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Phoenix, Arizona From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search For other uses of "Phoenix", see Phoenix. City of Phoenix Downtown Phoenix Nickname(s): Valley of the Sun (official), The Valley, Birdtown, PHX, The 602 Location in Maricopa County and the state of Arizona Coordinates: 33°26′54″N 112°04′26″W / 33.44833°N 112.07389°W / 33.44833; -112.07389 Country United States State Arizona County Maricopa Incorporated February 5, 1881 Government - Type Council-Manager - Mayor Phil Gordon (D) Area - City 517.17 sq mi (1,334.1 km2) - Land 517.126 sq mi (1,334.1 km2) - Water 0.2 sq mi (0.6 km2) Elevation 1,117 ft (340 m) Population (2007) - City 1,552,259 (US rank : 5th) - Density 2,937.8/sq mi (1,188.4/km2) - Urban 3,393,000 - Metro 4,179,427 - Demonym Phoenician Time zone MST (UTC-7) - Summer (DST) no DST (UTC-7) Area code(s) 602, 480, 623 FIPS code 04-55000 Website http://www.phoenix.gov/ Arizona portal Phoenix (pronounced /ˈfiːˌnɪks/, O'odham Skikik, Yavapai Wasinka, Western Apache Fiinigis, Navajo Hoozdo, Mojave Hachpa 'Anya Nyava) is the capital and largest city in the U.S. state of Arizona, as well as the fifth most populous city in the United States. Phoenix is home to 1,552,259 residents, and is the anchor of the Phoenix Metropolitan Area with 4,179,427 residents. It is currently the largest city in the Southwestern region of the U.S (also known as the "Desert Southwest") and the Mountain West. In addition, Phoenix is the county seat of Maricopa County, and is one of the largest cities in the United States by land area. By population, it is the largest state capital in the United States. Phoenix was incorporated as a city in 1881 after being founded in 1868 near the Salt River, near its confluence with the Gila River. The city eventually became a major transportation hub in North America and a main transportation, financial, industrial, cultural and economic center of the Southwestern United States. The city has a notable and famous political culture. While it has historically been a stronghold for the Republican Party, in recent years, the metropolitan area as a whole and even more clearly, the city itself, have been shifting slowly towards the left. Phoenix has been home to numerous influential politicians, including Barry Goldwater, John McCain, Janet Napolitano and Sandra Day O'Connor. Residents of the city are known as Phoenicians. Contents [hide] 1 History 1.1 Native American period 1.2 Hispanic period 1.3 Early United States period 1.4 Founding of Phoenix 1.5 Incorporation 1.6 Modern Phoenix (1900-present) 2 Geography 2.1 Climate 2.2 Cityscape 3 Demographics 4 Economy 5 Culture 5.1 Performing arts 5.2 Museums 5.3 Fine arts 5.4 Cuisine 6 Sports 7 Parks and recreation 8 Media 9 Government 9.1 Corporate subsidies controversy 10 Education 10.1 Post-secondary education 11 Transportation 11.1 Air 11.2 Public transportation 11.3 Bicycle transportation 11.4 Major streets 11.5 Freeways and expressways 12 Sister cities 13 See also 14 References 15 External links  History  Native American period For more than 1,000 years, the Hohokam peoples occupied the land that would become Phoenix. The Hohokam created roughly 135 miles (217 km) of irrigation canals, making the desert land arable. Paths of these canals would later become used for the modern Arizona Canal, Central Arizona Project Canal, and the Hayden-Rhodes Aqueduct. The Hohokam also carried out extensive trade with nearby Anasazi, Mogollon, and other Mesoamerican tribes. It is believed that, between 1300 and 1450, periods of drought and severe floods led to the Hohokam’s abandonment of the area. Local Akimel O'odham settlements, thought to be the descendants of the formerly urbanized Hohokam, concentrated on the Gila River alongside those of the Tohono O'odham and Maricopa peoples. Some family groups did continue to live near the Salt River, but no large villages existed.  Hispanic period Father Eusebio Kino, an Italian Jesuit in the service of the Spanish Empire, was among the first Europeans to travel here in the 1600s and 1700s. By this time, the valley was within the territory of New Spain, which was controlled by Spain and later independent Mexico. Father Kino named the river “Río Salado” (Salt River) due to the water’s high mineral content. He interacted with the few native peoples who remained in the valley but focused mostly on the Pima missions established in southern Arizona as well as exploring other parts of the Southwest and California. Only southern Arizona experienced the full influence of Hispanic cultures – the Salt River Valley itself remained almost depopulated for several centuries. See also: European colonization of Arizona  Early United States period American and European "Mountain Men" likely came through the area while exploring
what is now central Arizona during the early 19th century. They obtained valuable American Beaver and North American River Otter pelts; these animals, as well as deer and Mexican Wolves, often lived in the Salt River Valley when water supplies and temperatures allowed. When the Mexican-American War ended in 1848, most of Mexico's northern zone passed to United States control and a portion of it was made the New Mexico Territory (this included what is now Phoenix) shortly afterward. The Gadsden Purchase was completed in 1853. The land was contested ground during the American Civil War. Both the Confederate Arizona Territory, organized by Southern sympathizers in 1861 and with its capital in Tucson, and the United States Arizona Territory, formed by the United States Congress in 1863, with its capital at Fort Whipple (now Prescott, Arizona) included the Salt River Valley within their borders. The valley was not militarily important, however, and did not witness conflict. In 1863, the mining town of Wickenburg was the first to be established in what is now Maricopa County. At the time this county did not exist, as the land was within Yavapai County along with the other major town of Prescott. The US Army created Fort McDowell on the Verde River in 1865 to quell Native American uprisings. Hispanic workers serving the fort established a camp on the south side of the Salt River by 1866 that was the first permanent settlement in the valley after the decline of the Hohokam. In later years, other nearby settlements would form and merge to become the city of Tempe, but this community was incorporated after Phoenix.  Founding of Phoenix The history of Phoenix as a city begins with Jack Swilling, an American Civil War veteran who had come west to seek wealth in the 1850s and worked primarily in Wickenburg. On an outing in 1867, he stopped to rest at the foot of the White Tank Mountains. Swilling observed the abandoned river valley and considered its potential for farming, much like that already cultivated by the military further east near Fort McDowell. The terrain and climate were optimal; only a regular source of water was necessary. The existence of the old Hohokam ruins, showing clear paths for canals, made Swilling imagine new possibilities. Swilling had a series of canals built which followed those of the ancient Native American system. A small community formed that same year about 4 miles (6 km) east of the present city. It was first called Pumpkinville due to the large pumpkins that flourished in fields along the canals, then Swilling's Mill in his honor, though later renamed to Helling Mill, Mill City, and finally, East Phoenix. Swilling, a former Confederate soldier, wanted to name the city "Stonewall," after General Stonewall Jackson. Others suggested the name of "Salina." However, neither name was supported by the community. Finally, Lord Darrell Duppa suggested the name "Phoenix," as it described a city born from the ruins of a former civilization. The Yavapai County Board of Supervisors, which at the time encompassed Phoenix, officially recognized the new town on May 4, 1868, and formed an election precinct. The first post office was established on June 15, 1868, with Jack Swilling serving as the postmaster. With the number of residents growing (the 1870 U.S. census reported about a total Salt River Valley population of 240), a townsite needed to be selected. On October 20, 1870, the residents held a meeting to decide where to locate it. A 320-acre (1.3 km²) plot of land was purchased in what is now the downtown business section. On February 12, 1871, the territorial legislature created Maricopa County, the sixth one formed, by dividing Yavapai County. The first election for county office was held in 1871, when Tom Barnum was elected the first sheriff. Barnum ran unopposed as the other two candidates, John A. Chenowth and Jim Favorite, had a shootout that ended in Favorite’s death and Chenowth withdrawing from the race. Several lots of land were sold in 1870 at an average price of $48. The first church opened in 1871, as did the first store. Public school had its first class on September 5, 1872, in the courtroom of the county building. By October 1873, a small school was completed on Center Street (now Central Avenue). Land entry was recorded by the Florence Land Office on November 19, 1873, and a declaratory statement filed in the Prescott Land Office on February 15, 1872. President Ulysses S. Grant issued a land patent for the present site of Phoenix on April 10, 1874. The total value of the Phoenix Townsite was $550, with downtown lots selling for between $7 and $11 each. A short time later, a telegraph office, 16 saloons, four dance halls and two banks were open. Aerial lithograph of Phoenix from 1885  Incorporation By 1881, Phoenix had outgrown its original townsite-commissioner form of government. The 11th Territorial Legislature passed "The Phoenix Charter Bill", incorporating Phoenix and providing for a mayor-council government. The bill was signed by Governor John C. Fremont on February 25, 1881. Phoenix was incorporated with a population of approximately 2,500, and on May 3, 1881, Phoenix held its first city election. Judge John T. Alsap defeated James D. Monihon, 127 to 107, to become the city's first mayor. In early 1888, the city offices were moved into the new City Hall, at Washington and Central (later the site of the city bus terminal, until Central Station was built in the 1990s). This building also provided temporary offices for the territorial government when it moved to Phoenix in 1889. The coming of the railroad in the 1880s was the first of several important events that revolutionized the economy of Phoenix. Merchandise now flowed into the city by rail instead of wagon. Phoenix became a trade center with its products reaching eastern and western markets. In response, the Phoenix Chamber of Commerce was organized on November 4, 1888. Phoenix also inaugurated an electric streetcar system, built off earlier stagecoach lines, in 1891.  