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227's YouTube "Chili"-Haiti Earthquake - Wyclef Chili' Jean (NBA Mix) - Wyclef Jean Foundation - "Yele Haiti" * Jamaal Al-Din's Hoops 227! Haiti From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search This country is related to the following current event: 2010 Haiti earthquake. Information may change rapidly as the event progresses. Republic of Haiti République d'Haïti Repiblik Ayiti Flag Coat of arms Motto: "L'Union Fait La Force" (French) "Unity Creates Strength" Anthem: La Dessalinienne Capital (and largest city) Port-au-Prince 18°32′N 72°20′W / 18.533°N 72.333°W / 18.533; -72.333 Official languages Haitian Creole, French Ethnic groups 95.0% black, 5% mulatto and white Demonym Haitian Government Parliamentary republic - President René Préval - Prime Minister Jean-Max Bellerive Formation - as Saint-Domingue 1697 - Independence from France 1 January 1804 Area - Total 27,751 km2 (140th) 10,714 sq mi - Water (%) 0.7 Population - 2009 estimate 10,033,000 (82nd) - Density 361.5/km2 (31st) 936.4/sq mi GDP (PPP) 2008 estimate - Total $11.570 billion - Per capita $1,317 GDP (nominal) 2008 estimate - Total $6.943 billion - Per capita $790 Gini (2001) 59.2 (high) HDI (2007) ▲ 0.532 (medium) (149th) Currency Gourde (HTG) Time zone (UTC-5) Drives on the right Internet TLD .ht Calling code 509 Haiti (pronounced /ˈheɪtiː/; French Haïti, pronounced: [a.iti]; Haitian Creole: Ayiti), officially the Republic of Haiti (République d'Haïti ; Repiblik Ayiti) is a Caribbean country. Along with the Dominican Republic, it occupies the island of Hispaniola, in the Greater Antillean archipelago. Ayiti (land of high mountains) was the indigenous Taíno or Amerindian name for the mountainous western side of the island. The country's highest point is Pic la Selle, at 2,680 metres (8,793 ft). The total area of Haiti is 27,750 square kilometres (10,714 sq mi) and its capital is Port-au-Prince. Haitian Creole and French are the official languages. Haiti's regional, historical and ethnolinguistic position is unique for several reasons. It was the first independent nation in Latin America, the first post-colonial independent black-led nation in the world, and the only nation whose independence was gained as part of a successful slave rebellion.
Despite having common cultural links with its Hispano-Caribbean neighbors, Haiti is the only predominantly Francophone independent nation in the Americas. It is one of only two independent nations in the Western Hemisphere (along with Canada) that designate French as an official language; the other French-speaking areas are all overseas départements, or collectivités, of France. On January 12, 2010, a 7.0-magnitude earthquake struck Haiti, with its epicenter 16 miles west of the capital and largest city, Port-au-Prince, which was devastated. Approximately two-hundred thousand people were killed, although it will take time to determine the exact number of dead; the Presidential palace, Parliament and many other important structures were destroyed, along with countless homes, businesses, hospitals, schools and shantytowns. Contents [hide] 1 History 1.1 Precolonial and Spanish colonial periods 1.2 17th century settlement 1.3 Treaty of Ryswick and slave colony 1.4 Haitian Revolution 1.5 Independence 1.6 Since 1915 1.7 1957–1986 1.8 1990s 1.9 2000s 1.10 2010s 1.10.1 2010 earthquake 2 Politics 3 Departments, arrondissements, and communes 4 Geography 5 Environment 6 Health 7 Economy 8 Education 9 Demographics 9.1 Haitian diaspora 9.1.1 In North America 9.2 Languages 10 Religion 11 Culture 11.1 Music 11.2 Cuisine 12 See also 13 Notes 14 References 15 Further reading 16 External links History Main article: History of Haiti See also: 2004 Haitian rebellion and United Nations Stabilization Mission in Haiti Precolonial and Spanish colonial periods The island of Hispaniola, of which Haiti occupies the western third, is one of many Caribbean islands inhabited at the time of European arrival by the Taíno Indians, speakers of an Arawakan language. The Taíno name for the entire island was Kiskeya. In the Taíno societies of the Caribbean Islands, the largest unit of political organization was led by a cacique; hence the term 'caciquedom' (French caciquat, Spanish cacicazgo) for these Taíno polities, which are often called "chiefdoms". Before the arrival of Christopher Columbus, the island of Hispaniola was divided among five or six long-established caciquedoms. The five caciquedoms of Hispaniola at the time of the arrival of Christopher Columbus. The modern country of Haiti spans most of the territory of the caciquedoms of Xaragua ("Jaragua" in modern Spanish) and Marien.The caciquedoms were tributary kingdoms, with payment consisting of harvests. Taíno cultural artifacts include cave paintings in several locations in the country, which have become national symbols of Haiti and tourist attractions. Modern-day Léogane, a town in the southwest, is at the site of Xaragua's former capital. 1510 pictograph telling a story of missionaries arriving in HispaniolaChristopher Columbus landed at Môle Saint-Nicolas on 5 December 1492, and claimed the island for Spain. Nineteen days later, his ship the Santa María ran aground near the present site of Cap-Haïtien; Columbus was forced to leave behind 39 men, founding the settlement of La Navidad. Following the destruction of La Navidad by the local indigenous people, Columbus moved to the eastern side of the island and established La Isabela. One of the earliest leaders to fight off Spanish conquest was Queen Anacaona, a princess of Xaragua who married Caonabo, the cacique of Maguana. The couple resisted Spanish rule in vain; she was captured by the Spanish and executed in front of her people. To this day, Anacaona is revered in Haiti as one of the country's founders.* Map of Haiti The Spaniards exploited the island for its gold, mined chiefly by local Amerindians directed by the Spanish occupiers. Those refusing to work in the mines were killed or sold into slavery. Europeans brought with them chronic infectious diseases that were new to the Caribbean, to which the indigenous population lacked immunity. These new diseases were the chief cause of the dying off of the Taíno, but ill treatment, malnutrition, and a drastic drop in the birthrate as a result of societal disruption also contributed. The first recorded smallpox outbreak in the Americas occurred on Hispaniola in 1507.  The Laws of Burgos, 1512–1513, were the first nationally codified set of laws' governing the behavior of Spanish settlers in America, particularly with regards to native Indians. They forbade the maltreatment of natives, and endorsed their conversion to Catholicism. The national government of Spain found it difficult to enforce these laws in a distant colony. The Spanish governors began importing enslaved Africans for labor. In 1517, Charles V authorized the draft of slaves. The Taínos became virtually, but not completely, extinct on the island of Hispaniola. Some who evaded capture fled to the mountains and established independent settlements. Survivors mixed with escaped African slaves (runaways called maroons) and produced a multiracial generation called zambos. French settlers later called people of mixed African and Amerindian ancestry marabou. The mestizo were children born to relationships between native women and European – usually Spanish – men. During French rule, children of mixed race, usually born of unions between African women and European men, were called mulâtres. Creoles  are a mixture of European, Amerindian, and African ancestry regardless of skin color. François l'Olonnais was nicknamed "Flail of the Spaniards" and had a reputation for brutality – offering no quarter to Spanish prisonersAs a gateway to the Caribbean, Hispaniola became a haven for pirates. The western part of the island was settled by French buccaneers. Among them was Bertrand d'Ogeron, who succeeded in growing tobacco. His success prompted many of the numerous buccaneers and freebooters to turn into settlers. This population did not submit to Spanish royal authority until the year 1660 and caused a number of conflicts. By 1640, the buccaneers of Tortuga were calling themselves the Brethren of the Coast. French pirate Jean Lafitte, who operated in New Orleans and Galveston, was born in Port-au-Prince around 1782.  One of the best known early Saint-Domingue immigrants to mainland North America was Jean Baptiste Point du Sable, who was born in St Marc, Saint-Domingue in 1745 and established a fur trading post at present-day Chicago, Illinois. John James Audubon, the renowned ornithologist and painter, was born in 1785 in Les Cayes, Saint-Domingue and painted, cataloged and described the birds of North America. In 1779 more than 500 volunteers from Saint-Domingue, under the command of Comte d'Estaing, fought alongside American colonial troops against the British in the Siege of Savannah, one of the most significant foreign contributions to the American Revolutionary War. 17th century settlement Bertrand d'Orgeron attracted many colonists from Martinique and Guadeloupe, such as the Roy family (Jean Roy, 1625–1707); Hebert (Jean Hebert, 1624, with his family) and Barre (Guillaume Barre, 1642, with his family). They and others were driven from their lands when more land was needed for the extension of the
