crossley Crossley Dutton Dutton Dutton Ginetta Ginetta Gordon-Keeble Peerless & Warwick Gordon-Keeble Jowett Jowett Blackburn Lea-Francis Lea-Francis Lotus Lotus GM Europe (General Motors) Proton McLaren McLaren Marcos Marcos Marcos Marcos Morgan Morgan Napier Napier Turner Turner TVR TVR Westfield Westfield Potenza Sports Cars GTM GTM Vauxhall Vauxhall Motors General Motors GM Europe (General Motors) Vulcan Vulcan Hillman Hillman Humber Rootes Chrysler Europe (Chrysler) Peugeot (PSA) Humber Humber Singer Singer Rootes Sunbeam Sunbeam Sunbeam-Talbot-Darracq Rootes (As Sunbeam-Talbot) Rootes Rootes Talbot Talbot Marque 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s 2000s [show]v • d • eSelected Royal Warrant holders of the British Royal Family Granted by HM The Queen Abels Moving Services · Angostura Limited · AkzoNobel · Atco · Autoglym · Bendicks · Bentley · Bollinger · Britvic · BT · Burberry · Cadbury · Carphone Warehouse · Carr's · Castrol · Charbonnel et Walker · Cornelia James · DHL Express · Dollond & Aitchison · Ede and Ravenscroft · Ford Motor Company · Frank Smythson · Gieves & Hawkes · H. P. Bulmer · J. Barbour and Sons · James Purdey and Sons · Jaguar Cars · John Lewis · John Lewis Reading · John Lobb · Jones Yarrell & Co. · Schweppes · Launer London Ltd · Land Rover · MG Rover · Mappin and Webb · Martini & Rossi · Mr Steeds · Nestlé · Roger Pope and Partners · Roberts Radio · Ryvita · Scottish & Newcastle · Spode · Steinway & Sons · Tanqueray · Twinings · Waitrose · Weetabix · William Drake · Windsorian Coach · Worcestershire Medal Service · Vauxhall Motors Granted by HRH The Prince of Wales Aston Martin · Atco · Autoglym · Bentley · Burberry · Crabtree & Evelyn · Ede and Ravenscroft · Ford Motor Company · Frank Smythson · Gieves & Hawkes · Holland & Holland · Jaguar Cars · James Purdey and Sons · John Lobb · Land Rover · Laphroaig · Linn Products · MG Rover · Penhaligon's · Peter Jones · Ritz Hotel · Roberts Radio · Shepherd Neame · Turnbull & Asser · Twinings · Vauxhall · Weetabix · Winsor & Newton Granted by HRH The Duke of Edinburgh Dollond & Aitchison · Ede and Ravenscroft · Frank Smythson · Gieves & Hawkes · Hatchards · Holland & Holland · James Purdey and Sons · John Lobb · Land Rover · Lyle & Scott · Penhaligon's · Truefitt & Hill [show]v • d • ePrincipal Owners of the Houston Astros Franchise Roy Mark Hofheinz • General Electric & Ford Motor Company • John McMullen • Drayton McLane, Jr. Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ford_Motor_Company" Categories: Companies listed on the New York Stock Exchange | Car manufacturers | Ford | Agricultural machinery | Bus manufacturers | Companies established in 1903 | Companies based in Metro Detroit | Emergency services equipment makers | Family businesses | Greenwashing | Lawn and garden tractors | Motor vehicle battery manufacturers | Motor vehicle manufacturers based in Michigan | Tractor manufacturers of the United States | Truck manufacturers | Dearborn, Michigan | Electric vehicle manufacturers
227's YouTube "Chili" - STOMP THE YARD (BLACK COLLEGE STEP SHOW MOVIE) Starring Columbus Short, Meagan Good, Ne-Yo, Darrin Henson, Chris Brown, Brian White, Las Alonso, Valerie Pettiford & Harry Lennix (NBA Mix)!