Modern Phoenix (1900-present) Central Avenue, Phoenix, Arizona, 1908In 1902, President Theodore Roosevelt signed the National Reclamation Act allowing for dams to be built on western streams for reclamation purposes. Residents were quick to enhance this by organizing the Salt River Valley Water Users' Association on February 7, 1903, to manage the water and power supply. The agency still exists as part of the Salt River Project. The Roosevelt Dam east of the valley was completed in 1911. Several new lakes were formed in the surrounding mountain ranges. In the Phoenix area, the river is now often dry due to large irrigation diversions, taking with it the large populations of migrating birds, beaver dams, and cottonwood trees that had lived on its waters. On February 14, 1912, under President William Howard Taft, Phoenix became the capital of the newly formed state of Arizona. Phoenix was considered preferable as both territorial and state capital due to its more central location as compared to Tucson or Prescott. It was smaller than Tucson but outgrew that city within the next few decades to become the state's largest. In 1913, Phoenix adopted a new form of government from mayor-council to council-manager, making it one of the first cities in the United States with this form of city government. Phoenix in the early 20th centuryDuring World War II, Phoenix's economy shifted to that of a distribution center, rapidly turning into an embryonic industrial city with mass production of military supplies. Luke Field, Williams Field, and Falcon Field, coupled with the giant ground-training center at Hyder, west of Phoenix, brought thousands of new people into Phoenix. The Papago Park Prisoner of War Camp was established for internment of Japanese Americans. Only a few of its former buildings remain today. In 1944, dozens of prisoners had devised a plan to escape from the camp and use boats to go down the Salt and Gila rivers to reach Mexico. They were apparently unaware that the Salt River had been dry for decades and were thus easily apprehended near the camp. Another notorious incident took place on Thanksgiving night of 1942, when a large number of U.S. troops stationed near Phoenix rioted while resisting arrest by military police due to engaging in a fight. The military police surrounded and blocked off a predominantly African American part of the city that the troops had escaped to in order to hide. They then dispersed armored personnel carriers and used .50 caliber machine guns on civilian homes. Several fatalities resulted. The Colonel of Luke Field soon declared Army personnel banned from Phoenix, which pressured civic leaders to reform local government by firing a number of corrupt officials, in turn getting the ban lifted. This same bipartisan effort also successfully convinced the city council to give more power to the city manager to run the government and spend public funds. A fire in October 1947 destroyed most of the streetcar fleet, making the city choose between implementing a new street railway system or using buses. The latter were selected, and automobiles remained the city’s preferred method of transportation. By 1950, over 100,000 people lived within the city and thousands more in surrounding communities. There were 148 miles (238 km) of paved streets and 163 miles (262 km) of unpaved streets. Over the next several decades, the city and metropolitan area attracted more growth. Nightlife and civic events concentrated along Central Avenue. By the 1970s, however, there was rising crime and a decline in business within the downtown core. Arizona Republic writer Don Bolles was murdered by a car bomb in the city in 1976. It was believed that his investigative reporting on organized crime in Phoenix made him a target. Bolles' last words referred to Phoenix land and cattle magnate Kemper Marley, who was widely regarded to have ordered Bolles' murder, as well as John Harvey Adamson, who pleaded guilty to second-degree murder in 1977 in return for testimony against contractors Max Dunlap and James Robison. Dunlap was convicted of first degree murder in the case in 1990 and remains in prison, while Robison was acquitted, but pleaded guilty to charges of soliciting violence against Adamson. Street gangs and the drug trade had turned into public safety issues by the 1980s. Van Buren Street, East of downtown (near 24th St), became associated with prostitution. The city's crime rates in many categories have improved since that time, but still exceed state and national averages. After the Salt River flooded in 1980 and damaged many bridges, the Arizona Department of Transportation and Amtrak worked together and temporarily operated a train service, the "Hattie B." line, between central Phoenix and the southeast suburbs. It was discontinued because of high operating costs and a lack of interest from local authorities in maintaining funding. The "Phoenix Lights" sightings took place in March 1997. The Baseline Killer and Serial Shooter crime sprees occurred in Phoenix, Tempe, and Mesa. Steele Indian School Park was the site of a mid-air collision between two news helicopters in July 2007. Phoenix has maintained a growth streak in recent years, growing by 24.2% since 2000. This makes it the second-fastest-growing metropolitan area in the United States following only Las Vegas, whose population has grown by 29.2% since 2000. In 2008, Phoenix was one of the hardest hit by the Subprime mortgage crisis. In early 2009, the median home price was $150,000, down from its $262,000 peak in recent years. A panoramic view of Phoenix from the South Mountain Range, Winter 2008  Geography Landsat 7 Satellite image of the Phoenix Metro Area in 2002.Phoenix is located at 33°26'54" North, 112°4'26" West (33.448457°, -112.073844°) in the Salt River Valley, or "Valley of the Sun", in central Arizona. It lies at a mean elevation of 1,117 feet (340 m), in the northern reaches of the Sonoran Desert. The Salt River runs westward through the city of Phoenix; the riverbed is often dry or a trickle due to large irrigation diversions, except after the area's infrequent rainstorms or when more water is released from upstream dams. The city of Tempe has built two inflatable dams in the Salt River bed to create a year-round recreational lake, called Tempe Town Lake. The dams are deflated to allow the river to flow unimpeded during releases. Lake Pleasant Regional Park is located in Northwest Phoenix within the suburb of Peoria, Arizona The Phoenix area is surrounded by the McDowell Mountains to the northeast, the White Tank Mountains to the west, the Superstition Mountains far to the east, and the Sierra Estrella to the southwest. Within the city are the Phoenix Mountains and South Mountains. Current development (as of 2005) is pushing beyond the geographic boundaries to the north and west, and south through Pinal County. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 475.1 square miles (1,230.5 km²); 474.9 square miles (1,229.9 km²) of it is land and 0.2 square miles (0.6 km², or 0.05%) of it is water. The Phoenix Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) (officially known as the Phoenix-Mesa-Scottsdale MSA), is the 13th largest in the United States, with a total population of 4,039,182 as of the June 2006 update of the 2000 U.S. Census. It includes the Arizona counties of Maricopa and Pinal. Other cities in the MSA include Mesa, Scottsdale, Glendale, Tempe, Chandler, Gilbert, and Peoria. Several smaller communities are also included, such as Cave Creek, Queen Creek, Buckeye, Goodyear, Fountain Hills, Litchfield Park, Anthem, Sun Lakes, Sun City, Sun City West, Avondale, Surprise, El Mirage, Paradise Valley, and Tolleson. The communities of Ahwatukee, Arcadia, Deer Valley, Laveen, Maryvale and others are part of the city of Phoenix, Ahwatukee being separated from the rest of the city by South Mountain. As with most of Arizona, Phoenix does not observe daylight saving time. In 1973, Gov. Jack Williams argued to Congress that energy use would increase in the evening, as refrigeration units were not used as often in the morning on standard time. He went on to say that energy use would rise "because there would be more lights on in the early morning." He was also concerned about children going to school in the dark, which indeed they were. The exception to this are lands of the Navajo Nation in Northeastern Arizona, which observe daylight saving time in conjunction with the rest of their tribal lands in other states.  Climate Climate chart for Phoenix J F M A M J J A S O N D 0.8 6745 0.8 7148 1.1 7651 0.3 8558 0.2 9467 0.1 10475 1 10781 0.9 10580 0.8 9975 0.8 8863 0.7 7550 0.9 7044 average temperatures in °F precipitation totals in inches source: Weather.com / NWS Metric conversion[show] J F M A M J J A S O N D 21 197 20 229 27 2411 6.4 2914 4.1 3419 2.3 4024 25 4227 24 4127 19 3724 20 3117 19 2410 23 217 average temperatures in °C • precipitation totals in mm Phoenix has an arid climate, with very hot summers and temperate winters. The average summer high temperature is among the hottest of any populated area in the United States and approaches those of cities such as Riyadh and Baghdad. The temperature reaches or exceeds 100°F (38°C) on an average of 110 days during the year, including most days from late May through early September, and highs top 110 °F (43 °C) an average of 18 days during the year. On June 26, 1990, the temperature reached an all-time recorded high of 122 °F (50 °C). Overnight lows greater than 80 °F (27 °C) occur frequently each summer, with the average July low being 81 °F (27 °C) and the average August low being 80 °F (27 °C). On average, 67 days throughout the year will see the nighttime low at or above 80 °F (27 °C). The all time highest low temperature ever recorded in Phoenix was 96 °F (36 °C), which occurred on July 15, 2003. Precipitation is sparse during a large part of the summer, but the influx of monsoonal moisture, which generally begins in early July and lasts until mid-September, raises humidity levels and can cause heavy localized precipitation and flooding. Winter months are mild to warm, with daily high temperatures ranging from the mid-60's to low 70's, and low temperatures rarely dipping below 40 °F (4 °C). Phoenix from North Mt Preserve.Phoenix averages 85% of possible sunshine and receives scant rainfall, the average annual total at Phoenix Sky Harbor International Airport being 8.3 inches (210 mm). March is the wettest month of the year (1.07 inches or 27 mm) with June being the driest (0.09 inches or 2 mm). Although thunderstorms are possible at any time of the year, they are most common during the monsoon from July to mid-September as humid air surges in from the Gulf of California. These can bring strong winds, large hail, or rarely, tornadoes. Winter storms moving inland from the Pacific Ocean occasionally produce significant rains but occur infrequently. Fog is rare but can be observed from time to time during the winter months. On average, Phoenix has only 5 days per year where the temperature drops to or below freezing. The long-term mean date of the first frost is December 15 and the last is February 1; however, these dates do not represent the city as a whole because the frequency of freezes increases the further one moves outward from the urban heat island. Frequently, outlying areas of Phoenix see frost, but the airport does not. The earliest frost on record occurred on November 3, 1946, and the latest occurred on April 4, 1945. The all-time lowest recorded temperature in Phoenix was 16 °F (-8.8 °C) on January 7, 1913. Snow is extremely rare in the area. Snowfall was first officially recorded in 1896, and since then, accumulations of 0.1 inches (0.25 cm) or greater have occurred only seven times. The heaviest snowstorm on record dates to January 20, 1937 – January 21, 1937, when 1 to 4 inches (100 mm) fell (2 to 10 cm) in parts of the city and did not melt entirely for four days. Before that, 1 inch (2.5 cm) had fallen on January 20, 1933. On February 2, 1939, 0.5 inches (1 cm) fell. Most recently, 0.4 inches (1 cm) fell on December 21, 1990 – December 22, 1990. Snow also fell on March 12, 1917, November 28, 1919, and December 11, 1985.  