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sugar plantations. From 1670 to 1690, a drop in the tobacco markets affected the island and significantly reduced the number of settlers. The first windmill for processing sugar was created in 1685. Treaty of Ryswick and slave colony France and Spain settled hostilities on the island by the Treaty of Ryswick of 1697, which divided Hispaniola between them. France received the western third and subsequently named it Saint-Domingue (not the current Santo-Domingo, which is in the Dominican Republic and was part of the eastern side given to the Spanish through the treaty). Many French colonists soon arrived and established plantations in Saint-Domingue due to high profit potential. From 1713 to 1787, approximately 30,000 French colonists emigrated (chiefly from Bordeaux) to the western part of the island, while by 1763 the French population of Canada numbered only 65,000. By about 1790, Saint-Domingue had greatly overshadowed its eastern counterpart in terms of wealth and population. It quickly became the richest French colony in the New World due to the immense profits from the sugar, coffee and indigo industries. This outcome was made possible by the labor and knowledge of thousands of enslaved Africans who brought to the island skills and technology for indigo production. The French-enacted Code Noir (Black Code), prepared by Jean-Baptiste Colbert and ratified by Louis XIV, established rigid rules on slave treatment and permissible freedom. Saint-Domingue has been described as one of the most brutally efficient slave colonies; one-third of newly imported Africans died within a few years.  Haitian Revolution Main article: Haitian Revolution Jean Jacques Dessalines, leader of the Haitian Revolution and the first ruler of an independent HaitiInspired by the French Revolution and principles of the rights of men, free people of color and slaves in Saint-Domingue and the French and West Indies pressed for freedom and more civil rights. Most important was the revolution of the slaves in Saint-Domingue, starting in the heavily African-majority northern plains in 1791. In 1792 the French government sent three commissioners with troops to try to reestablish control. They began to build an alliance with the free people of color who wanted more civil rights. In 1793, France and Great Britain went to war, and British troops invaded Saint-Domingue. The execution of Louis XVI heightened tensions in the colony. To build an alliance with the gens de couleur and slaves, the French commissioners Sonthonax and Polverel abolished slavery in the colony. Six months later, the National Convention led by the Jacobins endorsed abolition and extended it to all the French colonies.  Toussaint l'Ouverture, a former slave and leader in the slave revolt –a man who rose in importance as a military commander because of his many skills – achieved peace in Saint-Domingue after years of war against both external invaders and internal dissension. Having established a disciplined, flexible army, l'Ouverture drove out not only the Spaniards but also the British invaders who threatened the colony. He restored stability and prosperity by daring measures which included inviting the return of planters and insisting that freed men work on plantations to renew revenues for the island. He also renewed trading ties with Great Britain and the United States. In the uncertain years of revolution, the United States played both sides, with traders supplying both the French and the rebels.  Independence When the French government changed, new members of the national legislature, lobbied by planters, began to rethink their decisions on colonial slavery. After Toussaint l'Ouverture created a separatist constitution, Napoleon Bonaparte sent an expedition of 20,000 men under the command of his brother-in-law, General Charles Leclerc, to retake the island. Leclerc's mission was to oust l'Ouverture and restore slavery. The French achieved some victories, but within a few months, yellow fever had killed most of the French soldiers.  Leclerc invited Toussaint l'Ouverture to a parley, kidnapped him and sent him to France, where he was imprisoned at Fort de Joux. He died there in 1803 of exposure and tuberculosis  or malnutrition and pneumonia. In its attempt to retake the colony, France had lost more than 50,000 soldiers, including 18 generals.  Battle between Polish troops in French service and the Haitian rebels. Some Polish soldiers became sympathetic to the natives' cause and joined the Haitian rebels. Slaves, free gens du couleur and allies continued their fight for independence after the French transported L'Ouverture to France. The native leader Jean-Jacques Dessalines – long an ally and general of Toussaint l'Ouverture – defeated French troops led by Donatien-Marie-Joseph de Vimeur, vicomte de Rochambeau, at the Battle of Vertières. At the end of the double battle for emancipation and independence, former slaves proclaimed the independence of Saint-Domingue on 1 January 1804, declaring the new nation be named Haïti, to honor one of the indigenous Taíno names for the island. Haiti is the only nation born of a slave revolt.  Historians have estimated the slave rebellion resulted in the death of 100,000 blacks and 24,000 of the 40,000 white colonists.  The revolution in Saint Domingue unleashed a massive multiracial exodus: French Créole colonists fled with those slaves they still held, as did numerous free people of color, some of whom were slaveholders and also transported slaves with them. In 1809, nearly 10,000 refugees from Saint-Domingue arrived from Cuba, where they had first fled, to settle en masse in New Orleans. They doubled that city’s population and helped preserve its French language and culture for several generations. In addition, the newly arrived slaves added to the city's African and multiracial culture. Dessalines was proclaimed Emperor for life by his troops. He exiled or killed the remaining whites and ruled as a despot. In the continuing competition for power, he was assassinated on 17 October 1806. The country was divided then between a kingdom in the north directed by Henri I, and a republic in the south directed by Alexandre Pétion, an homme de couleur. Henri I is best known for constructing the Citadelle Laferrière, the largest fortress in the Western Hemisphere, to defend the island against the French. In 1815 Simon Bolivar, the South American political leader who was instrumental in Latin America's struggle for independence from Spain, received military and financial assistance from Haiti, which was at the time a young republic that had won its independence from France in the world's first (and only) successful slave revolt. Bolivar had fled to Haiti after an attempt had been made on his life in Jamaica, where he had unsuccessfully sought support for his efforts. In 1817, on condition that Bolivar free any enslaved people he encountered in his fight for South American independence, Haiti provided Bolivar with soldiers, weapons and financial assistance, which were critical in enabling him to liberate New Granada (now Colombia), Venezuela, Ecuador, Panama and Peru. Jean-Pierre Boyer, one of the leaders of the Haitian Revolution, and President of Haiti from 1818 to 1843Beginning in 1821, President Jean Pierre Boyer, also an homme de couleur and successor to Pétion, managed to reunify the two parts of St. Domingue and extend control over the western part of the island.  In addition, after Santo Domingo declared its independence from Spain, Boyer sent forces in to take control. Boyer then ruled the entire island. Dominican historians have portrayed the period of the Haitian occupation (1822–42) as cruel and barbarous. During this time, however, Boyer also freed Santo Domingo's slaves. During his presidency, Boyer tried to halt the downward trend of the economy by passing the Code Rural. Its provisions sought to tie the peasant labourers to plantation land by denying them the right to leave the land, enter the towns, or start farms or shops of their own. During his administration, Boyer's government negotiated with Loring D. Dewey, an agent of the American Colonization Society (ACS), to encourage free blacks from the United States (US) to emigrate to Haiti. They hoped to gain people with skills to contribute to the independent nation. In the early 19th century, the ACS, an uneasy blend of abolitionists and slaveholders, proposed resettlement of American free blacks to other countries, primarily to a colony in Liberia, as a solution to problems of racism in the US. Starting in September 1824, more than 6,000 American free blacks migrated to Haiti, with transportation paid by the ACS. Due to the poverty and other difficult conditions there, many returned to the US within a short time. In July 1825, King Charles X of France sent a fleet of fourteen vessels and thousands of troops to reconquer the island. Under pressure, President Boyer agreed to a treaty by which France formally recognized the independence of the nation in exchange for a payment of 150 million francs (the sum was reduced in 1838 to 90 million francs) – an indemnity for profits lost from the slave trade. French abolitionist Victor Schoelcher wrote, "Imposing an indemnity on the victorious slaves was equivalent to making them pay with money that which they had already paid with their blood." After losing the support of Haiti's elite, Boyer was ousted in 1843. A long succession of coups followed his departure to exile. In its 200-year history, Haiti has suffered 32 coups; the instability of government and society has hampered its progress. National authority was disputed by factions of the army, the elite class, and the growing commercial class, increasingly made up of numerous immigrant businessmen: Germans, Americans, French and English. In 1912 Syrians residing in Haiti participated in a plot in which the presidential palace was destroyed. On more than one occasion, French, U.S., German and British forces claimed large sums of money from the vaults of the National Bank of Haiti. Expatriates bankrolled and armed opposing groups. In addition, national governments intervened in Haitian affairs. For instance, U.S. Marines supported a military revolt against the government in 1888. In 1892 the German government supported suppression of the reform movement of Anténor Firmin. In January 1914, British, German and United States forces entered Haiti, ostensibly to protect their citizens from civil unrest. Since 1915 The United States occupied the island from 1915 to 1934. This occupation was initially resisted by a peasant revolt termed the "cacos" insurrection which was led by Charlemagne Péralte. Accusations of "indiscriminate" killing by US Marines were formally investigated by US Brigadier General George Barnett who concluded that 3250 "natives" were killed. A later investigation noted that 98 Marines perished in the conflict as well. The Haitian administration dismantled the constitutional system, built roads, and established the National Guards that ran the country after the Marines left. Scholars agree that Haiti was in much better shape after the occupation than before, but some accuse the US of estabishing a "shaky" foundation that left the country with a doomed financial structure. This was due to a 1922 $40 million loan owed to the US as well as the country's national treasury and to the Banque Nationale owned by a New York bank. The result was a financial system that siphoned the country's wealth to offshore creditors instead of reinvesting it in the country's economy. The US occupation forces established a boundary between Haiti and the Dominican Republic by taking disputed land from the latter. When the US left in 1937, Dominican dictator Rafael Trujillo – in an event known as the Parsley Massacre – ordered his Army to kill Haitians living on the Dominican side of the border.  In a "three-day genocidal spree", he murdered between 10,000 and 20,000 Haitians. He then developed a uniquely Dominican policy of racial discrimination, Antihaitianismo ("anti-Haitianism"), targeting the mostly-black inhabitants of his neighboring country. Within the country, François "Papa Doc" Duvalier used both political murder and expulsion to suppress his opponents; estimates of those killed are as high as 30,000. 