Beyonce * Maxwell * Mario ft. Gucci Mane & sean Garrett * Drake ft. Lil Wayne * Ginuwine * Fabolous Featuring The-Dream * Keyshia Cole Duet With Monica * Jay-Z, Rihanna & Kanye West * Gucci Mane Featuring Plies * Mary Mary Featuring Kierra "KiKi" Sheard * Ice Cream Paint Job * Pleasure P * Mariah Carey * Trey Songz * Trey Songz Featuring Gucci Mane & Soulja Boy Tell'em * R. Kelly Featuring Keri Hilson * K'Jon * Young Money * Twista Featuring Erika Shevon * Yo Gotti * New Boyz * Jeremih * Keri Hilson Featuring Kanye West & Ne-Yo * Musiq Soulchild * Whitney Houston * Anthony Hamilton * Charlie Wilson * Chrisette Michele * Jamie Foxx Featuring T-Pain * Plies * LeToya Featuring Ludacris * Mary J. Blige Featuring Drake * Mullage * Charlie Wilson * Jamie Foxx Featuring Drake, Kanye West + The-Dream * Jamie Foxx Featuring Drake, Kanye West + The-Dream * Jeremih * Mishon * Jennifer Hudson * Clipse Featuring Pharrell Williams * Kid Cudi Featuring Kanye West & Common * Raphael Saadiq Featuring Stevie Wonder & CJ * Anthony Hamilton Featuring David Banner * Jazmine Sullivan * Trey Songz Featuring Drake * F.L.Y. (Fast Life Yungstaz) * Laura Izibor
Jamaal Al-Din's Hoops 227 (227's YouTube Chili")!
Beyonce * Shakira * Jordin Sparks * Mariah Carey * New Boyz * Jason DeRulo * Mario ft. Gucci Mane & Sean Garrett * Katy Perry * The Black Eyed Peas * Colby Caillat * Fabolous ft. The Dream * Jason Aldean * Daughtry * Lady Gaga * Michael Franti & Spearhead Featuring Cherine Anderson * Boys Like Girls * Flo Rida Featuring Ne-Yo * Dorrough * Green Day * Linkin Park * Pink * Justin Bieber * Rob Thomas * Maxwell * Jason Mraz * Young Money * The Fray * Rascal Flatts * Zac Brown Band * Shinedown * Disney's Friends For Change * Toby Keith * Darius Rucker * Cascada * Billy Currington * Justin Moore * Kid Cudi Featuring Kanye West & Common * Keith Urban * Randy Houser * Drake Featuring Lil Wayne * Jeremih * Pearl Jam * Kelly Clarkson * George Strait * LMFAO * Twista Featuring Erika Shevon * Uncle Kracker * Eric Church * Jack Ingram * Love And Theft * Parachute * Chris Young * Theory Of A Deadman * Tim McGraw * Sean Paul * Gloriana * Creed * Ginuwine * Keyshia Cole Duet With Monica * Blake Shelton * Iyaz
2009 NCAA Basketball Tournament! List of NCAA Division 1 Teams & Coaches at 227!
America East Conference Albany - Will Brown Binghamton - Kevin Broadus Boston University - Dennis Wolff Hartford - Dan Leibovitz Maine - Ted Woodward New Hampshire - Bill Herrion Stony Brook - Steve Pikiell UMBC - Randy Monroe Vermont - Mike Lonergan 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! America East Conference
Atlantic 10 Conference Charlotte - Bobby Lutz Dayton - Brian Gregory Duquesne - Ron Everhart Fordham - Dereck Whittenburg George Washington - Karl Hobbs La Salle - John Giannini Rhode Island - Jim Baron Richmond - Chris Mooney St. Bonaventure - Mark Schmidt Saint Joseph's - Phil Martelli Saint Louis - Rick Majerus Temple - Fran Dunphy UMass - Derek Kellogg Xavier - Sean Miller 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Atlantic 10 Conference
Atlantic Coast Conference Boston College - Al Skinner Clemson - Oliver Purnell Duke - Mike Krzyzewski Florida State - Leonard Hamilton Georgia Tech - Paul Hewitt Maryland - Gary Williams Miami (Florida) - Frank Haith North Carolina - Roy Williams North Carolina State - Sidney Lowe Virginia - Dave Leitao Virginia Tech - Seth Greenberg Wake Forest - Dino Gaudio 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Atlantic Coast Conference
Atlantic Sun Conference Belmont - Rick Byrd Campbell - Robbie Laing East Tennessee State - Murry Bartow Florida Gulf Coast - Dave Balza Jacksonville - Cliff Warren Kennesaw State - Tony Ingle Lipscomb - Scott Sanderson Mercer - Bob Hoffman North Florida - Matt Kilcullen Stetson - Derek Waugh USC Upstate - Eddie Payne 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Atlantic Sun Conference