Cityscape Map of the urban villages of PhoenixThe city of Phoenix is divided up into 15 urban villages. Inside some of the Villages are well-known neighborhoods, or districts, which are listed as subpoints. These urban villages are: Ahwatukee Foothills, Alhambra, Camelback East, Central City, Deer Valley, Desert View, Encanto, Estrella, Laveen, Maryvale, North Gateway, North Mountain, Paradise Valley (not to be confused with the town of Paradise Valley), South Mountain and Rio Vista. Rio Vista was created as New Village in 2004 and is currently very sparsely populated, with no large amount of development expected in the near future. Commonly referred-to Phoenix regions and districts include Downtown, Midtown, West Phoenix, North Phoenix, South Phoenix, Biltmore Area, Arcadia, Sunnyslope, Ahwatukee.  Demographics At the 2007 U.S. Census estimates, the city's population was: 48.1% White 6.0% Black or African American 2.4% American Indian and Alaska Native 2.7% Asian 0.2% Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander 14.1% other 1.9% mixed 41.5% Hispanic According to the 2000 census, there were 1,321,045 people, 865,834 households, and 407,450 families residing in the city. The population density was 2,782 people per square mile (1,074/km²). There were 895,832 housing units at an average density of 1,044 per square mile (403/km²). There were 865,834 households out of which 35.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 46.9% were married couples living together, 12.9% had a female householder with no husband present, and 34.0% were non-traditional families. 25.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 6.3% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.79 and the average family size was 3.39. In the city the population age distribution was 28.9% under the age of 18, 10.9% from 18 to 24, 33.2% from 25 to 44, 18.8% from 45 to 64, and 8.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 31 years. For every 100 females there were 103.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 102.7 males. The median income for a household in the city was $41,207, and the median income for a family was $46,467. Males had a median income of $32,820 versus $27,466 for females. The per capita income for the city was $19,833. 15.8% of the population and 11.5% of families were below the poverty line. Out of the total population, 21.0% of those under the age of 18 and 10.3% of those 65 and older were living below the poverty line. As of 2000, the racial makeup of the Phoenix population was 48.1% White, 5.1% African American, 2.0% Native American, 2.0% Asian, 0.13% Pacific Islander, 16.4% from other races, and 3.3% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 34.1% of the population. Since the 2000 census, the non-Hispanic White population in Phoenix dropped below 50%, according to William Frey, a demographer with the Brookings Institution. In 2000, the Phoenix metro area's religious composition was reported as 45% Catholic, 13% LDS (concentrated heavily in the suburb of Mesa) and 5% Jewish. The remaining 37% are largely members of Protestant denominations or are unaffiliated. Historical populations Census Pop. %± 1890 3,152 — 1900 5,544 75.9% 1910 11,314 104.1% 1920 29,053 156.8% 1930 48,118 65.6% 1940 65,414 35.9% 1950 106,818 63.3% 1960 439,170 311.1% 1970 581,572 32.4% 1980 789,704 35.8% 1990 983,403 24.5% 2000 1,321,045 34.3% Est. 2007 1,552,259 17.5% source:  Economy Downtown Phoenix south of Jefferson Street.The early economy of Phoenix was primarily agricultural, dependent mainly on cotton and citrus farming. In the last two decades, the economy has diversified as swiftly as the population has grown. As the state capital of Arizona, many residents in the area are employed by the government. Arizona State University has also enhanced the area's population through education and its growing research capabilities. Numerous high-tech and telecommunications companies have also recently relocated to the area. Due to the warm climate in winter, Phoenix benefits greatly from seasonal tourism and recreation, and has a particularly vibrant golf industry. Phoenix is currently home to seven Fortune 1000 companies: waste management company Allied Waste, electronics corporation Avnet, Apollo Group (which operates the University of Phoenix), mining company Freeport-McMoRan (recently merged with Phoenix based Phelps Dodge), retailer PetSmart, energy supplier Pinnacle West and retailer CSK Auto. Honeywell's Aerospace division is headquartered in Phoenix, and the valley hosts many of their avionics and mechanical facilities. Intel has one of their largest sites here, employing about 10,000 employees and 3 chip manufacturing fabs, including the $3 billion state-of-the-art 300 mm and 45 nm Fab 32. American Express hosts their financial transactions, customer information, and their entire website in Phoenix. The area is also home to US Airways Group, a Fortune 500 company located in Tempe also home to Insight Enterprises (also listed on the Fortune 500). Phoenix is also home to the headquarters of U-HAUL International, a rental company and moving supply store, as well Best Western, a hotel chain. In recent years many Internet companies have opened offices in Phoenix, including but not limited to eBay, Google, AOL, GoDaddy.com, IPowerWeb, and Easynews. The military has a significant presence in Phoenix with Luke Air Force Base located in the western suburbs. At its height, in the 1940s, the Phoenix area had three military bases: Luke Field (still in use), Falcon Field, and Williams Air Force Base (now Phoenix-Mesa Gateway Airport), with numerous auxiliary air fields located throughout the region. See also: List of major corporations in Phoenix  Culture Phoenix and the surrounding area is home to a broad range of cultural activities including the performing arts, museums, and events.  Performing arts Several music venues take place around Arizona, but primarily in and around downtown Phoenix and in Scottsdale. One such venue is the Phoenix Symphony Hall, where performances from groups such as Arizona Opera and Ballet Arizona often occur. Another venue is the Orpheum Theatre (Phoenix) which is home to the Phoenix Metropolitan Opera. Concerts also regularly make stops in the area. Venues for concerts include the US Airways Center and the Dodge Theater in downtown Phoenix, Jobing.com Arena in Glendale. Since 2002, Phoenix has also seen a rapid growth in local arts through The Artlink Program. Several Smaller theatres including Trunk Space, Space 55 and Modified Arts support regular independent musical and theatre performances.  Museums Several museums are scattered around the valley including the Phoenix Art Museum. One of the most well-known museums in the area is the Heard Museum just north of downtown. It has over 130,000 square feet (12,000 m²) of gallery, classroom and performance space. Some of the signature exhibits include a full Navajo hogan, the Mareen Allen Nichols Collection containing 260 pieces of contemporary jewelry, the Barry Goldwater Collection of 437 historic Hopi kachina dolls, and an exhibit on the 19th century boarding school experiences of Native Americans. The Heard Museum attracts about 250,000 visitors a year. Other notable museums include the Arizona Science Center, Fleischer Museum, Hall of Flame Firefighting Museum, Arizona Historical Society Museum, Phoenix Museum of History, the Phoenix Zoo, and the Pueblo Grande Museum and Cultural Park.  Fine arts The downtown Phoenix art scene has developed in the past decade. The Artlink organization and the galleries downtown have successfully launched a First Friday cross-Phoenix gallery opening.  Cuisine Phoenix has long been renowned for authentic Mexican food, thanks to both the large Hispanic population and proximity to Mexico. But the recent population boom has brought people from all over the nation, and to a lesser extent from other countries, and has since influenced the local cuisine. International food, such as Korean, Brazilian, and French, has become more common throughout the valley in recent years. However, Mexican food is arguably still the most popular food, with Mexican restaurants found all over the area.  Sports Club Sport League Venue Championships Arizona Cardinals Football National Football League – NFC University of Phoenix Stadium 1 Arizona Diamondbacks Baseball Major League Baseball – National League Chase Field 1 Phoenix Suns Basketball National Basketball Association – Western Conference US Airways Center 0 Phoenix Coyotes Ice Hockey National Hockey League – Western Conference Jobing.com Arena 0 Phoenix Mercury Basketball Women's National Basketball Association US Airways Center 1 Arizona Rattlers Arena Football Arena Football League US Airways Center 2 Phoenix RoadRunners Ice Hockey ECHL US Airways Center 0 Phoenix Flame Basketball International Basketball League Arizona Veterans Memorial Coliseum 0 Arizona Sting Lacrosse National Lacrosse League Jobing.com Arena 0 US Airways Center in downtown Phoenix.Phoenix is home to several professional sports franchises, including representatives of all four major professional sports leagues in the U.S. - although only two of these teams actually carry the city name and play within the city limits. The first major franchise was the Phoenix Suns of the National Basketball Association (NBA), which started play in 1968. In 1997, the Phoenix Mercury was one of the original eight teams to launch the Women's National Basketball Association (WNBA). Both teams play at U.S. Airways Center. The U.S. Airways Center was the setting for both the 1995 and the upcoming 2009 NBA All-Star Games. The Phoenix Flame of the International Basketball League began play in the spring of 2007. They play at the Arizona Veterans Memorial Coliseum. University of Phoenix Stadium on the game day of Super Bowl XLII on February 3, 2008.The Arizona Cardinals moved to Phoenix from St. Louis, Missouri in 1988 and currently play in the Western Division of