1957–1986 From 1957 to 1986, the Duvalier family reigned as dictators, with a personality cult and major corruption. Dr. François Duvalier, known as "Papa Doc", was the President of Haiti from 1957 until his death in 1971; he was succeeded by his son, Jean-Claude Duvalier, also known as "Baby Doc", who ruled from 1971 until his ouster in 1986. The Duvalier regimes created the private army and terrorist death squads known as Tonton Macoutes. Many Haitians fled to exile in the United States and Canada, especially French-speaking Québec. In the 1970s the United States funded major efforts to establish assembly plants in Haiti for U.S. manufacturers. In the mid 1980s the US continued military and economic aid to the regime. In the 1960s and 1970s Haiti's diaspora made vital contributions to the establishment of francophone Africa's newly independent countries as university professors, medical doctors, administrators and development specialists emigrated to these countries. The Africa Regional Office of the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), based in Ghana, was headed during most of the 1960s by a prominent Haitian agronomist, Garvey Laurent (born in Jeremie, Haiti, 1923). During the 1970s Laurent negotiated the establishment of most of the FAO's Country Representative Offices throughout Africa. In 1986, protests against "Baby Doc" led the U.S. to arrange for Jean-Claude Duvalier and his family to be exiled to France. Army leader General Henri Namphy headed a new National Governing Council. In March 1987, a new Constitution was overwhelmingly approved by Haiti's population. General elections in November were aborted hours after dozens of inhabitants were shot in the capital by soldiers and the Tonton Macoute, and scores more were massacred around the country. 1990s In December 1990, the former priest Jean-Bertrand Aristide was elected President in the Haitian general election, winning by more than two thirds of the vote. His 5 year mandate began on 7 February 1991. In August 1991, Jean-Bertrand Aristide's government faced a non-confidence vote within the Haitian Chamber of Deputies and Senate. Eighty three voted against him, while only eleven members voted in support of Aristide's government. Following a coup d' état in September 1991, President Aristide was flown into exile. In accordance with Article 149 of Haiti's Constitution of 1987, Supreme Court Justice Joseph Nerette was named Provisional President and elections were called for December 1991 – elections which were blocked by the international community – and the resulting chaos extended into 1994. In 1994, Haitian General Raoul Cédras asked former U.S. President Jimmy Carter to help avoid a U.S. military invasion of Haiti.  President Carter relayed this information to President Clinton, who asked Carter, in his role as founder of The Carter Center, to undertake a mission to Haiti with Senator Sam Nunn, D-GA, and former Joint Chiefs of Staff Chairman Colin Powell.  The team successfully negotiated the departure of Haiti's military leaders and the peaceful entry of U.S. forces under Operation Uphold Democracy, thereby paving the way for the restoration of Jean-Bertrand Aristide as president.  In October 1994, Aristide returned to Haiti to complete his term in office. Aristide disbanded the Haitian army, and established a civilian police force. Aristide vacated the presidency in February 1996, which had been the scheduled end of his 5 year term based on the date of his inauguration. In 1996, René Préval was elected as president for a five-year term, winning 88% of the popular vote. Préval had previously served as Aristide's Prime Minister from February to October 1991. 2000s See also: 2004 Haitian rebellion, Ottawa Initiative, and United Nations Stabilization Mission in Haiti Aristide was re-elected in 2000. His second term was marked by accusations of corruption. In 2004 a paramilitary coup ousted Aristide a second time. (See 2004 Haitian rebellion.) Aristide was removed by U.S. Marines from his home in what he described as a "kidnapping", and was then briefly held by the government of the Central African Republic (to which the U.S. had decided to fly him). Aristide obtained his release and went into exile in South Africa. Boniface Alexandre assumed interim authority. In February 2006, following elections marked by uncertainties and popular demonstrations, René Préval (close to the still-popular Aristide and former president of the Republic of Haiti between 1995 and 2000) was elected president. The United Nations Stabilization Mission in Haiti (also known as MINUSTAH) has been in the country since the 2004 Haiti Rebellion. 2010s 2010 earthquake Main article: 2010 Haiti earthquake On January 12, 2010, at 21:53 UTC, (4:53 pm local time) Haiti was struck by a magnitude-7.0 earthquake, the country's most severe earthquake in over 200 years. The epicenter of the quake was just off the Haitian capital Port-au-Prince. The focus was about 6 miles (10 km) underground, according to the USGS. It has been estimated that the death toll could reach 200,000. Widespread damage resulted from the quake, with a majority of buildings collapsing due to poor structural design and construction. The capital city was devastated. The Presidential Palace was badly damaged, with the second floor entirely collapsing onto the first floor; the Haitan Parliament building and the National Cathedral were also destroyed. Politics Main article: Politics of Haiti See also: Elections in Haiti, National Assembly of Haiti, President of Haiti, and Military of Haiti The government of Haiti is a semi-presidential republic, a pluriform multiparty system wherein the President of Haiti is head of state elected directly by popular elections. The Prime Minister acts as head of government and is appointed by the President, chosen from the majority party in the National Assembly. Executive power is exercised by the President and Prime Minister who together constitute the government. Legislative power is vested in both the government and the two chambers of the National Assembly of Haiti. The government is organized unitarily, thus the central government delegates powers to the departments without a constitutional need for consent. The current structure of Haiti's political system was set forth in the Constitution of Haiti on 29 March 1987. The current president is René Préval. Haitian politics have been contentious. Most Haitians are aware of Haiti's history as the only country in the Western Hemisphere to undergo a successful slave revolution. On the other hand, the long history of oppression by dictators – including François Duvalier and his son Jean-Claude Duvalier – has markedly affected the nation. France and the United States have repeatedly intervened in Haitian politics since the country's founding, sometimes at the request of one party or another. In January 2010, up to 10,000 U.S. troops are to be sent to earthquake-hit Haiti. Cité Soleil, Haiti’s largest slum in the capital of Port-au-Prince, has been called "the most dangerous place on Earth" by the United Nations.  The slum is a stronghold of supporters of former Haitian President Jean-Bertrand Aristide,  who, according to the BBC, "accused the US of forcing him out - an accusation the US rejected as 'absurd'". According to Corruption Perceptions Index, Haiti has a particularly high level of corruption.  Departments, arrondissements, and communes Main article: Departments of Haiti Further information: Arrondissements and communes of Haiti Haiti is divided into ten departments. The departments are listed below, with the departmental capital cities in parentheses. Departments of HaitiArtibonite (Gonaïves) Centre (Hinche) Grand'Anse (Jérémie) Nippes (Miragoâne) Nord (Cap-Haïtien) Nord-Est (Fort-Liberté) Nord-Ouest (Port-de-Paix) Ouest (Port-au-Prince) Sud-Est (Jacmel) Sud (Les Cayes) The departments are further divided into 41 arrondissements, and 133 communes which serve as second- and third-level administrative divisions. Geography Map of HaitiMain article: Geography of Haiti Haiti is situated on the western part of Hispaniola, the second largest island in the Greater Antilles. Haiti is the third largest country in the Caribbean behind Cuba and the Dominican Republic (the latter shares a 360 kilometer (224 mi) border with Haiti). Haiti at its closest point is only about 45 nautical miles (80 km; 50 mi) away from Cuba and has the second longest coastline (1,771 km/1,100 mi) in the Greater Antilles, Cuba having the longest. Haiti's terrain consists mainly of rugged mountains interspersed with small coastal plains and river valleys. The northern region consists of the Massif du Nord (Northern Massif) and the Plaine du Nord (Northern Plain). The Massif du Nord is an extension of the Cordillera Central in the Dominican Republic. It begins at Haiti's eastern border, north of the Guayamouc River, and extends to the northwest through the northern peninsula. The lowlands of the Plaine du Nord lie along the northern border with the Dominican Republic, between the Massif du Nord and the North Atlantic Ocean. The central region consists of two plains and two sets of mountain ranges. The Plateau Central (Central Plateau) extends along both sides of the Guayamouc River, south of the Massif du Nord. It runs from the southeast to the northwest. To the southwest of the Plateau Central are the Montagnes Noires, whose most northwestern part merges with the Massif du Nord. Its westernmost point is known as Cap Carcasse. The southern region consists of the Plaine du Cul-de-Sac (the southeast) and the mountainous southern peninsula (also known as the Tiburon Peninsula). The Plaine du Cul-de-Sac is a natural depression which harbors the country's saline lakes, such as Trou Caïman and Haiti's largest lake, Lac Azuei. The Chaîne de la Selle mountain range – an extension of the southern mountain chain of the Dominican Republic (the Sierra de Baoruco) – extends from the Massif de la Selle in the east to the Massif de la Hotte in the west. This mountain range harbors Pic la Selle, the highest point in Haiti at 2,680 metres (8,793 ft) * Map of Haiti. The country's most important valley in terms of crops is the Plaine de l'Artibonite, which is oriented south of the Montagnes Noires. This region supports the country's (also Hispaniola's) longest river, the Riviere l'Artibonite which begins in the western region of the Dominican Republic and continues most of its length through central Haiti and onward where it empties into the Golfe de la Gonâve. The eastern and central region of the island is a large elevated plateau. Haiti also includes various offshore islands. The historically famous island of Tortuga (Île de la Tortue) is located off the coast of northern Haiti. The arrondissement of La Gonâve is located on the island of the same name, in the Golfe de la Gonâve. Gonâve Island is moderately populated by rural villagers. Île à Vache (Cow Island), a lush island with many beautiful sights, is located off the tip of southwestern Haiti. Also part of Haiti are the Cayemites and Île d' Anacaona. Satellite image depicting the border between Haiti (left) and