Big 12 Conference Baylor - Scott Drew Colorado - Jeff Bzdelik Iowa State - Greg McDermott Kansas - Bill Self Kansas State - Frank Martin Missouri - Mike Anderson Nebraska - Doc Sadler Oklahoma - Jeff Capel III Oklahoma State - Travis Ford Texas - Rick Barnes Texas A&M - Mark Turgeon Texas Tech - Pat Knight 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Big 12 Conference
Big East Conference Cincinnati - Mick Cronin Connecticut - Jim Calhoun DePaul - Jerry Wainwright Georgetown - John Thompson III Louisville - Rick Pitino Marquette - Buzz Williams Notre Dame - Mike Brey Pittsburgh - Jamie Dixon Providence - Keno Davis Rutgers - Fred Hill St. John's - Norm Roberts Seton Hall - Bobby Gonzalez South Florida - Stan Heath Syracuse - Jim Boeheim Villanova - Jay Wright West Virginia - Bobby Huggins 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Big East Conference
Big Sky Conference Eastern Washington - Kirk Earlywine Idaho State - Joe O'Brien Montana - Wayne Tinkle Montana State - Brad Huse Northern Arizona - Mike Adras Northern Colorado - Tad Boyle Portland State - Ken Bone Sacramento State - Brian Katz Weber State - Randy Rahe 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Big Sky Conference
Big South Conference Charleston Southern - Barclay Radebaugh Coastal Carolina - Cliff Ellis Gardner-Webb - Rick Scruggs High Point - Bart Lundy Liberty - Ritchie McKay Presbyterian - Gregg Nibert Radford - Brad Greenberg UNC-Asheville - Eddie Biedenbach VMI - Duggar Baucom Winthrop - Randy Peele 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Big South Conference
Big Ten Conference Illinois - Bruce Weber Indiana - Tom Crean Iowa - Todd Lickliter Michigan - John Beilein Michigan State - Tom Izzo Minnesota - Tubby Smith Northwestern - Bill Carmody Ohio State - Thad Matta Penn State - Ed DeChellis Purdue - Matt Painter Wisconsin - Bo Ryan 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Big Ten Conference
Big West Conference Cal Poly - Kevin Bromley Cal State Fullerton - Bob Burton Cal State Northridge - Bobby Braswell Long Beach State - Dan Monson Pacific - Bob Thomason UC Davis - Gary Stewart UC Irvine - Pat Douglass UC Riverside - Jim Wooldridge UC Santa Barbara - Bob Williams 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Big West Conference
Colonial Athletic Association Delaware - Monte Ross Drexel - Bruiser Flint George Mason - Jim Larranaga Georgia State - Rod Barnes Hofstra - Tom Pecora James Madison - Matt Brady Northeastern - Bill Coen Old Dominion - Blaine Taylor Towson - Pat Kennedy UNC-Wilmington - Benny Moss Virginia Commonwealth - Anthony Grant William & Mary - Tony Shaver 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Colonial Athletic Association
Conference USA East Carolina - Mack McCarthy Houston - Tom Penders Marshall - Donnie Jones Memphis - John Calipari Rice - Ben Braun Southern Methodist - Matt Doherty Southern Mississippi - Larry Eustachy Tulane - Dave Dickerson Tulsa - Doug Wojcik UAB - Mike Davis UCF - Kirk Speraw UTEP - Tony Barbee 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Conference USA
Horizon League - Butler - Brad Stevens Cleveland State - Gary Waters Detroit - Ray McCallum Loyola (Chicago) - Jim Whitesell UIC - Jimmy Collins UW-Green Bay - Tod Kowalczyk UW-Milwaukee - Rob Jeter Valparaiso - Homer Drew Wright State - Brad Brownell Youngstown State - Jerry Slocum 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Horizon League