the National Football League's National Football Conference. The team, however, has never played in the city itself; they played at Sun Devil Stadium on the campus of Arizona State University in nearby Tempe until 2006. Sun Devil Stadium held Super Bowl XXX in 1996 when the Dallas Cowboys defeated the Pittsburgh Steelers. The Cardinals now play at University of Phoenix Stadium in west suburban Glendale. University of Phoenix Stadium hosted Super Bowl XLII on February 3, 2008, in which the New York Giants defeated the New England Patriots. It is also the home of the annual Tostitos Fiesta Bowl, a college football bowl game that is part of the Bowl Championship Series (BCS). Phoenix also has an arena football team, the Arizona Rattlers of the Arena Football League. Games are played at US Airways Center downtown. The Phoenix Coyotes of the National Hockey League moved to the area in 1996; they were formerly the Winnipeg Jets franchise.They play at Jobing.com Arena, adjacent to University of Phoenix Stadium in Glendale. The city also boasts a minor league hockey team, the Phoenix Roadrunners of the ECHL, who play at the U.S. Airways Center. This makes Phoenix one of the few cities where minor and major league teams in the same sport coexist. The Arizona Diamondbacks of Major League Baseball (National League West Division) began play as an expansion team in 1998. The team plays at Chase Field (downtown). In 2001, the Diamondbacks defeated the New York Yankees 4 games to 3 in the World Series, becoming not only the city's first professional sports franchise to win a national championship while located in Arizona, but also one of the youngest expansion franchise in U.S. professional sports to ever win a championship. Additionally, due to the favorable climate, nine Major League Baseball teams conduct spring training in the metro area, as well as nearby Tucson. These teams are collectively known as the Cactus League. The Phoenix International Raceway is a major venue for two NASCAR auto racing events per season. Boat racing, drag racing, and road course racing are also held at Firebird International Raceway. Sprint car racing is held at Manzanita Speedway. Phoenix has also hosted the United States Grand Prix from 1989–1991. The race was discontinued after poor crowd numbers. Phoenix has also hosted the Insight Bowl at Chase Field until 2005, after which it moved to nearby Tempe, as well as several major professional golf events, including the LPGA's Safeway International and The Tradition of the Champions Tour. Phoenix was originally scheduled to host the 2006 NHL All-Star Game, but it was canceled due to the 2006 Winter Olympics (the recently adopted NHL collective bargaining agreement prohibits the All-Star Game to be held during Olympic years). Instead, Phoenix will host the 2009 All-Star Game. Phoenix's Ahwatukee American Little League reached the 2006 Little League World Series as the representative from the U.S. West region. Phoenix is one of the three cities that hosts the annual Rock 'n' Roll Arizona Marathon in January. As of 2007 Phoenix is the largest North American city not to contain a team in any of the four tiers of professional soccer. There is a plan to try to bring Major League Soccer to the city in the shape of the proposed team Phoenix Rising. Phoenix is currently one of thirteen cities across the United States and Canada that are aiming to claim one of two places scheduled to be made available through expansion before 2011. The plan currently includes a suggested $150 million 25,000-seat soccer specific stadium with a retractable roof. See also: U.S. cities with teams from four major sports.  Parks and recreation Phoenix is home to a large number of parks and recreation areas. Many waterparks are scattered around the valley to help residents cope with the harsh desert heat during the summer months. Some of the notable parks include Big Surf in Tempe, Waterworld Safari in Glendale, Golfland SunSplash in Mesa, and the Oasis Water Park at the Arizona Grand Resort - formerly known as Pointe South Mountain Resort - in Phoenix. The area also has one amusement park in north Phoenix called Castles N' Coasters, next to the Metrocenter Mall. Hole-in-the-Rock, a natural geological formation in Papago Park.Many parks have been established to preserve the desert landscape in areas that would otherwise quickly be developed with commercial and residential zoning. The most noteworthy park is South Mountain Park, the world's largest municipal park with 16,500 acres (67 km2); others include Camelback Mountain, Boyce Thompson Arboretum State Park and Sunnyslope Mountain, also known as "S" Mountain. The Desert Botanical Garden displays desert plantlife from deserts all over the world. Encanto Park is the city's largest and primary urban park, and lies just northwest of downtown Phoenix. Papago Park in east Phoenix is home to both the Desert Botanical Garden and the Phoenix Zoo, as well as a few golf courses.  Media See also: List of radio stations in Arizona, List of films shot in Phoenix. The first newspaper in Phoenix was the weekly Salt River Valley Herald, which later changed its name to the Phoenix Herald in 1880. Today, the city is served by two major daily newspapers: The Arizona Republic (serving the greater metropolitan area) and the East Valley Tribune (serving primarily the cities of the East Valley). In addition, the city is also served by numerous free neighborhood papers and weeklies such as the Phoenix New Times, Arizona State University's The State Press, and the College Times. For 40 years, The Bachelor's Beat, a paid weekly newspaper, has covered local politics while selling ads for area strip clubs and escort services. The Phoenix metro area is served by many local television stations and is the 12th largest designated market area (DMA) in the U.S. with 1,802,550 homes (1.6% of the total U.S.). The major network television affiliates are KPNX 12 (NBC), KNXV 15 (ABC), KPHO 5 (CBS), KSAZ 10 (FOX), KUTP 45 (MNTV), KASW 61 (CW) and KAET 8 (PBS, operated by ASU). Other network television affiliates operating in the area include KPAZ 21 (TBN), KTVW 33 (Univision), KTAZ 39 (Telemundo), KDPH 48 (Daystar), and KPPX 51 (ION). KTVK 3 (3TV) and KAZT 7 (AZ-TV) are independent television stations operating in the metro area. KAZT broadcasts in digital format only. The radio airwaves in Phoenix cater to a wide variety of musical and talk radio interests. Several major feature films have been filmed in the city, including Waiting to Exhale, Song of the South, The Gauntlet, Psycho, Raising Arizona, Jerry Maguire, The Prophecy, Used Cars, Bill & Ted's Excellent Adventure (used as a stand-in for San Dimas, California), U Turn, Eight Legged Freaks, Private Lessons, Blue Collar Comedy Tour: The Movie, Never Been Thawed, Just One of the Guys, Terminal Velocity, Taxi, and The Banger Sisters.  Government The Arizona State Capitol, which used to house the state legislature, is now a museum. The City Hall of Phoenix, Arizona showing the city's logo, The Phoenix Bird.As the capital of Arizona, Phoenix houses the state legislature. In 1913, the commission form of government was adopted. The city of Phoenix is served by a city council consisting of a mayor and eight city council members. The mayor is elected At Large, to a four-year term. Phoenix City Council members are elected to four-year terms by voters in each of the eight separate districts that they represent. The current mayor of Phoenix is Phil Gordon, who was elected to a four-year term in 2003 and re-elected to an additional four-year term in 2007. The mayor and city council members have equal voting power to adopt ordinances and set the policies that govern the city. Phoenix operates under a council-manager form of government, with a strong city manager supervising all city departments and executing policies adopted by the Council. See also: List of mayors of Phoenix, Arizona  Corporate subsidies controversy In February 2007, the city of Phoenix voted to give Klutznick Co., the developer of the CityNorth mall, a $97.4 million sales tax subsidy. The subsidy was the largest, at the time, in the history of Arizona. The CityNorth subsidy created enough public outrage that the Arizona State Legislature voted to ban sales tax subsidies in Pinal and Maricopa counties (although there is an unenforced constitutional ban already)  The city of Phoenix was sued by the Goldwater Institute, which is trying to eliminate corporate subsidies statewide by enforcing the constitutional ban on corporate subsidies. The Goldwater Institute lost against the CityNorth development and the city of Phoenix in the trial court, but prevailed against a move by defendants to obtain legal fees. Upon appeal in the Arizona Court of Appeals, the subsidy was declared unconstitutional.  Education Public education in the Phoenix area is provided by over 30 school districts. The Phoenix Union High School District operates most of the public high schools in the city of Phoenix. Charter schools such as North Pointe Preparatory School also exist.  Post-secondary education The campus of ASU from Tempe Butte.Arizona State University is the main institution of higher education in the region, with campuses located in Tempe, Northwest Phoenix (ASU West Campus), Downtown Phoenix (ASU Downtown Campus) and Mesa (ASU Polytechnic Campus). A branch of the University of Arizona College of Medicine in partnership with Arizona State University is located at the downtown Phoenix campus. ASU is currently one of the largest public universities in the U.S., with a 2007 student enrollment of 64,394. There are also small satellite offices for the University of Arizona (based in Tucson) and Northern Arizona University (based in Flagstaff) located in Phoenix. Grand Canyon University is the nation’s only private, for-profit, Christian university. Initially a non-profit school started in 1949, it was purchased by three investors who brought it out of bankruptcy. Since the takeover in 2004, enrollment has increased each year. It currently has over 10,000 students; almost 85% attend the school online. Midwestern University-Glendale is located in Glendale, northwest of Phoenix proper. Founded as a sister school to the original campus in Downers Grove, Illinois, it is home to a number of professional health care education programs at the doctorate and master's level. The degrees offered include the Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine (DO), Master of Medical Science (MMS) in Physician Assistant Studies, Doctor of Pharmacy (PharmD), Doctor of Clinical Psychology (PsyD), Master of Occupational Therapy (MOT), Doctor of Dental Medicine (DMD), and Doctor of Podiatric Medicine (DPM). Thunderbird School of Global Management is regarded as a leading institution in the education of global managers and has operations in the United States (Glendale), Switzerland, the Czech Republic, Russia, Mexico, Central and South America and China, and was ranked number 1 in international business by The Wall Street