the Dominican Republic (right), 2002Environment Main articles: Environment of Haiti and Deforestation in Haiti In 1925, Haiti was lush, with 60% of its original forest covering the lands and mountainous regions. Since then, the population has cut down an estimated 98% of its original forest cover for use as fuel for cookstoves, and in the process has destroyed fertile farmland soils, contributing to desertification. In addition to soil erosion, deforestation has caused periodic flooding, as seen on 17 September 2004. Tropical storm Jeanne skimmed the north coast of Haiti, leaving 3,006 people dead in flooding and mudslides, mostly in the city of Gonaïves. Earlier that year in May, floods had killed over 3,000 people on Haiti's southern border with the Dominican Republic. Health Half of the children in Haiti are unvaccinated and just 40% of the population has access to basic health care. Even before the 2010 earthquake, nearly half the causes of deaths have been attributed to HIV/AIDS, respiratory infections, meningitis and diarrheal diseases, including cholera and typhoid, according to the World Health Organization. Ninety percent of Haiti’s children suffer from waterborne diseases and intestinal parasites. Approximately 5% of Haiti's adult population is infected with HIV. Cases of tuberculosis (TB) in Haiti are more than ten times as high as those in other Latin American countries. Some 30,000 people in Haiti suffer each year from malaria. Economy Main article: Economy of Haiti Bas-Ravine, in the northern part of Cap-HaitienBy most economic measures, Haiti is the poorest country in the Americas. It had a nominal GDP of 7.018 billion USD in 2009, with a GDP per capita of 790 USD, about $2 per person per day. It is an impoverished country, one of the world's poorest and least developed. Comparative social and economic indicators show Haiti falling behind other low-income developing countries (particularly in the hemisphere) since the 1980s. Haiti now ranks 149th of 182 countries in the United Nations Human Development Index (2006). About 80% of the population were estimated to be living in poverty in 2003. Most Haitians live on $2 or less per day.  Haiti has 50% illiteracy, and over 80% of college graduates from Haiti have emigrated, mostly to the United States. Cité Soleil is considered one of the worst slums in the Americas, most of its 500,000 residents live in extreme poverty. Poverty has forced at least 225,000 children in Haiti's cities into slavery, working as unpaid household servants. About 66% of all Haitians work in the agricultural sector, which consists mainly of small-scale subsistence farming, but this activity makes up only 30% of the GDP. The country has experienced little formal job-creation over the past decade, although the informal economy is growing. Mangoes and coffee are two of Haiti's most important exports. Haiti's richest 1% own nearly half the country's wealth. Haiti has consistently ranked among the most corrupt countries in the world on the Corruption Perceptions Index. Since the day of "Papa Doc" Duvalier, Haiti's government has been notorious for its corruption. Haitian dictator "Baby Doc" Duvalier, his wife Michelle, and three other people are believed to have taken $504 million from the Haitian public treasury between 1971 and 1986. Foreign aid makes up approximately 30–40% of the national government's budget. The largest donor is the United States – followed by Canada, and the European Union also contributes aid. From 1990 to 2003, Haiti received more than $4 billion in aid. The United States alone had provided Haiti with 1.5 billion in aid.  Venezuela and Cuba also make various contributions to Haiti's economy, especially after alliances were renewed in 2006 and 2007. In January 2010, China promised $4.2 million for the quake-hit island, and President Obama pledged $100 million in US assistance. European Union nations promised more than 400 million euros ($616 million) in emergency aid and reconstruction funds for Haiti. U.S. aid to the Haitian government was completely cut off in 2001–2004 after the 2000 election was disputed and President Aristide was accused of various misdeeds. After Aristide's departure in 2004, aid was restored, and the Brazilian army led the United Nations Stabilization Mission in Haiti peacekeeping operation. Following almost 4 years of recession ending in 2004, the economy grew by 1.5% in 2005. In 2005 Haiti's total external debt reached an estimated US$1.3 billion, which corresponds to a debt per capita of US$169. In September 2009, Haiti met the conditions set out by the IMF and World Bank's Heavily Indebted Poor Countries program to qualify for cancellation of its external debt.  Education Main article: Education in Haiti Of Haiti's 8.7 million inhabitants, the literacy rate of 65.9% is the lowest in the region.[which?] Haiti counts 15,200 primary schools, of which 90% are non-public and managed by the communities, religious organizations or NGOs. The enrollment rate for primary school is 67%, and fewer than 30% reach 6th grade. Secondary schools enroll 20% of eligible-age children. Charity organizations like Food for the Poor and Haitian Health Foundation are currently working on building schools for children as well as providing them necessary school supplies. The educational system of Haiti is based on the French system. Higher education – under the responsibility of the Ministry of Education. is provided by universities and other public and private institutions.  A list of universities in Haiti includes: University of Caraibe (Université Caraïbe) (CUC) University of Haiti (Université d'État d'Haïti) (UEH) University Notre Dame of Haiti (Université Notre Dame d'Haïti) (UNDH) Université Chrétienne du Nord d'Haïti (UCNH) Université Lumière / MEBSH Université Quisqueya (UNIQ) Ecole Supérieure d'Infotronique d'Haïti (ESIH) Université Roi Henri Christophe Université Publique de l'Artibonite aux Gonaïves (UPAG) Université Publique du Nord au Cap-Haïtien (UPNCH) Université Publique du Sud au Cayes (UPSAC) Universite de Fondwa (UNIF) Ecole Le Bon Samaritain Demographics Main article: Demographics of Haiti Population of Haiti (in thousands) from 1961 to 2003Although Haiti averages approximately 360 people per square kilometer (940 per sq mi.), its population is concentrated most heavily in urban areas, coastal plains, and valleys. Haiti's population was about 9.8 million according to UN 2008 estimates, with half of the population being under 20 years. The first formal census, taken in 1950, showed that the population was 3.1 million. Haiti has the highest fertility rate in the Western Hemisphere. 90–95% of Haitians (depending on the source) are of predominately African descent; the remaining 5–10% of the population are mostly of mixed-race background. A small percentage of the non-black population consists primarily of Caucasian/white Haitians; mostly of Arab, Western European (French, German, Polish, Portuguese and Spanish), and Jewish origin. Haitians of Asian descent (mostly of Chinese origin) number approximately 400. Haitians of mixed race live mostly in the wealthier suburbs of the capital, such as Pétionville or Kenscoff. Many were born in the southwestern regions of Haiti, such as: Jacmel, Les Cayes, Cavaillon. During the colonial years there was a higher proportion of Europeans in this area than in the north, which was more isolated, had fewer cities and was devoted to large plantations with extensive populations of enslaved Africans. Some of the white planter fathers ensured the education of their sons (and sometimes daughters), even sending some to school in France. Some of the mixed-race population was therefore able to build more social capital than those in the north of mostly African descent. In addition, the free people of color (les gens du couleur libre) (or mulatto) population had more civil rights than did Africans who were free. By the time of the revolution, there were numerous educated mixed-race men who became part of the leadership of the country. As in most Latin American countries, there is no one-drop rule regarding African ancestry in Haiti. Haitian diaspora Millions of Haitians live abroad, chiefly in North America: the Dominican Republic, United States, Cuba, Canada (primarily Montreal) and Bahamas. They live in other nations like France, French Antilles, the Turks and Caicos, Venezuela and French Guiana. In the United States alone there are an estimated 600,000 Haitians, plus 100,000 in Canada and an estimated 800,000 in the Dominican Republic. The Haitian community in France numbers about 80,000, and up to 80,000 Haitians now live in the Bahamas. A U.N. envoy in October 2007 found racism against blacks in general, and Haitians in particular, to be rampant in every segment of Dominican society. The Obama administration has made Haiti a priority in the hemisphere, reviewing immigration policy. In January 2010, Canadian Prime Minister Stephen Harper announced that Canada will consider fast-tracking immigration to help Haitian earthquake refugees. U.S. Homeland Security Secretary Janet Napolitano announced that the estimated 100,000 to 200,000 Haitians "not legally in the United States" as of January 12, 2010, would be granted a form of asylum called temporary protected status (TPS). Thousands of Haiti earthquake survivors, including Haitian children left orphaned in the aftermath of earthquake, could be relocated to the United States. Senegal is offering parcels of land – even an entire region if they come en masse – to people affected by the earthquake in Haiti. In North America Further information: Haitian American and Haitian Canadian There is a significant Haitian population in South Florida, specifically the Miami enclave of Little Haiti. New Orleans, Louisiana has many historic ties to Haiti that date back to the Haitian Revolution. New York City, especially in Flatbush, East Flatbush and Springfield Gardens, also has a thriving émigré community with the second largest population of Haitians of any state in the nation. There are also large and active Haitian communities in Boston, Spring Valley (New York), New Jersey, Washington D.C., Providence, Rhode Island, Georgia, Connecticut and Pennsylvania. There are also large Haitian communities in Montreal, Quebec, Paris, France, Havana, Cuba and Kingston, Jamaica. Michaëlle Jean, the current Governor General of Canada, was a refugee from Haiti coming to Canada in 1968 at age 11. Languages One of Haiti's two official languages is French, which is the principal written, spoken in schools, and administratively authorized language. It is spoken by most educated Haitians and is used in the business sector. The second is the recently standardized Haitian Creole, which is spoken by virtually the entire population of Haiti. Haitian creole is one of the French-based creole languages, which also contains significant African influence, as well as influence from Spanish and