Independents Bryant - Tim O'Shea Cal State Bakersfield - Keith Brown Chicago State - Benjy Taylor Houston Baptist - Ron Cottrell Longwood - Mike Gillian New Jersey Institute of Technology - Jim Engles North Carolina Central - Henry Dickerson Savannah State - Horace Broadnax SIU-Edwardsville - Lennox Forrester Texas-Pan American - Tom Schuberth Utah Valley - Dick Hunsaker 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! NCAA Division I independent schools (basketball)
Ivy League Brown - Jesse Agel Columbia - Joe Jones Cornell - Steve Donahue Dartmouth - Terry Dunn Harvard - Tommy Amaker Penn - Glen Miller Princeton - Sydney Johnson Yale - James Jones 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Ivy League
Metro Atlantic Athletic Conference Canisius - Tom Parrotta Fairfield - Ed Cooley Iona - Kevin Willard Loyola (Maryland) - Jimmy Patsos Manhattan - Barry Rohrssen Marist - Chuck Martin Niagara - Joe Mihalich Rider - Tommy Dempsey St. Peter's - John Dunne Siena - Fran McCaffery 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Mid-American Conference
Mid-American Conference Akron – Keith Dambrot Ball State – Billy Taylor Bowling Green – Louis Orr Buffalo – Reggie Witherspoon Central Michigan – Ernie Ziegler Eastern Michigan – Charles Ramsey Kent State – Geno Ford Miami – Charlie Coles Northern Illinois – Ricardo Patton Ohio – John Groce Toledo – Gene Cross Western Michigan – Steve Hawkins 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Mid-American Conference
Mid-Eastern Athletic Conference Bethune-Cookman - Clifford Reed Coppin State - Ron Mitchell Delaware State - Greg Jackson Florida A&M - Mike Gillespie Hampton - Kevin Nickelberry Howard - Gil Jackson Maryland-Eastern Shore - Meredith Smith Morgan State - Todd Bozeman Norfolk State - Anthony Evans North Carolina A&T - Jerry Eaves South Carolina State - Tim Carter Winston-Salem State - Bobby Collins 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Mid-Eastern Athletic Conference
Missouri Valley Conference Bradley - Jim Les Creighton - Dana Altman Drake - Mark Phelps Evansville - Marty Simmons Illinois State - Tim Jankovich Indiana State - Kevin McKenna Missouri State - Cuonzo Martin Northern Iowa - Ben Jacobson Southern Illinois - Chris Lowery Wichita State - Gregg Marshall 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Missouri Valley Conference
Mountain West Conference Air Force - Jeff Reynolds Brigham Young - Dave Rose Colorado State - Tim Miles New Mexico - Steve Alford San Diego State - Steve Fisher Texas Christian - Neil Dougherty UNLV - Lon Kruger Utah - Jim Boylen Wyoming - Heath Schroyer 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Mountain West Conference
Northeast Conference Central Connecticut State - Howie Dickenman Fairleigh Dickinson - Tom Green LIU-Brooklyn - Jim Ferry Monmouth - Dave Calloway Mount St. Mary's - Milan Brown Quinnipiac - Tom Moore Robert Morris - Mike Rice Jr. Sacred Heart - Dave Bike St. Francis (PA) - Don Friday St. Francis (NY) - Brian Nash Wagner - Mike Deane 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Northeast Conference
Ohio Valley Conference Austin Peay - Dave Loos Eastern Illinois - Mike Miller Eastern Kentucky - Jeff Neubauer Jacksonville State - James Green Morehead State - Donnie Tyndall Murray State - Billy Kennedy Southeast Missouri - Zac Roman Tennessee-Martin - Bret Campbell Tennessee State - Cy Alexander Tennessee Tech - Mike Sutton 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Ohio Valley Conference
Pacific-10 Conference Arizona - Russ Pennell Arizona State - Herb Sendek California - Mike Montgomery Oregon - Ernie Kent Oregon State - Craig Robinson Stanford - Johnny Dawkins UCLA - Ben Howland USC - Tim Floyd Washington - Lorenzo Romar Washington State - Tony Bennett 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Pacific-10 Conference