Journal’s poll of corporate recruiters, U.S. News & World Report, and the Financial Times. American Indian College is a private, Christian college located in the northwestern section of Phoenix. The Art Institute of Phoenix is a small, private undergraduate college which offers various majors in the areas of design, fashion, media, and culinary arts. It admitted its first class in 1996. Western Governors University opened a business office in Phoenix in 2006. WGU is an online non-profit university. Governor Janet Napolitano was on the WGU board until 2008. Former NAU President Clara Lovett was very active in the creation of WGU during its early days. WGU has employees and students in Phoenix and throughout Arizona. In early June 2008, WGU passed current enrollment of 10,000 students spread throughout the U.S. The University of Phoenix is also headquartered in Phoenix. This is the nation’s largest for-profit university with over 130,000 students at campuses throughout the United States (including Puerto Rico), Canada, Mexico, and the Netherlands, as well as online. University of Advancing Technology is a small, for-profit university, notable for being a technology-oriented school. Their newly expanded campus is located in Tempe, bordering Phoenix. The university is composed of four colleges, along with an online program for continuing adult education. As of 2009, about 1200 undergraduates and 50 postgraduates enroll at UAT. Collins College is a for-profit career college focusing on visual arts. It has two campuses, one in Tempe and one in Phoenix. Both campuses are very small and do not include student housing; instead, Collins students must rent apartments in the area. In 2007, the Phoenix Business Journal ranked Collins as Arizona’s top computer training school. Like many for-profit institutions, Collins is nationally accredited and its credits are not accepted by most regionally accredited institutions. In the past, Collins has drawn controversy for abuse of the federal financial aid program. DeVry University and Argosy University are for-profit institutions with small campuses across the country and a large online presence. Both operate post-secondary schools on the west side of Phoenix. The Maricopa County Community College District includes ten community colleges and two skills centers throughout Maricopa County, providing adult education and job training. The first community college in the district as well as the state is Phoenix College. See also: List of school districts in Phoenix, Arizona  Transportation  Air An aerial view of the control tower at Phoenix Sky Harbor that began operations on January 17, 2007.Phoenix is served by Sky Harbor International Airport (IATA: PHX, ICAO: KPHX), which is centrally located in the metro area near several major freeway interchanges east of downtown Phoenix. Sky Harbor is the ninth-busiest airport in the U.S. and 17th in the world for passenger traffic, handling more than 42 million travelers in 2007. The airport serves more than 100 cities with non-stop flights. Aeromexico, Air Canada, British Airways, and WestJet are among several international carriers as well as American carrier US Airways providing flights to destinations such as Canada, Costa Rica, Mexico, and the United Kingdom. The Phoenix-Mesa Gateway Airport (IATA: AZA, ICAO: KIWA) in neighboring Mesa also serves the area’s commercial air traffic. It was converted from Williams Air Force Base, which closed in 1993. The airport has recently received substantial commercial service with Allegiant Air opening a focus city operation at the airport with non-stop service to over a dozen destinations. Smaller airports that primarily handle private and corporate jets include Phoenix Deer Valley Airport (IATA: DVT, ICAO: KDVT), located in the Deer Valley district of northwest Phoenix, as well as municipal airports including Glendale Municipal Airport and Phoenix Goodyear Airport.  Public transportation Opening day of the light rail, December 27, 2008.Public transportation throughout the metropolitan area is provided by Valley Metro, which operates a system of buses and a rideshare program. 3.38% of work commutes are made by public transit. Valley Metro has completed work on a $1.4 billion, 20-mile (32 km) segment of the light rail project, called the METRO Light Rail, through north-central Phoenix through downtown and then east through Tempe and Mesa. On December 27, 2008, it opened to the public. Rod Diridon, executive director of the Mineta Transportation Institute said: “ Phoenix is lagging behind the rest of the West, very frankly. Even in Phoenix, where you have a lot of land, you're going to get to the point when there isn't any more dirt to pave. ” Future segments of more than 30 miles (48 km) are planned to open by 2025. Phoenix was the largest U.S. city without a rail transit system from 2004 to 2008 after Houston, Texas, started the METRO light rail. Amtrak no longer serves Phoenix Union Station since 1996; Phoenix is the largest city proper in the United States without intercity passenger rail service, although service is offered to the metropolitan area. The Sunset Limited and Texas Eagle stop three times a week at Maricopa, thirty miles south of downtown Phoenix (for shuttle and other travel information, see the Texas Eagle site). Amtrak Thruway buses connect Sky Harbor to Flagstaff for connection with the daily Southwest Chief service to Los Angeles and Chicago. Phoenix is served by Greyhound bus service, with the station at 24th Street located near the airport. For additional information, see: METRO.  Bicycle transportation Bicycle transportation is a mode that 0.89% of Phoenix commuters utilize, down from 1.12% a decade ago. The Maricopa Association of Governments has a bicycle advisory committee working to improve conditions for bicycling on city streets and off-road paths.  Major streets Midtown Phoenix skyline, looking north up Central Avenue.The street system in Phoenix is laid out in a traditional grid system, with most roads oriented either north-south or east-west. The zero point is the intersection of Central Avenue and Washington Street. Numbered Avenues run north–south west of Central; numbered Streets run north–south east of Central. Major arterial streets are spaced one mile (1.6 km) apart. The one-mile (1.6 km) blocks are divided into approximately 1200 house numbers, although this varies. Scottsdale Road, being 7200 East, is approximately 7200 / 1200 = 6 miles (10 km) east of Central. The Valley Metro bus numbers are also based on this numbering system, with the Central Avenue bus being Route Zero, and Scottsdale Road being Route 72.  Freeways and expressways Main article: Metropolitan Phoenix Freeways Phoenix is served by a growing network of freeways, many of which were initiated by a ½ cent general sales tax measure approved by voters in 1985. Before this network, Interstate 10 and Interstate 17 handled almost all freeway traffic in Phoenix, placing a large burden on surface arterial streets, leading to increased traffic congestion as the area grew in size. The current freeway system comprises two interstate routes (I-10 and I-17), the nearly transcontinental US 60, and several state highways as well – including SR 51, SR 85, Loop 101, SR 143, and Loop 202. Eventually, several other state highways (Loop 303, SR 801, and SR 802) will make their way into the system as they are needed.  Sister cities Sign showing Phoenix's sister citiesPhoenix, Arizona, has ten sister cities, as designated by the Phoenix Sister Cities Commission: – Taipei (Republic of China) – Calgary (Alberta, Canada) – Catania (Sicily, Italy) – Chengdu (China) – Ennis (Ireland) – Grenoble (Rhone-Alpes, France) – Hermosillo (Sonora, Mexico) – Himeji (Hyōgo, Japan) – Prague (Czech Republic) – Ramat-Gan (Israel)  See also List of famous people from the Phoenix metropolitan area Phoenix Lights List of tallest buildings in Phoenix  References ^ "." United States Census Bureau. 2005. Retrieved on June 27, 2007. ^ "Population Estimates for the 25 Largest U.S. Cities based on July 1, 2006 Population Estimates" (PDF). http://www.census.gov/Press-Release/www/2007/cb07-91table1.pdf. ^ "Annual Estimates of the Population for Incorporated Places in Arizona". United States Census Bureau. 2008-07-10. http://www.census.gov/popest/cities/tables/SUB-EST2007-04-04.csv. Retrieved on 2008-07-14. ^ Munro, P et al. A Mojave Dictionary Los Angeles: UCLA, 1992 ^ "Find a County". National Association of Counties. http://www.naco.org/Template.cfm?Section=Find_a_County&Template=/cffiles/counties/usamap.cfm. Retrieved on 2008-01-31. ^ a b "Out of the Ashes, Early Life along the Salt River." City of Phoenix. Retrieved on November 26, 2006. ^ Tempe history timeline." 1866 entry discussing early farm camp. Tempe Historical Museum. Retrieved on January 20, 2008. ^ "Out of the Ashes, Phoenix is Born." City of Phoenix. Retrieved on November 26, 2006. ^ "Out of the Ashes, Selecting a Townsite." City of Phoenix. Retrieved on November 26, 2006. ^ a b "Out of the Ashes, The Great Sale." City of Phoenix. Retrieved on November 26, 2006. ^ "Out of the Ashes, Whole Town Worth $550." City of Phoenix. Retrieved on November 26, 2006. ^ "Out of the Ashes, Incorporation in 1881." City of Phoenix. Retrieved on November 26, 2006. ^ a b "Out of the Ashes, Transportation: Horses and Rails." City of Phoenix. Retrieved on November 26, 2006. ^ "SRP: Historical timeline." Salt River Project. Retrieved on November 30, 2006. ^ "Out of the Ashes, Roosevelt and Reclamation." City of Phoenix. Retrieved on November 26, 2006. ^ "Out of the Ashes, Establishing a Council-Manager Government." City of Phoenix. Retrieved on November 26, 2006. ^ a b "Out of the Ashes, Growing into a Metropolis." City of Phoenix. Retrieved on November 26, 2006. ^ "The 1980 "Hattie B." Flood Relief Train." Retrieved on January 19, 2008. ^ In Pictures: America's Fastest-Growing Cities from  ^ http://www.cnn.com/2009/POLITICS/02/17/obama.foreclosures/ ^ "US Gazetteer files: 2000 and 1990". United States Census Bureau. 2005-05-03. http://www.census.gov/geo/www/gazetteer/gazette.html. Retrieved on 2008-01-31. ^ "Arizona does not need daylight saving time." Arizona Daily Star. Published on May 19, 2005. Retrieved on December 15, 2006. ^ "Climatology of heat in the southwest". National Weather Service. http://www.wrh.noaa.gov/psr/general/safety/heat/. Retrieved on 2009-01-06. ^ "University of Phoenix - Phoenix Campus". University of Phoenix. http://www.earnacollegedegree.com/university-of-phoenix/campus/phoenix-campus.htm?CampusId=2. Retrieved on 2009-02-17. ^ WXPART4 ^ Mean Number of Days With Minimum Temperature 32 °F (0 °C) or Less. National Climatic Data Center. June 23, 2004. Last Retrieved February 16, 2006. ^ "Phoenix Snowfall History." National Weather Service - Phoenix. Retrieved on December 15, 2006. ^ Source: U.S. National Climatic Data Center, Asheville, N.C.; a division of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration ^ "Village Planning Committees." Phoenix City Government. January 9, 2007. Retrieved on February 22, 2007. ^ "Village Planning Committees." Phoenix City Government. March 21, 2008. Retrieved on April 15, 2008. ^ http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/ADPTable?