Taíno. Haitian creole is closely related to Louisiana Creole. Spanish is also spoken by a good portion of the population, though it is not an official language. Religion Main article: Religion in Haiti See also: Roman Catholicism in Haiti Haiti is a largely Christian country, with Roman Catholicism professed by 80% of Haitians. Protestants make up about 16% of the population. Haitian Vodou, a New World Afro-diasporic faith unique to the country, is practiced by roughly half the population. Religious practice often spans Haiti and its diaspora as those who have migrated interact through religion with family in Haiti. Culture Main article: Culture of Haiti "Tap tap" bus in Port-SalutHaiti has a long and storied history and therefore retains a very rich culture. Haitian culture is a mixture of primarily French, African elements, and native Taíno, with some lesser influence from the colonial Spanish. The country's customs essentially are a blend of cultural beliefs that derived from the various ethnic groups that inhabited the island of Hispaniola. In nearly all aspects of modern Haitian society however, the European and African elements dominate. Haiti is world famous for its distinctive art, notably painting and sculpture. Music Main article: Music of Haiti The music of Haiti is influenced mostly by European colonial ties and African migration (through slavery). In the case of European colonization, musical influence has derived primarily from the French, however Haitian music has been influenced to a significant extent by its Spanish-speaking neighbors, the Dominican Republic and Cuba, whose Spanish-infused music has contributed much to the country's musical genres as well. Styles of music unique to the nation of Haiti include music derived from vodou ceremonical traditions and the wildly popular Compas. Compas (in French) or Kompa (in Creole) is a complex, ever-changing music that arose from African rhythms and European ballroom dancing, mixed with Haiti's bourgeois culture. It is a refined music, played with an underpinning of tipico, and méringue (related to Dominican merengue) as a basic rhythm. Haiti didn't have any recorded music until 1937 when Jazz Guignard was recorded non-commercially. One of the most popular Haitian artists is Wyclef Jean. His music is somewhat hip-hop mixed with world music. Cuisine Main article: Haitian cuisine The cuisine of Haiti originates from several culinary styles from the various historical ethnic groups that populated the western portion of the island of Hispaniola, namely the French, African, and the Taíno Amerindians. Haitian cuisine is similar to the rest of the Latin-Caribbean (the French and the Spanish-speaking countries of the Antilles) however it differs in several ways from its regional counterparts. Its primary influence derive from French, and African cuisine, with notable derivatives from native Taíno and Spanish culinary technique. Though similar to other cooking styles in the region, it carries a uniqueness native only to the country and an appeal to many visitors to the island. Haitians use vegetables and meats extensively and peppers and similar herbs are often used for strengthening flavor. Dishes tend to be seasoned liberally and consequently Haitian cuisine tends to be moderately spicy, not mild and not too hot. In the country, however, many businesses of foreign origin have been established introducing several foreign cuisines into the mainstream culture. Years of adaptation have led to these cuisines (ie: Levantine from Arab migration to Haiti) to merge into Haitian cuisine. Rice and beans in several differing ways are eaten throughout the country regardless of location, becoming a sort of national dish. They form the staple diet, which consists of a lot of starch and is high in carbohydrates. In the more rural areas, however, at great distances from the major cities, other foods are eaten to a larger degree such as mais moulu; a dish comparable to cornmeal that can be eaten with sauce pois, a bean sauce made from one of many types of beans such as kidney, pinto, or garbanzo beans, or pigeon peas (known in other countries as gandules). Mais Moulu can be eaten with fish (often red snapper), or alone depending on personal preference. Tomato, oregano, cabbage, avocado, red and green peppers are several of the many types of vegetables/fruits that are used in Haitian dishes. Banane Pésée, flattened plantain slices that are fried in soybean oil (known as tostones in the Dominican Republic and Puerto Rico), are eaten frequently in Haiti as both a snack food and as part of a meal. They are frequently eaten with tassot and/or griot, which is deep-fried goat and pork respectively. See also Haiti portal Geography portal Main article: Outline of Haiti Index of Haiti-related articles Wikipedia in Haitian Kreyol Notes ^ "CIA – The World Factbook – Haiti". US Central Intelligence Agency. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ha.html. Retrieved January 13, 2010. ^ Department of Economic and Social Affairs Population Division (2009) (PDF). World Population Prospects, Table A.1. 2008 revision. United Nations. http://www.un.org/esa/population/publications/wpp2008/wpp2008_text_tables.pdf. Retrieved December 3, 2009. ^ a b c d "Haiti". International Monetary Fund. http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/weo/2009/02/weodata/weorept.aspx?sy=2006&ey=2009&scsm=1&ssd=1&sort=country&ds=.&br=1&c=263&s=NGDPD%2CNGDPDPC%2CPPPGDP%2CPPPPC%2CLP&grp=0&a=&pr.x=47&pr.y=12. Retrieved October 1, 2009. ^ "Human Development Report 2009. Human development index trends: Table G". The United Nations. http://hdr.undp.org/en/media/HDR_2009_EN_Complete.pdf. Retrieved October 18, 2009. ^ NewYorkTimes earthquake story ^ Cassá 1995: 126 ^ Wilson 1990: 110 ^ "David A. Koplow, Smallpox: The Fight to Eradicate a Global Scourge". http://www.ucpress.edu/books/pages/9968/9968.ch01.php. Retrieved January 13, 2010. ^ "History of Smallpox – Smallpox Through the Ages" Texas Department of State Health Services Retrieved January 14, 2010 ^ "Laws of Burgos, 1512–1513" Retrieved January 14, 2010 ^ "French Creole". http://www.frenchcreoles.com/CreoleCulture/quadroons/mulattoes,%20mixed%20race,%20creoles.htm. Retrieved January 13, 2010. ^ "Saving New Orleans" Smithsonian magazine, August 2006 ^ "Immigration History of Canada" L’Encyclopédie de l’histoire du Québec / The Quebec History Encyclopedia, Retrieved January 14, 2010 ^ a b c Paul Farmer (April 15, 2004), "Who removed Aristide?", archived from the original on June 6, 2008, http://web.archive.org/web/20080608222428/http://www.lrb.co.uk/v26/n08/farm01_.html, retrieved January 13, 2010 ^ "Decree of the National Convention of 4 February 1794, Abolishing Slavery in all the Colonies" Retrieved January 14, 2010 ^ "Poles in Haiti", The New York Times, March 22, 1987; Retrieved January 14, 2010 ^ "The Haitian Debacle: Yellow Fever and the Fate of the French" Montana State University; Retrieved January 14, 2010 ^ Birth of a Nation / "Has the bloody 200-year history of Haiti doomed it to more violence?", San Francisco Chronicle, May 30, 2004 ^ Pachonski, "Book Review", Poland's Caribbean Tragedy: A Study of Polish Legions in the Haitian War of Independence 1802–1803, Webster University ^ a b "A Brief History of Dessalines from 1825 Missionary Journal", Webster University ^ Blackpast.com "Haitian Revolution 1791–1804" ^ "From Saint-Domingue to Louisiana". The African-American Migration Experience. ^ "In Congo Square: Colonial New Orleans", The Nation, December 10, 2008 ^ "Haitians", University of Louisiana ^ Constitution of Haity sic New-York Evening Post July 15 1805 ^ Independent Haiti Library of Congress Country Studies ^ Sagás, Ernesto (October 14, 1994). "An apparent contradiction? Popular perceptions of Haiti and the foreign policy of the Dominican Republic". Sixth Annual Conference of the Haitian Studies Association. http://haitiforever.com/windowsonhaiti/esagas2.shtml. Retrieved August 19, 2007. ^ "Dominican Republic – History Dominican Republic", Encyclopædia Britannica ^ "1820 -- 1843: The rule of Jean-Pierre Boyer", Webster University ^ US Gazette, Philadelphia, 1824, from Girard Alphonse Firire, Ph.D., "HAITI AND ITS DIASPORA: NEW HISTORICAL, CULTURAL AND ECONOMIC FRONTIERS", 27 August 1999, accessed 15 January 2010 ^ "Haiti Starts Over, Once Again", NPR: National Public Radio. ^ a b Paul Farmer, The Uses of Haiti (Common Courage Press: 1994) ^ a b c d e f Paul Farmer, Aids and accusation: Haiti and the geography of blame 2006 California University Press ISBN 9780520248397, pp. 180-181 ^ Wucker, Michele. "Why the Cocks Fight: Dominicans, Haitians and the Struggle for Hispaniola". Windows on Haiti. http://www.ling.upenn.edu/courses/Fall_2003/ling001/wucker.html. Retrieved December 26, 2007. ^ "François Duvalier (president of Haiti)" Encyclopædia Britannica ^ a b US Embassy to Haiti website Retrieved January 13, 2010 ^ a b c The Carter Center, "Activities by Country: Haiti", http://www.cartercenter.org/countries/haiti.html, retrieved July 17, 2008 ^ MISSION TO HAITI: THE SCENE; For Aristide's Followers, Every Step Is a Dance, Every Cheer a Song NYTimes.com ^ "Magnitude 7.0 – Haiti Region". http://earthquake.usgs.gov/earthquakes/eqinthenews/2010/us2010rja6/. Retrieved January 12, 2010. ^ "Major earthquake off Haiti causes hospital to collapse – Telegraph". telegraph.co.uk. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/centralamericaandthecaribbean/haiti/6977308/Major-earthquake-off-Haiti-causes-hospital-to-collapse.html. Retrieved January 12, 2010. ^ "Haiti says 200,000 may be dead, violence breaks out - Reuters". reuters.com. http://www.reuters.com/article/idUSTRE66B5IZ20100115. 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"The Madonna of 115th St. Revisited: Vodou and Haitian Catholicism in the Age of Transnationalism." In S. Warner, ed., Gatherings in Diaspora Philadelphia: Temple University Press References Cassá, Roberto. 1995. Los indios de las Antillas. Madrid: MAPFRE. Series: Pueblos y lenguas indígenas, 10. Wilson, Samuel M. 1990. Hispaniola: Caribbean chiefdoms in the age of Columbus. Univ. of Alabama Press. Further reading Paul Butel. Histoire des Antilles Françaises XVIIe – XXe siècle, Perrin 2002 ISBN 978-2-2620154-0-6 Noam Chomsky. U.S. & Haiti. Z magazine, April 2004 Accessed 2008-05-07. Edwidge Danticat. "Breath, Eyes, Memory" & "Krik? Krak!" as well as many other books. 1994–present. Wade Davis The Serpent and The Rainbow. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1985 Michael Deibert. Notes from the Last Testament: The Struggle for Haiti. Seven Stories Press, New York, 2005. ISBN 1583226974. Jared Diamond. 2005. Collapse: How Societies Choose to Fail or Succeed. New York: Viking. ISBN 0-670-03337-5. Paul Farmer. Pathologies of Power: Health, Human Rights, and the New War on the Poor. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2003, 2005 edition. ISBN 978-0-520-24326-2. Paul Farmer. The uses of Haiti. Monroe, Maine: Common Courage Press 2003. ISBN 1-56751-242-9 Carolyn E. Fick. The Making of Haiti: The Saint Domingue Revolution from Below. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press. first ed edition (1 February 1990). ISBN 0870496670, ISBN 978-0870496677 Robert Debs Heinl and Nancy Gordon Heinl. Written in Blood: The Story of the Haitian People 1492–1995. Lanham, MD: University Press of America, 1996. ISBN 0761831770 C. L. R. James. The Black Jacobins: Toussaint L’Ouverture and the San Domingo Revolution. Vintage, 1938. ISBN 0-679-72467-2. J. Christopher Kovats-Bernat. Sleeping Rough in Port-au-Prince: An Ethnography of Violence and Street Children in Haiti. University Press of Florida, 2006. ISBN 0-8130-3009-9 Mark Kurlansky. A Continent of Islands: Searching for the Caribbean Destiny. Addison-Wesley Publishing, 1992. ISBN 0-201-52396-5. Elizabeth McAlister. Rara! Vodou, Power, and Performance in Haiti and its Diaspora. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2002. ISBN 0-520-22823-5. Melinda Miles and Eugenia Charles, eds. Let Haiti Live: Unjust U.S. Policies Toward Its Oldest Neighbor. 2004. Jack Claude Nezat. The Nezat And Allied Families 1630–2007 Lulu 2007 ISBN 978-2-9528339-2-9, ISBN 978-0-6151-5001-7 Randall Robinson. An Unbroken Agony: Haiti, from Revolution to the Kidnapping of a President. New York: Perseus Books Group, 2007. ISBN 0465070507. Martin Ros. Night of Fire – The Black Napoleon and the Battle for Haiti. New York: DaCapo Press, 1993. ISBN 0-9627613-8-9 External links Find more about Haiti on Wikipedia's sister projects: Definitions from Wiktionary Textbooks from Wikibooks Quotations from Wikiquote Source texts from Wikisource Images and media from Commons News stories from Wikinews Learning resources from Wikiversity Government Republic of Haiti Ministry of Foreign Affairs official website General information Haiti at Encyclopaedia Britannica Haiti entry at The World Factbook Haiti at UCB Libraries GovPubs A Country Study: Haiti from the U.S. Library of Congress (December 1989) Haiti at the Open Directory Project Wikimedia Atlas of Haiti Maps Map of Haiti from Elahmad.com Collection of maps from the Perry-Castañeda Library at the University of Texas Map of Haiti from the United Nations Maps of Haiti from the US Army Corps of Engineers, Army Geospatial Center, including geology, hydrology, geography and trafficability News media Le Nouvelliste major newspaper in Haiti (French) Travel Haiti travel guide from Wikitravel Other United Nations Stabilization Mission in Haiti (MINUSTAH) Stabilization and Reconstruction Task Force (START), Government of Canada Updates on nation rebuilding status in Haiti Canadian Reconstruction and Development in Haiti VOA kreyol The place to share Haiti News, chat, economic ideas, music, and haitian movies. Haiti: Current events, news, politics, nonprofit International Action: Fighting the Water Crisis in Haiti The CRUDEM Foundation and Hôpital Sacré Coeur: Providing quality health care in northern Haiti Hope for Haiti: Education and grassroots development in rural Haiti Search engine for the.ht tld (in french) Official website of The National Telecommunications Council, Conatel (in French) National Archives of Haiti materials in the Digital Library of the Caribbean Haiti List Video of Haiti Page The Carter Center information on Haiti Voodoo Democracy: Toussaint L'Ouverture and Democracy in Haiti Reiser Relief serving the poorest of the poor in Haiti MPAH Motion Picture Association of Haiti WWDS Win Win Distribution System (Movie Distribution) Movie Lakay Information about Haitian movies [show] Geographic locale [show]v • d • eDepartments of Haiti Artibonite · Centre · Grand'Anse · Nippes · Nord · Nord-Est · Nord-Ouest · Ouest · Sud · Sud-Est [hide]v • d • eCountries and territories of the Caribbean [show] Sovereign states Commonwealth Realms Antigua and Barbuda · Bahamas · Barbados · Grenada · Jamaica · St. Kitts and Nevis · St Lucia · St. Vincent and the Grenadines Commonwealth republics Dominica · Trinidad and Tobago Other republics Cuba · Dominican Republic · Haiti [show] Dependencies and other areas by parent state United Kingdom Anguilla · Bermuda · British Virgin Islands · Cayman Islands · Montserrat · Turks and Caicos Islands Netherlands Aruba · Netherlands Antilles (Bonaire · Curaçao · Saba · Sint Maarten · Sint Eustatius) France Guadeloupe · Martinique · St. Barthélemy · St. Martin United States Navassa Island · Puerto Rico · U.S. Virgin Islands [show]v • d • eCountries and dependencies of North America Several nations listed here straddle both North and South America or can also be considered Caribbean. Sovereign states Antigua and Barbuda · Bahamas · Barbados · Belize · Canada · Costa Rica · Cuba · Dominica · Dominican Republic · El Salvador · France (Guadeloupe · Martinique) · Grenada · Guatemala · Haiti · Honduras · Jamaica · Mexico · Nicaragua · Panama · St. Kitts and Nevis · St. Lucia · St. Vincent and the Grenadines · Trinidad and Tobago · United States Dependencies Denmark Greenland France Saint Barthélemy · Saint Martin · Saint Pierre and Miquelon · Clipperton Netherlands Aruba · Netherlands Antilles United Kingdom Anguilla · Bermuda · British Virgin Islands · Cayman Islands · Montserrat · Turks and Caicos Islands United States Navassa Island · Puerto Rico · U.S. Virgin Islands [show] International membership [show]v • d • eOrganization of American States (OAS) Antigua and Barbuda · Argentina · Barbados • Brazil • Belize • Bahamas · Bolivia · Costa Rica · Cuba · Canada • Dominica · Dominican Republic · Ecuador · El Salvador · Grenada · Guatemala · Guyana · Haiti · Honduras · Jamaica · Mexico · Nicaragua · Panama · Paraguay · Peru · St. Lucia · St. Vincent and the Grenadines · St. Kitts and Nevis · Suriname · Trinidad and Tobago · United States · Uruguay · Venezuela [show]v • d • eLatin Union Member Nations Andorra · Angola · Bolivia · Brazil · Cape Verde · Chile · Colombia · Costa Rica · Côte d'Ivoire · Cuba · Dominican Republic · East Timor · Ecuador · El Salvador · France · Guatemala · Guinea-Bissau · Haiti · Honduras · Italy · Mexico · Moldova · Monaco · Mozambique · Nicaragua · Panama · Paraguay · Peru · Philippines · Portugal · Romania · San Marino · São Tomé and Príncipe · Senegal · Spain · Uruguay · Venezuela Permanent Observers Argentina · Holy See · Sovereign Military Order of Malta Official languages Catalan · French · Italian · Portuguese · Romanian · Spanish [show]v • d • eMember states and observers of the Francophonie Members Albania · Andorra · Armenia · Belgium (French Community) · Benin · Bulgaria · Burkina Faso · Burundi · Cambodia · Cameroon · Canada (New Brunswick • Quebec) · Cape Verde · Central African Republic · Chad · Comoros · Cyprus1 · Democratic Republic of the Congo · Republic of the Congo · Côte d'Ivoire · Djibouti · Dominica · Egypt · Equatorial Guinea · France (French Guiana • Guadeloupe • Martinique • St. Pierre and Miquelon) · Gabon · Ghana1 · Greece · Guinea · Guinea-Bissau · Haiti · Laos · Luxembourg · Lebanon · Macedonia2 · Madagascar · Mali · Mauritania · Mauritius · Moldova · Monaco · Morocco · Niger · Romania · Rwanda · St. Lucia · São Tomé and Príncipe · Senegal · Seychelles · Switzerland · Togo · Tunisia · Vanuatu · Vietnam Observers Austria · Croatia · Czech Republic · Georgia · Hungary · Latvia · Lithuania · Mozambique · Poland · Serbia · Slovakia · Slovenia · Thailand · Ukraine 1 Associate member. 2 Provisionally referred to by the Francophonie as the "former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia"; see Macedonia naming dispute. [show]v • d • eCaribbean Community (CARICOM) Members Antigua and Barbuda · Bahamas1 · Barbados · Belize · Dominica · Grenada · Guyana · Haiti1 · Jamaica · Montserrat2 · St. Kitts and Nevis · St. Lucia · St. Vincent and the Grenadines · Suriname · Trinidad and Tobago Associate members Anguilla · Bermuda · Cayman Islands · British Virgin Islands · Turks and Caicos Islands Observers Aruba · Colombia · Dominican Republic · Mexico · Netherlands Antilles · Puerto Rico · Venezuela 1 Member of the Community but not of the CARICOM Single Market and Economy (CSME). 2 British overseas territory awaiting entrustment to join the CSME. Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haiti" Categories: Haiti | Caribbean countries | CARICOM members | French-speaking countries | Island countries | Latin America | Least Developed Countries | Member states of La Francophonie | Republics | States and territories established in 1804 | History of Haiti
227's YouTube "Chili" - STOMP THE YARD (BLACK COLLEGE STEP SHOW MOVIE) Starring Columbus Short, Meagan Good, Ne-Yo, Darrin Henson, Chris Brown, Brian White, Las Alonso, Valerie Pettiford & Harry Lennix (NBA Mix)!
Beyonce * Maxwell * Mario ft. Gucci Mane & sean Garrett * Drake ft. Lil Wayne * Ginuwine * Fabolous Featuring The-Dream * Keyshia Cole Duet With Monica * Jay-Z, Rihanna & Kanye West * Gucci Mane Featuring Plies * Mary Mary Featuring Kierra "KiKi" Sheard * Ice Cream Paint Job * Pleasure P * Mariah Carey * Trey Songz * Trey Songz Featuring Gucci Mane & Soulja Boy Tell'em * R. Kelly Featuring Keri Hilson * K'Jon * Young Money * Twista Featuring Erika Shevon * Yo Gotti * New Boyz * Jeremih * Keri Hilson Featuring Kanye West & Ne-Yo * Musiq Soulchild * Whitney Houston * Anthony Hamilton * Charlie Wilson * Chrisette Michele * Jamie Foxx Featuring T-Pain * Plies * LeToya Featuring Ludacris * Mary J. Blige Featuring Drake * Mullage * Charlie Wilson * Jamie Foxx Featuring Drake, Kanye West + The-Dream * Jamie Foxx Featuring Drake, Kanye West + The-Dream * Jeremih * Mishon * Jennifer Hudson * Clipse Featuring Pharrell Williams * Kid Cudi Featuring Kanye West & Common * Raphael Saadiq Featuring Stevie Wonder & CJ * Anthony Hamilton Featuring David Banner * Jazmine Sullivan * Trey Songz Featuring Drake * F.L.Y. (Fast Life Yungstaz) * Laura Izibor
Jamaal Al-Din's Hoops 227 (227's YouTube Chili")!
Beyonce * Shakira * Jordin Sparks * Mariah Carey * New Boyz * Jason DeRulo * Mario ft. Gucci Mane & Sean Garrett * Katy Perry * The Black Eyed Peas * Colby Caillat * Fabolous ft. The Dream * Jason Aldean * Daughtry * Lady Gaga * Michael Franti & Spearhead Featuring Cherine Anderson * Boys Like Girls * Flo Rida Featuring Ne-Yo * Dorrough * Green Day * Linkin Park * Pink * Justin Bieber * Rob Thomas * Maxwell * Jason Mraz * Young Money * The Fray * Rascal Flatts * Zac Brown Band * Shinedown * Disney's Friends For Change * Toby Keith * Darius Rucker * Cascada * Billy Currington * Justin Moore * Kid Cudi Featuring Kanye West & Common * Keith Urban * Randy Houser * Drake Featuring Lil Wayne * Jeremih * Pearl Jam * Kelly Clarkson * George Strait * LMFAO * Twista Featuring Erika Shevon * Uncle Kracker * Eric Church * Jack Ingram * Love And Theft * Parachute * Chris Young * Theory Of A Deadman * Tim McGraw * Sean Paul * Gloriana * Creed * Ginuwine * Keyshia Cole Duet With Monica * Blake Shelton * Iyaz