Patriot League American - Jeff Jones Army - Jim Crews Bucknell - Dave Paulsen Colgate - Emmett Davis Holy Cross - Ralph Willard Lafayette - Fran O'Hanlon Lehigh - Brett Reed Navy - Billy Lange 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Patriot League
Southeastern Conference Alabama - Philip Pearson Arkansas - John Pelphrey Auburn - Jeff Lebo Florida - Billy Donovan Georgia - Pete Herrmann Kentucky - Billy Gillispie LSU - Trent Johnson Mississippi - Andy Kennedy Mississippi State - Rick Stansbury South Carolina - Darrin Horn Tennessee - Bruce Pearl Vanderbilt - Kevin Stallings 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Southeastern Conference
Southern Conference Appalachian State - Houston Fancher Chattanooga - John Shulman The Citadel - Ed Conroy College of Charleston - Bobby Cremins Davidson - Bob McKillop Elon - Ernie Nestor Furman - Jeff Jackson Georgia Southern - Jeff Price Samford - Jimmy Tillette UNC-Greensboro - Mike Dement Western Carolina - Larry Hunter Wofford - Mike Young 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Southern Conference
Southland Conference Central Arkansas - Rand Chappell Lamar - Steve Roccaforte McNeese State - Dave Simmons Nicholls State - J. P. Piper Northwestern State - Mike McConathy Sam Houston State - Bob Marlin Southeastern Louisiana - Jim Yarbrough Stephen F. Austin - Danny Kaspar Texas A&M-Corpus Christi - Perry Clark Texas-Arlington - Scott Cross Texas-San Antonio - Brooks Thompson Texas State - Doug Davalos 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Southland Conference
Southwestern Athletic Conference Alabama A&M - L. Vann Pettaway Alabama State - Lewis Jackson Alcorn State - Samuel West Arkansas-Pine Bluff - George Ivory Grambling State - Larry Wright Jackson State - Tevester Anderson Mississippi Valley State - Sean Woods Prairie View A&M - Byron Rimm II Southern - Rob Spivery Texas Southern - Tony Harvey 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Southwestern Athletic Conference
The Summit League Centenary - Greg Gary IPFW - Dane Fife IUPUI - Ron Hunter North Dakota State - Saul Phillips Oakland - Greg Kampe Oral Roberts - Scott Sutton South Dakota State - Scott Nagy Southern Utah - Roger Reid UMKC - Matt Brown Western Illinois - Derek Thomas 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! The Summit League
Sun Belt Conference Arkansas-Little Rock - Steve Shields Arkansas State - Dickey Nutt Denver - Joe Scott Florida Atlantic - Mike Jarvis Florida International - Sergio Rouco Louisiana-Lafayette - Robert Lee Louisiana-Monroe - Orlando Early Middle Tennessee - Kermit Davis New Orleans - Joe Pasternack North Texas - Johnny Jones South Alabama - Ronnie Arrow Troy - Don Maestri Western Kentucky - Ken McDonald 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Sun Belt Conference
West Coast Conference Gonzaga - Mark Few Loyola Marymount - Rodney Tention Pepperdine - Vance Walberg Portland - Eric Reveno Saint Mary's - Randy Bennett San Diego - Bill Grier San Francisco - Rex Walters Santa Clara - Kerry Keating 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! West Coast Conference
Western Athletic Conference Boise State - Greg Graham Fresno State - Steve Cleveland Hawai?i - Bob Nash Idaho - Don Verlin Louisiana Tech - Kerry Rupp Nevada - Mark Fox New Mexico State - Marvin Menzies San Jose State - George Nessman Utah State - Stew Morrill 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Western Athletic Conference