_bm=y&-context=adp&-qr_name=ACS_2007_3YR_G00_DP3YR5&-ds_name=ACS_2007_3YR_G00_&-tree_id=3307&-redoLog=true&-_caller=geoselect&-geo_id=16000US0455000&-format=&-_lang=en ^ Phoenix (city) MapStats from FedStats ^ Changing Face of Western Cities ^ Religion demographic data from The Association of Religion Data Archives. ^ Gibson, Campbell. "." Census Bureau. July, 2007. Retrieved on July 1, 2007. ^ "Nielsen Reports 1.3% increase in U.S. Television Households for the 2007-2008 Season." Nielsen Media Research. (September 22, 2007) Retrieved on March 3, 2008. ^ "Titles with locations including Phoenix, Arizona, USA." IMDb. Retrieved on May 3, 2007. ^ Cities backtracking on no-incentives pledges ^ Tax-incentive bill draws praise, criticism ^ Michael Clancy, Legal fees latest twist in CityNorth battle, The Arizona Republic, April 23, 2008 ^ Jan Buchholz, Judge denies Phoenix/CityNorth claim for legal fees, Phoenix Business Journal, June 9, 2008 ^ Jan Buchholz, Appeals Court: CityNorth subsidy unconstitutional, Phoenix Business Journal, December 23, 2008 ^ "Schools in Phoenix." Phoenix.gov. ^ FT REPORT - BUSINESS EDUCATION: A LEAGUE OF THEIR OWN: THE TOP TEN SCHOOLS IN SELECTED CATEGORIES "Best in international business: 1.- Thunderbird" ^ "Airports Council International Passenger Traffic, 2007 Final." Airports Council International. Retrieved on January 18, 2009. ^ "Sky Harbor International Airport Domestic Destinations." Sky Harbor International Airport. Retrieved on August 8, 2007. ^ "Sky Harbor International Airport International Destinations." Sky Harbor International Airport. Retrieved on August 8, 2007. ^ a b "Most bicycle commuters". Bikes At Work Inc.. http://www.bikesatwork.com/carfree/census-lookup.php?state_select=ALL_STATES&sort_num=2&lower_pop=250000&upper_pop=999999999&first_row=25&show_rows=25. Retrieved on 2008-07-01. ^ http://www.valleymetro.org/metro_light_rail/ ^ "MAG Regional Bike Map 2005." Maricopa Association of Governments. Retrieved on April 21, 2006. ^ Sister Cities information obtained from the Phoenix Sister Cities Commission." Retrieved on April 21, 2006.  External links Find more about Phoenix, Arizona on Wikipedia's sister projects: Definitions from Wiktionary Textbooks from Wikibooks Quotations from Wikiquote Source texts from Wikisource Images and media from Commons News stories from Wikinews Learning resources from WikiversityPhoenix, Arizona travel guide from Wikitravel Official Government Website Greater Phoenix Chamber of Commerce Greater Phoenix Convention & Visitors Bureau Phoenix Public Library The Arizona Republic -- daily newspaper serving Phoenix area USGS --Phoenix Elevation Phoenix, Arizona is at coordinates 33°26′54″N 112°04′26″W / 33.448457°N 112.073844°W / 33.448457; -112.073844 (Phoenix, Arizona)Coordinates: 33°26′54″N 112°04′26″W / 33.448457°N 112.073844°W / 33.448457; -112.073844 (Phoenix, Arizona) [show]v • d • eMunicipalities and communities of Maricopa County, Arizona County seat: Phoenix Cities Apache Junction‡ | Avondale | Chandler | El Mirage | Glendale | Goodyear | Litchfield Park | Mesa | Peoria‡ | Phoenix | Scottsdale | Surprise | Tempe | Tolleson Towns Buckeye | Carefree | Cave Creek | Fountain Hills | Gila Bend | Gilbert | Guadalupe | Paradise Valley | Queen Creek‡ | Wickenburg | Youngtown CDPs New River | Rio Verde | Sun City | Sun City West | Sun Lakes Unincorporated communities Aguila | Anthem | Arlington | Circle City | Higley | Komatke | Laveen | Liberty | Mobile | Morristown | Palo Verde | Tonopah | Tortilla Flat | Waddell | Wintersburg | Wittmann Footnotes ‡This populated place also has portions in an adjacent county or counties [show]v • d • eMetropolitan area of Phoenix, Arizona, the Valley of the Sun Largest suburbs (over 100,000 inhabitants) Chandler • Gilbert • Glendale • Mesa • Peoria • Scottsdale • Surprise • Tempe Other suburbs and towns (over 10,000 inhabitants) Anthem • Apache Junction • Avondale • Buckeye • Casa Grande • El Mirage • Eloy • Florence • Fountain Hills • Goodyear • Gold Camp • Luke Air Force Base • Maricopa • New River • Paradise Valley • Queen Creek • Sun City • Sun City West • Sun Lakes Smaller suburbs and towns (over 5,000 inhabitants) Black Canyon City • Carefree • Cave Creek • Coolidge • Gila Bend • Guadalupe • Laveen • Litchfield Park • Superior • Tolleson • Wickenburg • Youngtown Counties Maricopa • Pinal [show]v • d • ePhoenix Points of Pride Arizona Biltmore Resort & Spa · Arizona Center · Arizona State University West · Ben Avery Shooting Facility · Burton Barr Central Library · Camelback Mountain · Cricket Pavilion · Cutler-Plotkin Jewish Heritage Center · Deer Valley Rock Art Center · Desert Botanical Garden · Encanto Park · Heard Museum · The Herberger Theater Center · Historic Heritage Square · Ro Ho En (Japanese Friendship Garden) · Mystery Castle · Orpheum Theatre · Papago Park/Hole-In-The-Rock · Thomas J. Pappas School · Patriots Square Park · Phoenix Art Museum · Phoenix Mountains Park and Recreation Area · Phoenix Zoo · Pueblo Grande Museum and Archaeological Park · Shemer Art Center and Museum · South Mountain Park · St. Mary's Basilica · Symphony Hall · Telephone Pioneers of America Park · Tovrea Castle and Carraro Cactus Garden · US Airways Center · Wesley Bolin Memorial Plaza · Wrigley Mansion [show]v • d • e State of Arizona Phoenix (capital) Topics Climate | Culture | Economy | Education | Geography | History | People | Transportation | Visitor Attractions Regions Arizona Strip | Coconino Plateau | Colorado Plateau | Grand Canyon | Kaibab Plateau | Mogollon Plateau | Mogollon Rim | Mojave Desert | Monument Valley | North Central Arizona | Northeast Arizona | Northern Arizona | Oak Creek Canyon | Phoenix Metropolitan Area | Safford area | San Francisco Volcanic Field | Sonoran Desert | Southern Arizona | Verde Valley | White Mountains Counties Apache | Cochise | Coconino | Gila | Graham | Greenlee | La Paz | Maricopa | Mohave | Navajo | Pima | Pinal | Santa Cruz | Yavapai | Yuma Cities Chandler | Flagstaff | Gilbert | Glendale | Kingman | Lake Havasu City | Mesa | Peoria | Phoenix | Prescott | Scottsdale | Sierra Vista | Tempe | Tucson | Yuma [show]v • d • eState capitals of the United States AL Montgomery AK Juneau AZ Phoenix AR Little Rock CA Sacramento CO Denver CT Hartford DE Dover FL Tallahassee GA Atlanta HI Honolulu ID Boise IL Springfield IN Indianapolis IA Des Moines KS Topeka KY Frankfort LA Baton Rouge ME Augusta MD Annapolis MA Boston MI Lansing MN Saint Paul MS Jackson MO Jefferson City MT Helena NE Lincoln NV Carson City NH Concord NJ Trenton NM Santa Fe NY Albany NC Raleigh ND Bismarck OH Columbus OK Oklahoma City OR Salem PA Harrisburg RI Providence SC Columbia SD Pierre TN Nashville TX Austin UT Salt Lake City VT Montpelier VA Richmond WA Olympia WV Charleston WI Madison WY Cheyenne DC Washington1 1 Federal capital. [show]v • d • e50 largest cities of the United States by population New York City Los Angeles Chicago Houston Phoenix Philadelphia San Antonio San Diego Dallas San Jose Detroit Jacksonville San Francisco Indianapolis Columbus Austin Fort Worth Memphis Charlotte Baltimore Boston El Paso Milwaukee Seattle Nashville Denver Washington Las Vegas Louisville Portland Oklahoma City Tucson Atlanta Albuquerque Kansas City Fresno Long Beach Sacramento Mesa Cleveland Virginia Beach Omaha Miami Oakland Tulsa Minneapolis Colorado Springs Raleigh Honolulu Arlington [show]v • d • eLargest urban areas (rank) in the United States by population New York-Newark · Los Angeles-Long Beach-Santa Ana · Chicago · Philadelphia · Miami · Dallas-Fort Worth-Arlington · Boston · Washington · Detroit · Houston · Atlanta · San Francisco-Oakland · Phoenix · Seattle · San Diego · Minneapolis-Saint Paul · St. Louis · Baltimore · Tampa-St. Petersburg · Denver · Cleveland · Pittsburgh · Portland · San Jose · Riverside-San Bernardino · Cincinnati · Norfolk-Virginia Beach · Sacramento · Kansas City · San Antonio · Las Vegas · Milwaukee · Indianapolis · Providence · Orlando · Columbus · New Orleans · Buffalo · Memphis · Austin · Bridgeport-Stamford · Salt Lake City · Jacksonville · Louisville · Hartford · Richmond · Charlotte · Nashville · Oklahoma City · Tucson [show]v • d • eAll-America City Award: Hall of Fame Akron, Ohio • Anchorage, Alaska • Bakersfield, California • Baltimore, Maryland • Bloomington, Indiana • Boston, Massachusetts • Cincinnati, Ohio • Cleveland, Ohio • Columbus, Ohio • Dayton, Ohio • Des Moines, Iowa • Edinburg, Texas • Grand Island, Nebraska • Grand Rapids, Michigan • Harrisburg, Pennsylvania • Hickory, North Carolina • Independence, Missouri • Kansas City, Missouri • Laurinburg, North Carolina • New Haven, Connecticut • Peoria, Illinois • Philadelphia, Pennsylvania • Phoenix, Arizona • Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania • Roanoke, Virginia • Rockville, Maryland • San Antonio, Texas • San Bernardino, California • Shreveport, Louisiana • Tacoma, Washington • Toledo, Ohio • Tupelo, Mississippi • Wichita, Kansas • Worcester, Massachusetts [show]v • d • eMayors of cities with populations of 100,000 in Arizona Phil Gordon (Phoenix) Bob Walkup (Tucson) Scott Smith (Mesa) Elaine Scruggs (Glendale) Boyd W. Dunn (Chandler) Jim Lane (Scottsdale) Steven M. Berman (Gilbert) Hugh Hallman (Tempe) Bob Barrett (Peoria) Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phoenix,_Arizona" Categories: Cities in Arizona | Communities in the Sonoran Desert | Maricopa County, Arizona | Phoenix metropolitan area | Phoenix, Arizona | County seats in Arizona | Settlements established in 1868 | UFO-related locations
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Beyonce * Maxwell * Mario ft. Gucci Mane & sean Garrett * Drake ft. Lil Wayne * Ginuwine * Fabolous Featuring The-Dream * Keyshia Cole Duet With Monica * Jay-Z, Rihanna & Kanye West * Gucci Mane Featuring Plies * Mary Mary Featuring Kierra "KiKi" Sheard * Ice Cream Paint Job * Pleasure P * Mariah Carey * Trey Songz * Trey Songz Featuring Gucci Mane & Soulja Boy Tell'em * R. Kelly Featuring Keri Hilson * K'Jon * Young Money * Twista Featuring Erika Shevon * Yo Gotti * New Boyz * Jeremih * Keri Hilson Featuring Kanye West & Ne-Yo * Musiq Soulchild * Whitney Houston * Anthony Hamilton * Charlie Wilson * Chrisette Michele * Jamie Foxx Featuring T-Pain * Plies * LeToya Featuring Ludacris * Mary J. Blige Featuring Drake * Mullage * Charlie Wilson * Jamie Foxx Featuring Drake, Kanye West + The-Dream * Jamie Foxx Featuring Drake, Kanye West + The-Dream * Jeremih * Mishon * Jennifer Hudson * Clipse Featuring Pharrell Williams * Kid Cudi Featuring Kanye West & Common * Raphael Saadiq Featuring Stevie Wonder & CJ * Anthony Hamilton Featuring David Banner * Jazmine Sullivan * Trey Songz Featuring Drake * F.L.Y. (Fast Life Yungstaz) * Laura Izibor
Jamaal Al-Din's Hoops 227 (227's YouTube Chili")!