2009 NCAA Basketball Tournament! List of NCAA Division 1 Teams & Coaches at 227!
America East Conference Albany - Will Brown Binghamton - Kevin Broadus Boston University - Dennis Wolff Hartford - Dan Leibovitz Maine - Ted Woodward New Hampshire - Bill Herrion Stony Brook - Steve Pikiell UMBC - Randy Monroe Vermont - Mike Lonergan 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! America East Conference
Atlantic 10 Conference Charlotte - Bobby Lutz Dayton - Brian Gregory Duquesne - Ron Everhart Fordham - Dereck Whittenburg George Washington - Karl Hobbs La Salle - John Giannini Rhode Island - Jim Baron Richmond - Chris Mooney St. Bonaventure - Mark Schmidt Saint Joseph's - Phil Martelli Saint Louis - Rick Majerus Temple - Fran Dunphy UMass - Derek Kellogg Xavier - Sean Miller 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Atlantic 10 Conference
Atlantic Coast Conference Boston College - Al Skinner Clemson - Oliver Purnell Duke - Mike Krzyzewski Florida State - Leonard Hamilton Georgia Tech - Paul Hewitt Maryland - Gary Williams Miami (Florida) - Frank Haith North Carolina - Roy Williams North Carolina State - Sidney Lowe Virginia - Dave Leitao Virginia Tech - Seth Greenberg Wake Forest - Dino Gaudio 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Atlantic Coast Conference
Atlantic Sun Conference Belmont - Rick Byrd Campbell - Robbie Laing East Tennessee State - Murry Bartow Florida Gulf Coast - Dave Balza Jacksonville - Cliff Warren Kennesaw State - Tony Ingle Lipscomb - Scott Sanderson Mercer - Bob Hoffman North Florida - Matt Kilcullen Stetson - Derek Waugh USC Upstate - Eddie Payne 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Atlantic Sun Conference
Big 12 Conference Baylor - Scott Drew Colorado - Jeff Bzdelik Iowa State - Greg McDermott Kansas - Bill Self Kansas State - Frank Martin Missouri - Mike Anderson Nebraska - Doc Sadler Oklahoma - Jeff Capel III Oklahoma State - Travis Ford Texas - Rick Barnes Texas A&M - Mark Turgeon Texas Tech - Pat Knight 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Big 12 Conference
Big East Conference Cincinnati - Mick Cronin Connecticut - Jim Calhoun DePaul - Jerry Wainwright Georgetown - John Thompson III Louisville - Rick Pitino Marquette - Buzz Williams Notre Dame - Mike Brey Pittsburgh - Jamie Dixon Providence - Keno Davis Rutgers - Fred Hill St. John's - Norm Roberts Seton Hall - Bobby Gonzalez South Florida - Stan Heath Syracuse - Jim Boeheim Villanova - Jay Wright West Virginia - Bobby Huggins 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Big East Conference
Big Sky Conference Eastern Washington - Kirk Earlywine Idaho State - Joe O'Brien Montana - Wayne Tinkle Montana State - Brad Huse Northern Arizona - Mike Adras Northern Colorado - Tad Boyle Portland State - Ken Bone Sacramento State - Brian Katz Weber State - Randy Rahe 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Big Sky Conference
Big South Conference Charleston Southern - Barclay Radebaugh Coastal Carolina - Cliff Ellis Gardner-Webb - Rick Scruggs High Point - Bart Lundy Liberty - Ritchie McKay Presbyterian - Gregg Nibert Radford - Brad Greenberg UNC-Asheville - Eddie Biedenbach VMI - Duggar Baucom Winthrop - Randy Peele 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Big South Conference
Big Ten Conference Illinois - Bruce Weber Indiana - Tom Crean Iowa - Todd Lickliter Michigan - John Beilein Michigan State - Tom Izzo Minnesota - Tubby Smith Northwestern - Bill Carmody Ohio State - Thad Matta Penn State - Ed DeChellis Purdue - Matt Painter Wisconsin - Bo Ryan 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Big Ten Conference
Big West Conference Cal Poly - Kevin Bromley Cal State Fullerton - Bob Burton Cal State Northridge - Bobby Braswell Long Beach State - Dan Monson Pacific - Bob Thomason UC Davis - Gary Stewart UC Irvine - Pat Douglass UC Riverside - Jim Wooldridge UC Santa Barbara - Bob Williams 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Big West Conference
Colonial Athletic Association Delaware - Monte Ross Drexel - Bruiser Flint George Mason - Jim Larranaga Georgia State - Rod Barnes Hofstra - Tom Pecora James Madison - Matt Brady Northeastern - Bill Coen Old Dominion - Blaine Taylor Towson - Pat Kennedy UNC-Wilmington - Benny Moss Virginia Commonwealth - Anthony Grant William & Mary - Tony Shaver 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Colonial Athletic Association
Conference USA East Carolina - Mack McCarthy Houston - Tom Penders Marshall - Donnie Jones Memphis - John Calipari Rice - Ben Braun Southern Methodist - Matt Doherty Southern Mississippi - Larry Eustachy Tulane - Dave Dickerson Tulsa - Doug Wojcik UAB - Mike Davis UCF - Kirk Speraw UTEP - Tony Barbee 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Conference USA
Horizon League - Butler - Brad Stevens Cleveland State - Gary Waters Detroit - Ray McCallum Loyola (Chicago) - Jim Whitesell UIC - Jimmy Collins UW-Green Bay - Tod Kowalczyk UW-Milwaukee - Rob Jeter Valparaiso - Homer Drew Wright State - Brad Brownell Youngstown State - Jerry Slocum 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Horizon League
Independents Bryant - Tim O'Shea Cal State Bakersfield - Keith Brown Chicago State - Benjy Taylor Houston Baptist - Ron Cottrell Longwood - Mike Gillian New Jersey Institute of Technology - Jim Engles North Carolina Central - Henry Dickerson Savannah State - Horace Broadnax SIU-Edwardsville - Lennox Forrester Texas-Pan American - Tom Schuberth Utah Valley - Dick Hunsaker 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! NCAA Division I independent schools (basketball)
Ivy League Brown - Jesse Agel Columbia - Joe Jones Cornell - Steve Donahue Dartmouth - Terry Dunn Harvard - Tommy Amaker Penn - Glen Miller Princeton - Sydney Johnson Yale - James Jones 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Ivy League
Metro Atlantic Athletic Conference Canisius - Tom Parrotta Fairfield - Ed Cooley Iona - Kevin Willard Loyola (Maryland) - Jimmy Patsos Manhattan - Barry Rohrssen Marist - Chuck Martin Niagara - Joe Mihalich Rider - Tommy Dempsey St. Peter's - John Dunne Siena - Fran McCaffery 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Mid-American Conference
Mid-American Conference Akron – Keith Dambrot Ball State – Billy Taylor Bowling Green – Louis Orr Buffalo – Reggie Witherspoon Central Michigan – Ernie Ziegler Eastern Michigan – Charles Ramsey Kent State – Geno Ford Miami – Charlie Coles Northern Illinois – Ricardo Patton Ohio – John Groce Toledo – Gene Cross Western Michigan – Steve Hawkins 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Mid-American Conference
Mid-Eastern Athletic Conference Bethune-Cookman - Clifford Reed Coppin State - Ron Mitchell Delaware State - Greg Jackson Florida A&M - Mike Gillespie Hampton - Kevin Nickelberry Howard - Gil Jackson Maryland-Eastern Shore - Meredith Smith Morgan State - Todd Bozeman Norfolk State - Anthony Evans North Carolina A&T - Jerry Eaves South Carolina State - Tim Carter Winston-Salem State - Bobby Collins 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Mid-Eastern Athletic Conference
Missouri Valley Conference Bradley - Jim Les Creighton - Dana Altman Drake - Mark Phelps Evansville - Marty Simmons Illinois State - Tim Jankovich Indiana State - Kevin McKenna Missouri State - Cuonzo Martin Northern Iowa - Ben Jacobson Southern Illinois - Chris Lowery Wichita State - Gregg Marshall 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Missouri Valley Conference
Mountain West Conference Air Force - Jeff Reynolds Brigham Young - Dave Rose Colorado State - Tim Miles New Mexico - Steve Alford San Diego State - Steve Fisher Texas Christian - Neil Dougherty UNLV - Lon Kruger Utah - Jim Boylen Wyoming - Heath Schroyer 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Mountain West Conference
Northeast Conference Central Connecticut State - Howie Dickenman Fairleigh Dickinson - Tom Green LIU-Brooklyn - Jim Ferry Monmouth - Dave Calloway Mount St. Mary's - Milan Brown Quinnipiac - Tom Moore Robert Morris - Mike Rice Jr. Sacred Heart - Dave Bike St. Francis (PA) - Don Friday St. Francis (NY) - Brian Nash Wagner - Mike Deane 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Northeast Conference
Ohio Valley Conference Austin Peay - Dave Loos Eastern Illinois - Mike Miller Eastern Kentucky - Jeff Neubauer Jacksonville State - James Green Morehead State - Donnie Tyndall Murray State - Billy Kennedy Southeast Missouri - Zac Roman Tennessee-Martin - Bret Campbell Tennessee State - Cy Alexander Tennessee Tech - Mike Sutton 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Ohio Valley Conference
Pacific-10 Conference Arizona - Russ Pennell Arizona State - Herb Sendek California - Mike Montgomery Oregon - Ernie Kent Oregon State - Craig Robinson Stanford - Johnny Dawkins UCLA - Ben Howland USC - Tim Floyd Washington - Lorenzo Romar Washington State - Tony Bennett 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Pacific-10 Conference
Patriot League American - Jeff Jones Army - Jim Crews Bucknell - Dave Paulsen Colgate - Emmett Davis Holy Cross - Ralph Willard Lafayette - Fran O'Hanlon Lehigh - Brett Reed Navy - Billy Lange 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Patriot League
Southeastern Conference Alabama - Philip Pearson Arkansas - John Pelphrey Auburn - Jeff Lebo Florida - Billy Donovan Georgia - Pete Herrmann Kentucky - Billy Gillispie LSU - Trent Johnson Mississippi - Andy Kennedy Mississippi State - Rick Stansbury South Carolina - Darrin Horn Tennessee - Bruce Pearl Vanderbilt - Kevin Stallings 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Southeastern Conference