2Pac 50 Cent A Adam Tensta Akon Aaliyah Ashanti Andre 3000 B Bow Wow Bobby Valentino Beyonce Bone Thugs n Harmony Birdman (rapper) Busta Rhymes Bobby Fischer C Chris Brown Cherish Cassidy Chingy Chamillionaire Christina Milian Chrisette Michele Cashis Ciara Cypress Hill Calzone Mafia Cuban Link D Destiny's Child DJ Clue Demetri Montaque Danity Kane Day 26 Donnie D12 DJ Khaled Dr. Dre E E-40 Eminem Eazy-E F Fabolous Flo Rida Fat Joe Frankie J G G-Unit The Game H Hurricane Chris I Ice Cube J Jay-Z J.R. Rotem J Holiday Jordan Sparks K Kanye West Kelly Rowland keri hilson The Kreators L Lil' Kim Lil' Mo Lil Jon Lil Mama Lloyd Banks Lil Wayne Ludacris Lloyd Lil Mama Lil Eazy-E Leona lewis M MC Hammer Mike Shorey MF Doom Mariah Carey Mario Mary J. Blige N Ne-Yo Nate Dogg Niia N.W.A. Notorious B.I.G. Nas Nick Cannon Nelly Necro O Olivia Omarion Obie Trice Old Dirty Bastard P Public Enemy Plies P Diddy pink Pharcyde Q R Red Cafe Run DMC Ray J R Kelly Rihanna Rick Ross (rapper) S Sean Combs Sean Kingston Snoop Dogg Stargate Sean Garrett Suge Knight Soulja Boy Tell 'Em Stat Quo shakira T The Notorious B.I.G. Tupac Shakur Trina Tyrese T-Pain Three 6 Mafia T.I. Too Phat U Usher V V.I.C. W Warren G Wyclef Jean Wu Tang Clan will.i.am X Xzibit Y Young Jeezy Yung Berg Z
Michael Jackson Bing Crosby U.S. The Beatles AC/DC ABBA Alla Bee Gees Bob Marley Celine Dion Cliff Richard The Drifters Elton John Herbert von Karajan Julio Iglesias Led Zeppelin Madonna Mariah Carey Elvis Presley Nana Mouskouri Pink Floyd The Rolling Stones Tino Rossi Wei Wei
Adriano Celentano Aerosmith Backstreet Boys Barry White Billy Joel Bon Jovi Boney M. The Carpenters Charles Aznavour Cher Chicago Dave Clark Five David Bowie Deep Purple Depeche Mode Dire Straits Dolly Parton The Eagles Electric Engelbert Humperdinck Fats Domino Fleetwood Mac The Four Seasons Frank Sinatra Garth Brooks Genesis George Michael Guns N' Roses James Last The Jackson 5 Janet Jackson Johnny Hallyday Kenny Rogers Lionel Richie Luciano Pavarotti Metallica Michiya Mihashi Mireille Mathieu Modern Talking Neil Diamond Olivia Newton-John Patti Page Paul McCartney Perry Como Pet Shop Boys Phil Collins Prince Queen Ricky Nelson Roberto Carlos Rod Stewart Salvatore Adamo Status Quo Stevie Wonder Teresa Teng Tina Turner Tom Jones U2 Valeriya The Ventures Whitney Houston The Who
Annie Lennox B'z Britney Spears Carlos Santana Dalida Earth, Wind & Fire Eddy Arnold Eminem Eurythmics Gloria Estefan Hibari Misora Journey Scorpions Van Halen Ace of Base Alan Jackson Country Alice Cooper Hard rock Andrea Bocelli Opera The Andrews Sisters Swing Ayumi Hamasaki Pop Black Sabbath Heavy metal Barbra Streisand Pop / Adult contemporary Beach Boys Rock Pop Bob Dylan Folk / Rock Bob Seger Rock Boston Arena rock Boyz II Men R&B Bruce Springsteen Rock Bryan Adams Def Leppard Destiny's Child R&B / Pop Dreams Come True Pop / Jazz Duran Duran Enya Ireland Four Tops George Strait Glay Iron Maiden Jay-Z Hip hop Jean Michel Jarre Jethro Tull Johnny Cash Kazuhiro Moriuchi Kiss Hard rock Kenny G Kylie Minogue Luis Miguel Linkin Park Meat Loaf Michael Bolton Mills Brothers Mötley Crüe Mr.Children Nat King Cole New Kids on the Block Nirvana 'N Sync Oasis Orhan Gencebay Pearl Jam Petula Clark Red Hot Chili Peppers The Police Ray Conniff Reba McEntire R.E.M. Richard Clayderman Ricky Martin Robbie Williams Roxette Sweden Shakira Colombia
The Seekers Australia Spice Girls Tom Petty & The Heartbreakers Tony Bennett T.Rex UB40 Vicente Fernandez Village People Willie Nelson
Jamaal Al-Din, a native of Grand Rapids, Michigan and former leading scorer of Olympic Basketball and LSU great, Ed Palubinskas brings to you Michigan State University's and the NBA's Earvin "Magic" Johnson at 227's YouTube "MAGIC!" provided by Jamaal Al-Din's Hoops 227-the everything basketball website, featuring YouTube Videos and Wikipedia information on the legendary Earvin "Magic" Johnson, The Magic Johnson Foundation, Magic Johnson Enterprises, and everything including the magical phrase..."MAGIC!" 227's YouTube "MAGIC!"