Beyonce * Shakira * Jordin Sparks * Mariah Carey * New Boyz * Jason DeRulo * Mario ft. Gucci Mane & Sean Garrett * Katy Perry * The Black Eyed Peas * Colby Caillat * Fabolous ft. The Dream * Jason Aldean * Daughtry * Lady Gaga * Michael Franti & Spearhead Featuring Cherine Anderson * Boys Like Girls * Flo Rida Featuring Ne-Yo * Dorrough * Green Day * Linkin Park * Pink * Justin Bieber * Rob Thomas * Maxwell * Jason Mraz * Young Money * The Fray * Rascal Flatts * Zac Brown Band * Shinedown * Disney's Friends For Change * Toby Keith * Darius Rucker * Cascada * Billy Currington * Justin Moore * Kid Cudi Featuring Kanye West & Common * Keith Urban * Randy Houser * Drake Featuring Lil Wayne * Jeremih * Pearl Jam * Kelly Clarkson * George Strait * LMFAO * Twista Featuring Erika Shevon * Uncle Kracker * Eric Church * Jack Ingram * Love And Theft * Parachute * Chris Young * Theory Of A Deadman * Tim McGraw * Sean Paul * Gloriana * Creed * Ginuwine * Keyshia Cole Duet With Monica * Blake Shelton * Iyaz
2009 NCAA Basketball Tournament! List of NCAA Division 1 Teams & Coaches at 227!
America East Conference Albany - Will Brown Binghamton - Kevin Broadus Boston University - Dennis Wolff Hartford - Dan Leibovitz Maine - Ted Woodward New Hampshire - Bill Herrion Stony Brook - Steve Pikiell UMBC - Randy Monroe Vermont - Mike Lonergan 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! America East Conference
Atlantic 10 Conference Charlotte - Bobby Lutz Dayton - Brian Gregory Duquesne - Ron Everhart Fordham - Dereck Whittenburg George Washington - Karl Hobbs La Salle - John Giannini Rhode Island - Jim Baron Richmond - Chris Mooney St. Bonaventure - Mark Schmidt Saint Joseph's - Phil Martelli Saint Louis - Rick Majerus Temple - Fran Dunphy UMass - Derek Kellogg Xavier - Sean Miller 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Atlantic 10 Conference
Atlantic Coast Conference Boston College - Al Skinner Clemson - Oliver Purnell Duke - Mike Krzyzewski Florida State - Leonard Hamilton Georgia Tech - Paul Hewitt Maryland - Gary Williams Miami (Florida) - Frank Haith North Carolina - Roy Williams North Carolina State - Sidney Lowe Virginia - Dave Leitao Virginia Tech - Seth Greenberg Wake Forest - Dino Gaudio 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Atlantic Coast Conference
Atlantic Sun Conference Belmont - Rick Byrd Campbell - Robbie Laing East Tennessee State - Murry Bartow Florida Gulf Coast - Dave Balza Jacksonville - Cliff Warren Kennesaw State - Tony Ingle Lipscomb - Scott Sanderson Mercer - Bob Hoffman North Florida - Matt Kilcullen Stetson - Derek Waugh USC Upstate - Eddie Payne 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Atlantic Sun Conference
Big 12 Conference Baylor - Scott Drew Colorado - Jeff Bzdelik Iowa State - Greg McDermott Kansas - Bill Self Kansas State - Frank Martin Missouri - Mike Anderson Nebraska - Doc Sadler Oklahoma - Jeff Capel III Oklahoma State - Travis Ford Texas - Rick Barnes Texas A&M - Mark Turgeon Texas Tech - Pat Knight 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Big 12 Conference
Big East Conference Cincinnati - Mick Cronin Connecticut - Jim Calhoun DePaul - Jerry Wainwright Georgetown - John Thompson III Louisville - Rick Pitino Marquette - Buzz Williams Notre Dame - Mike Brey Pittsburgh - Jamie Dixon Providence - Keno Davis Rutgers - Fred Hill St. John's - Norm Roberts Seton Hall - Bobby Gonzalez South Florida - Stan Heath Syracuse - Jim Boeheim Villanova - Jay Wright West Virginia - Bobby Huggins 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Big East Conference
Big Sky Conference Eastern Washington - Kirk Earlywine Idaho State - Joe O'Brien Montana - Wayne Tinkle Montana State - Brad Huse Northern Arizona - Mike Adras Northern Colorado - Tad Boyle Portland State - Ken Bone Sacramento State - Brian Katz Weber State - Randy Rahe 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Big Sky Conference
Big South Conference Charleston Southern - Barclay Radebaugh Coastal Carolina - Cliff Ellis Gardner-Webb - Rick Scruggs High Point - Bart Lundy Liberty - Ritchie McKay Presbyterian - Gregg Nibert Radford - Brad Greenberg UNC-Asheville - Eddie Biedenbach VMI - Duggar Baucom Winthrop - Randy Peele 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Big South Conference
Big Ten Conference Illinois - Bruce Weber Indiana - Tom Crean Iowa - Todd Lickliter Michigan - John Beilein Michigan State - Tom Izzo Minnesota - Tubby Smith Northwestern - Bill Carmody Ohio State - Thad Matta Penn State - Ed DeChellis Purdue - Matt Painter Wisconsin - Bo Ryan 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Big Ten Conference
Big West Conference Cal Poly - Kevin Bromley Cal State Fullerton - Bob Burton Cal State Northridge - Bobby Braswell Long Beach State - Dan Monson Pacific - Bob Thomason UC Davis - Gary Stewart UC Irvine - Pat Douglass UC Riverside - Jim Wooldridge UC Santa Barbara - Bob Williams 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Big West Conference
Colonial Athletic Association Delaware - Monte Ross Drexel - Bruiser Flint George Mason - Jim Larranaga Georgia State - Rod Barnes Hofstra - Tom Pecora James Madison - Matt Brady Northeastern - Bill Coen Old Dominion - Blaine Taylor Towson - Pat Kennedy UNC-Wilmington - Benny Moss Virginia Commonwealth - Anthony Grant William & Mary - Tony Shaver 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Colonial Athletic Association
Conference USA East Carolina - Mack McCarthy Houston - Tom Penders Marshall - Donnie Jones Memphis - John Calipari Rice - Ben Braun Southern Methodist - Matt Doherty Southern Mississippi - Larry Eustachy Tulane - Dave Dickerson Tulsa - Doug Wojcik UAB - Mike Davis UCF - Kirk Speraw UTEP - Tony Barbee 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Conference USA
Horizon League - Butler - Brad Stevens Cleveland State - Gary Waters Detroit - Ray McCallum Loyola (Chicago) - Jim Whitesell UIC - Jimmy Collins UW-Green Bay - Tod Kowalczyk UW-Milwaukee - Rob Jeter Valparaiso - Homer Drew Wright State - Brad Brownell Youngstown State - Jerry Slocum 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Horizon League
Independents Bryant - Tim O'Shea Cal State Bakersfield - Keith Brown Chicago State - Benjy Taylor Houston Baptist - Ron Cottrell Longwood - Mike Gillian New Jersey Institute of Technology - Jim Engles North Carolina Central - Henry Dickerson Savannah State - Horace Broadnax SIU-Edwardsville - Lennox Forrester Texas-Pan American - Tom Schuberth Utah Valley - Dick Hunsaker 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! NCAA Division I independent schools (basketball)
Ivy League Brown - Jesse Agel Columbia - Joe Jones Cornell - Steve Donahue Dartmouth - Terry Dunn Harvard - Tommy Amaker Penn - Glen Miller Princeton - Sydney Johnson Yale - James Jones 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Ivy League
Metro Atlantic Athletic Conference Canisius - Tom Parrotta Fairfield - Ed Cooley Iona - Kevin Willard Loyola (Maryland) - Jimmy Patsos Manhattan - Barry Rohrssen Marist - Chuck Martin Niagara - Joe Mihalich Rider - Tommy Dempsey St. Peter's - John Dunne Siena - Fran McCaffery 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Mid-American Conference
Mid-American Conference Akron – Keith Dambrot Ball State – Billy Taylor Bowling Green – Louis Orr Buffalo – Reggie Witherspoon Central Michigan – Ernie Ziegler Eastern Michigan – Charles Ramsey Kent State – Geno Ford Miami – Charlie Coles Northern Illinois – Ricardo Patton Ohio – John Groce Toledo – Gene Cross Western Michigan – Steve Hawkins 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Mid-American Conference