Southern Conference Appalachian State - Houston Fancher Chattanooga - John Shulman The Citadel - Ed Conroy College of Charleston - Bobby Cremins Davidson - Bob McKillop Elon - Ernie Nestor Furman - Jeff Jackson Georgia Southern - Jeff Price Samford - Jimmy Tillette UNC-Greensboro - Mike Dement Western Carolina - Larry Hunter Wofford - Mike Young 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Southern Conference
Southland Conference Central Arkansas - Rand Chappell Lamar - Steve Roccaforte McNeese State - Dave Simmons Nicholls State - J. P. Piper Northwestern State - Mike McConathy Sam Houston State - Bob Marlin Southeastern Louisiana - Jim Yarbrough Stephen F. Austin - Danny Kaspar Texas A&M-Corpus Christi - Perry Clark Texas-Arlington - Scott Cross Texas-San Antonio - Brooks Thompson Texas State - Doug Davalos 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Southland Conference
Southwestern Athletic Conference Alabama A&M - L. Vann Pettaway Alabama State - Lewis Jackson Alcorn State - Samuel West Arkansas-Pine Bluff - George Ivory Grambling State - Larry Wright Jackson State - Tevester Anderson Mississippi Valley State - Sean Woods Prairie View A&M - Byron Rimm II Southern - Rob Spivery Texas Southern - Tony Harvey 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Southwestern Athletic Conference
The Summit League Centenary - Greg Gary IPFW - Dane Fife IUPUI - Ron Hunter North Dakota State - Saul Phillips Oakland - Greg Kampe Oral Roberts - Scott Sutton South Dakota State - Scott Nagy Southern Utah - Roger Reid UMKC - Matt Brown Western Illinois - Derek Thomas 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! The Summit League
Sun Belt Conference Arkansas-Little Rock - Steve Shields Arkansas State - Dickey Nutt Denver - Joe Scott Florida Atlantic - Mike Jarvis Florida International - Sergio Rouco Louisiana-Lafayette - Robert Lee Louisiana-Monroe - Orlando Early Middle Tennessee - Kermit Davis New Orleans - Joe Pasternack North Texas - Johnny Jones South Alabama - Ronnie Arrow Troy - Don Maestri Western Kentucky - Ken McDonald 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Sun Belt Conference
West Coast Conference Gonzaga - Mark Few Loyola Marymount - Rodney Tention Pepperdine - Vance Walberg Portland - Eric Reveno Saint Mary's - Randy Bennett San Diego - Bill Grier San Francisco - Rex Walters Santa Clara - Kerry Keating 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! West Coast Conference
Western Athletic Conference Boise State - Greg Graham Fresno State - Steve Cleveland Hawai?i - Bob Nash Idaho - Don Verlin Louisiana Tech - Kerry Rupp Nevada - Mark Fox New Mexico State - Marvin Menzies San Jose State - George Nessman Utah State - Stew Morrill 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Western Athletic Conference
2Pac 50 Cent A Adam Tensta Akon Aaliyah Ashanti Andre 3000 B Bow Wow Bobby Valentino Beyonce Bone Thugs n Harmony Birdman (rapper) Busta Rhymes Bobby Fischer C Chris Brown Cherish Cassidy Chingy Chamillionaire Christina Milian Chrisette Michele Cashis Ciara Cypress Hill Calzone Mafia Cuban Link D Destiny's Child DJ Clue Demetri Montaque Danity Kane Day 26 Donnie D12 DJ Khaled Dr. Dre E E-40 Eminem Eazy-E F Fabolous Flo Rida Fat Joe Frankie J G G-Unit The Game H Hurricane Chris I Ice Cube J Jay-Z J.R. Rotem J Holiday Jordan Sparks K Kanye West Kelly Rowland keri hilson The Kreators L Lil' Kim Lil' Mo Lil Jon Lil Mama Lloyd Banks Lil Wayne Ludacris Lloyd Lil Mama Lil Eazy-E Leona lewis M MC Hammer Mike Shorey MF Doom Mariah Carey Mario Mary J. Blige N Ne-Yo Nate Dogg Niia N.W.A. Notorious B.I.G. Nas Nick Cannon Nelly Necro O Olivia Omarion Obie Trice Old Dirty Bastard P Public Enemy Plies P Diddy pink Pharcyde Q R Red Cafe Run DMC Ray J R Kelly Rihanna Rick Ross (rapper) S Sean Combs Sean Kingston Snoop Dogg Stargate Sean Garrett Suge Knight Soulja Boy Tell 'Em Stat Quo shakira T The Notorious B.I.G. Tupac Shakur Trina Tyrese T-Pain Three 6 Mafia T.I. Too Phat U Usher V V.I.C. W Warren G Wyclef Jean Wu Tang Clan will.i.am X Xzibit Y Young Jeezy Yung Berg Z
Michael Jackson Bing Crosby U.S. The Beatles AC/DC ABBA Alla Bee Gees Bob Marley Celine Dion Cliff Richard The Drifters Elton John Herbert von Karajan Julio Iglesias Led Zeppelin Madonna Mariah Carey Elvis Presley Nana Mouskouri Pink Floyd The Rolling Stones Tino Rossi Wei Wei
Adriano Celentano Aerosmith Backstreet Boys Barry White Billy Joel Bon Jovi Boney M. The Carpenters Charles Aznavour Cher Chicago Dave Clark Five David Bowie Deep Purple Depeche Mode Dire Straits Dolly Parton The Eagles Electric Engelbert Humperdinck Fats Domino Fleetwood Mac The Four Seasons Frank Sinatra Garth Brooks Genesis George Michael Guns N' Roses James Last The Jackson 5 Janet Jackson Johnny Hallyday Kenny Rogers Lionel Richie Luciano Pavarotti Metallica Michiya Mihashi Mireille Mathieu Modern Talking Neil Diamond Olivia Newton-John Patti Page Paul McCartney Perry Como Pet Shop Boys Phil Collins Prince Queen Ricky Nelson Roberto Carlos Rod Stewart Salvatore Adamo Status Quo Stevie Wonder Teresa Teng Tina Turner Tom Jones U2 Valeriya The Ventures Whitney Houston The Who
Annie Lennox B'z Britney Spears Carlos Santana Dalida Earth, Wind & Fire Eddy Arnold Eminem Eurythmics Gloria Estefan Hibari Misora Journey Scorpions Van Halen Ace of Base Alan Jackson Country Alice Cooper Hard rock Andrea Bocelli Opera The Andrews Sisters Swing Ayumi Hamasaki Pop Black Sabbath Heavy metal Barbra Streisand Pop / Adult contemporary Beach Boys Rock Pop Bob Dylan Folk / Rock Bob Seger Rock Boston Arena rock Boyz II Men R&B Bruce Springsteen Rock Bryan Adams Def Leppard Destiny's Child R&B / Pop Dreams Come True Pop / Jazz Duran Duran Enya Ireland Four Tops George Strait Glay Iron Maiden Jay-Z Hip hop Jean Michel Jarre Jethro Tull Johnny Cash Kazuhiro Moriuchi Kiss Hard rock Kenny G Kylie Minogue Luis Miguel Linkin Park Meat Loaf Michael Bolton Mills Brothers Mötley Crüe Mr.Children Nat King Cole New Kids on the Block Nirvana 'N Sync Oasis Orhan Gencebay Pearl Jam Petula Clark Red Hot Chili Peppers The Police Ray Conniff Reba McEntire R.E.M. Richard Clayderman Ricky Martin Robbie Williams Roxette Sweden Shakira Colombia
The Seekers Australia Spice Girls Tom Petty & The Heartbreakers Tony Bennett T.Rex UB40 Vicente Fernandez Village People Willie Nelson
Jamaal Al-Din, a native of Grand Rapids, Michigan and former leading scorer of Olympic Basketball and LSU great, Ed Palubinskas brings to you Michigan State University's and the NBA's Earvin "Magic" Johnson at 227's YouTube "MAGIC!" provided by Jamaal Al-Din's Hoops 227-the everything basketball website, featuring YouTube Videos and Wikipedia information on the legendary Earvin "Magic" Johnson, The Magic Johnson Foundation, Magic Johnson Enterprises, and everything including the magical phrase..."MAGIC!" 227's YouTube "MAGIC!"
As we look to expand basketball marketing, camps and clinics nationally, our basketball affiliate programs are scheduled to begin in March of 2008. Our affiliates, exciting, take a look at this list: ebay, StubHub.com, Yahoo Affiliate Program!, TickCo Premium Seating, RazorGator Affiliate Program, SightSell, VistaPrint.com, Pokeorder and WeHaveSeats.com. Jamaal Al-Din's Hoops 227 welcomes our affiliate partners for 2008. Among the items offered our NCAA & NBA basketball tickets both premium and discounted rates. Basketball shoes and apparel for kids, fans, players and coaches ranging from Air Jordans, LeBron James, NIKE, Adidas, AND1, hats, collectibles and memoralbilia! Jamaal Al-Din's Hoops 227- The everything basketball website!
?227's YouTube "Chili" features these exciting YouTube music and entertainment celebrities...click onto to these 227 YouTube "Chili" links, channels and articles for the most watched YouTube hip-hop music videos in the world!
Sean Kingston, Justin Timberlake, M.I.A'"Paper Planes!" , Timbaland, 50 Cent, P-Diddy, Kanye West. Rihanna, Chris Brown, T.I.-"Big Things Poppin!" , Rihanna- Hate That I Love You (over 29 million views on YouTube)!, Leona Lewis, Soulja Boy, Britney Spears, Alicia Keys, Avril Lavigne, Alicia Keys- No One, Akon, NE-YO, LL Cool J, Dr. Dre, Snoop Dogg, Dmx, Jay-z, The Notorious B.I.G, 2PAC, Will Smith, Jonas Brothers, Pink "So What!" , Jordin Sparks feta. Chris Brown- "No Air" Official Music Video-over 33 million views on YouTube!), Lil Jon- get low music movie, Ludacris, Ice Cube, Flo Rida feat. T.Pain Music from the Movie Step Up 2 "Low," Chris Brown*Chris Brown feat. T.Pain- Kiss Kiss (over 51 million views on YouTube)!, Chris Brown-"With You," Chris Brown feat. Lil' Wayne (over 56 million views on YouTube!, Chris Brown "YO," Chris Brown-Run It, Chris Brown- Forever, Wu Tang Clan, The Fugees, Jordin Sparks-Tattoo, Rhianna- Cry, Rihanna- unfaithful, Rhianna- Umbrella (over 43 million views on YouTube/You Tube)!, Ashanti, Fergie Fergalicious, Fergie- Clumsy!, Rhianna- Dont' Stop The Music (over 62 million views on YouTube), Avril Lavign- Girlfriend (over 92 million views on YouTube)!, Clay Aiken, Akon, Christina Aguilera-Hurt, Clay Aiken-On My Way Here, All-American Rejects, All-American Rejects-Move Along, All-American Rejects-It Ends Tonight, Ashley Parker Angel, Michael Jackson ("Thriller"), Backstreet Boys, Augustana, Natasha Bedingfeild, Michael Jackson, Natasha Bedingfield feat. Sean Kingston-Love Like This, Natasha Bedingfield-Pocketful of Sunshine and lots more at 227's YouTube Chili!!! Your source for the world's most watched YouTube Music Videos at Jamaal Al-Din's Hoops 227- the everything basketball website!
Also: Jesse McCartney, Ray J,Usher,Elliott Yamin,Jonas Brothers,Fergie,Taylor Swift, Nelly Furtado, Jennifer Lopez, Flyleaf,Maroon 5,Kanye West,Keyshia Cole, The Pussycat Dolls,Colby O'Donis,Ashanti,R. Kelly,Girlicious, Colbi Calliat, Boy George,Mario,Three Days Grace,Beyonce', Gorillaz,Carrie Underwood,3 Doors Down,Finger Eleven, Ginuwine,Baby Bash,Kid Rock,Joe, Gwen Steffani, Billy Ray Cyrus, Danity Kane, Janel Parrish, Ciara, NLT, Fall Out Boy, Josh Turner, Fantasia and more!