As we look to expand basketball marketing, camps and clinics nationally, our basketball affiliate programs are scheduled to begin in March of 2008. Our affiliates, exciting, take a look at this list: ebay, StubHub.com, Yahoo Affiliate Program!, TickCo Premium Seating, RazorGator Affiliate Program, SightSell, VistaPrint.com, Pokeorder and WeHaveSeats.com. Jamaal Al-Din's Hoops 227 welcomes our affiliate partners for 2008. Among the items offered our NCAA & NBA basketball tickets both premium and discounted rates. Basketball shoes and apparel for kids, fans, players and coaches ranging from Air Jordans, LeBron James, NIKE, Adidas, AND1, hats, collectibles and memoralbilia! Jamaal Al-Din's Hoops 227- The everything basketball website!
?227's YouTube "Chili" features these exciting YouTube music and entertainment celebrities...click onto to these 227 YouTube "Chili" links, channels and articles for the most watched YouTube hip-hop music videos in the world!
Sean Kingston, Justin Timberlake, M.I.A'"Paper Planes!" , Timbaland, 50 Cent, P-Diddy, Kanye West. Rihanna, Chris Brown, T.I.-"Big Things Poppin!" , Rihanna- Hate That I Love You (over 29 million views on YouTube)!, Leona Lewis, Soulja Boy, Britney Spears, Alicia Keys, Avril Lavigne, Alicia Keys- No One, Akon, NE-YO, LL Cool J, Dr. Dre, Snoop Dogg, Dmx, Jay-z, The Notorious B.I.G, 2PAC, Will Smith, Jonas Brothers, Pink "So What!" , Jordin Sparks feta. Chris Brown- "No Air" Official Music Video-over 33 million views on YouTube!), Lil Jon- get low music movie, Ludacris, Ice Cube, Flo Rida feat. T.Pain Music from the Movie Step Up 2 "Low," Chris Brown*Chris Brown feat. T.Pain- Kiss Kiss (over 51 million views on YouTube)!, Chris Brown-"With You," Chris Brown feat. Lil' Wayne (over 56 million views on YouTube!, Chris Brown "YO," Chris Brown-Run It, Chris Brown- Forever, Wu Tang Clan, The Fugees, Jordin Sparks-Tattoo, Rhianna- Cry, Rihanna- unfaithful, Rhianna- Umbrella (over 43 million views on YouTube/You Tube)!, Ashanti, Fergie Fergalicious, Fergie- Clumsy!, Rhianna- Dont' Stop The Music (over 62 million views on YouTube), Avril Lavign- Girlfriend (over 92 million views on YouTube)!, Clay Aiken, Akon, Christina Aguilera-Hurt, Clay Aiken-On My Way Here, All-American Rejects, All-American Rejects-Move Along, All-American Rejects-It Ends Tonight, Ashley Parker Angel, Michael Jackson ("Thriller"), Backstreet Boys, Augustana, Natasha Bedingfeild, Michael Jackson, Natasha Bedingfield feat. Sean Kingston-Love Like This, Natasha Bedingfield-Pocketful of Sunshine and lots more at 227's YouTube Chili!!! Your source for the world's most watched YouTube Music Videos at Jamaal Al-Din's Hoops 227- the everything basketball website!
Also: Jesse McCartney, Ray J,Usher,Elliott Yamin,Jonas Brothers,Fergie,Taylor Swift, Nelly Furtado, Jennifer Lopez, Flyleaf,Maroon 5,Kanye West,Keyshia Cole, The Pussycat Dolls,Colby O'Donis,Ashanti,R. Kelly,Girlicious, Colbi Calliat, Boy George,Mario,Three Days Grace,Beyonce', Gorillaz,Carrie Underwood,3 Doors Down,Finger Eleven, Ginuwine,Baby Bash,Kid Rock,Joe, Gwen Steffani, Billy Ray Cyrus, Danity Kane, Janel Parrish, Ciara, NLT, Fall Out Boy, Josh Turner, Fantasia and more!