Mid-Eastern Athletic Conference Bethune-Cookman - Clifford Reed Coppin State - Ron Mitchell Delaware State - Greg Jackson Florida A&M - Mike Gillespie Hampton - Kevin Nickelberry Howard - Gil Jackson Maryland-Eastern Shore - Meredith Smith Morgan State - Todd Bozeman Norfolk State - Anthony Evans North Carolina A&T - Jerry Eaves South Carolina State - Tim Carter Winston-Salem State - Bobby Collins 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Mid-Eastern Athletic Conference
Missouri Valley Conference Bradley - Jim Les Creighton - Dana Altman Drake - Mark Phelps Evansville - Marty Simmons Illinois State - Tim Jankovich Indiana State - Kevin McKenna Missouri State - Cuonzo Martin Northern Iowa - Ben Jacobson Southern Illinois - Chris Lowery Wichita State - Gregg Marshall 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Missouri Valley Conference
Mountain West Conference Air Force - Jeff Reynolds Brigham Young - Dave Rose Colorado State - Tim Miles New Mexico - Steve Alford San Diego State - Steve Fisher Texas Christian - Neil Dougherty UNLV - Lon Kruger Utah - Jim Boylen Wyoming - Heath Schroyer 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Mountain West Conference
Northeast Conference Central Connecticut State - Howie Dickenman Fairleigh Dickinson - Tom Green LIU-Brooklyn - Jim Ferry Monmouth - Dave Calloway Mount St. Mary's - Milan Brown Quinnipiac - Tom Moore Robert Morris - Mike Rice Jr. Sacred Heart - Dave Bike St. Francis (PA) - Don Friday St. Francis (NY) - Brian Nash Wagner - Mike Deane 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Northeast Conference
Ohio Valley Conference Austin Peay - Dave Loos Eastern Illinois - Mike Miller Eastern Kentucky - Jeff Neubauer Jacksonville State - James Green Morehead State - Donnie Tyndall Murray State - Billy Kennedy Southeast Missouri - Zac Roman Tennessee-Martin - Bret Campbell Tennessee State - Cy Alexander Tennessee Tech - Mike Sutton 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Ohio Valley Conference
Pacific-10 Conference Arizona - Russ Pennell Arizona State - Herb Sendek California - Mike Montgomery Oregon - Ernie Kent Oregon State - Craig Robinson Stanford - Johnny Dawkins UCLA - Ben Howland USC - Tim Floyd Washington - Lorenzo Romar Washington State - Tony Bennett 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Pacific-10 Conference
Patriot League American - Jeff Jones Army - Jim Crews Bucknell - Dave Paulsen Colgate - Emmett Davis Holy Cross - Ralph Willard Lafayette - Fran O'Hanlon Lehigh - Brett Reed Navy - Billy Lange 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Patriot League
Southeastern Conference Alabama - Philip Pearson Arkansas - John Pelphrey Auburn - Jeff Lebo Florida - Billy Donovan Georgia - Pete Herrmann Kentucky - Billy Gillispie LSU - Trent Johnson Mississippi - Andy Kennedy Mississippi State - Rick Stansbury South Carolina - Darrin Horn Tennessee - Bruce Pearl Vanderbilt - Kevin Stallings 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Southeastern Conference
Southern Conference Appalachian State - Houston Fancher Chattanooga - John Shulman The Citadel - Ed Conroy College of Charleston - Bobby Cremins Davidson - Bob McKillop Elon - Ernie Nestor Furman - Jeff Jackson Georgia Southern - Jeff Price Samford - Jimmy Tillette UNC-Greensboro - Mike Dement Western Carolina - Larry Hunter Wofford - Mike Young 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Southern Conference
Southland Conference Central Arkansas - Rand Chappell Lamar - Steve Roccaforte McNeese State - Dave Simmons Nicholls State - J. P. Piper Northwestern State - Mike McConathy Sam Houston State - Bob Marlin Southeastern Louisiana - Jim Yarbrough Stephen F. Austin - Danny Kaspar Texas A&M-Corpus Christi - Perry Clark Texas-Arlington - Scott Cross Texas-San Antonio - Brooks Thompson Texas State - Doug Davalos 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Southland Conference
Southwestern Athletic Conference Alabama A&M - L. Vann Pettaway Alabama State - Lewis Jackson Alcorn State - Samuel West Arkansas-Pine Bluff - George Ivory Grambling State - Larry Wright Jackson State - Tevester Anderson Mississippi Valley State - Sean Woods Prairie View A&M - Byron Rimm II Southern - Rob Spivery Texas Southern - Tony Harvey 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Southwestern Athletic Conference
The Summit League Centenary - Greg Gary IPFW - Dane Fife IUPUI - Ron Hunter North Dakota State - Saul Phillips Oakland - Greg Kampe Oral Roberts - Scott Sutton South Dakota State - Scott Nagy Southern Utah - Roger Reid UMKC - Matt Brown Western Illinois - Derek Thomas 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! The Summit League
Sun Belt Conference Arkansas-Little Rock - Steve Shields Arkansas State - Dickey Nutt Denver - Joe Scott Florida Atlantic - Mike Jarvis Florida International - Sergio Rouco Louisiana-Lafayette - Robert Lee Louisiana-Monroe - Orlando Early Middle Tennessee - Kermit Davis New Orleans - Joe Pasternack North Texas - Johnny Jones South Alabama - Ronnie Arrow Troy - Don Maestri Western Kentucky - Ken McDonald 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Sun Belt Conference
West Coast Conference Gonzaga - Mark Few Loyola Marymount - Rodney Tention Pepperdine - Vance Walberg Portland - Eric Reveno Saint Mary's - Randy Bennett San Diego - Bill Grier San Francisco - Rex Walters Santa Clara - Kerry Keating 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! West Coast Conference
Western Athletic Conference Boise State - Greg Graham Fresno State - Steve Cleveland Hawai?i - Bob Nash Idaho - Don Verlin Louisiana Tech - Kerry Rupp Nevada - Mark Fox New Mexico State - Marvin Menzies San Jose State - George Nessman Utah State - Stew Morrill 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Western Athletic Conference
2Pac 50 Cent A Adam Tensta Akon Aaliyah Ashanti Andre 3000 B Bow Wow Bobby Valentino Beyonce Bone Thugs n Harmony Birdman (rapper) Busta Rhymes Bobby Fischer C Chris Brown Cherish Cassidy Chingy Chamillionaire Christina Milian Chrisette Michele Cashis Ciara Cypress Hill Calzone Mafia Cuban Link D Destiny's Child DJ Clue Demetri Montaque Danity Kane Day 26 Donnie D12 DJ Khaled Dr. Dre E E-40 Eminem Eazy-E F Fabolous Flo Rida Fat Joe Frankie J G G-Unit The Game H Hurricane Chris I Ice Cube J Jay-Z J.R. Rotem J Holiday Jordan Sparks K Kanye West Kelly Rowland keri hilson The Kreators L Lil' Kim Lil' Mo Lil Jon Lil Mama Lloyd Banks Lil Wayne Ludacris Lloyd Lil Mama Lil Eazy-E Leona lewis M MC Hammer Mike Shorey MF Doom Mariah Carey Mario Mary J. Blige N Ne-Yo Nate Dogg Niia N.W.A. Notorious B.I.G. Nas Nick Cannon Nelly Necro O Olivia Omarion Obie Trice Old Dirty Bastard P Public Enemy Plies P Diddy pink Pharcyde Q R Red Cafe Run DMC Ray J R Kelly Rihanna Rick Ross (rapper) S Sean Combs Sean Kingston Snoop Dogg Stargate Sean Garrett Suge Knight Soulja Boy Tell 'Em Stat Quo shakira T The Notorious B.I.G. Tupac Shakur Trina Tyrese T-Pain Three 6 Mafia T.I. Too Phat U Usher V V.I.C. W Warren G Wyclef Jean Wu Tang Clan will.i.am X Xzibit Y Young Jeezy Yung Berg Z
Michael Jackson Bing Crosby U.S. The Beatles AC/DC ABBA Alla Bee Gees Bob Marley Celine Dion Cliff Richard The Drifters Elton John Herbert von Karajan Julio Iglesias Led Zeppelin Madonna Mariah Carey Elvis Presley Nana Mouskouri Pink Floyd The Rolling Stones Tino Rossi Wei Wei
Adriano Celentano Aerosmith Backstreet Boys Barry White Billy Joel Bon Jovi Boney M. The Carpenters Charles Aznavour Cher Chicago Dave Clark Five David Bowie Deep Purple Depeche Mode Dire Straits Dolly Parton The Eagles Electric Engelbert Humperdinck Fats Domino Fleetwood Mac The Four Seasons Frank Sinatra Garth Brooks Genesis George Michael Guns N' Roses James Last The Jackson 5 Janet Jackson Johnny Hallyday Kenny Rogers Lionel Richie Luciano Pavarotti Metallica Michiya Mihashi Mireille Mathieu Modern Talking Neil Diamond Olivia Newton-John Patti Page Paul McCartney Perry Como Pet Shop Boys Phil Collins Prince Queen Ricky Nelson Roberto Carlos Rod Stewart Salvatore Adamo Status Quo Stevie Wonder Teresa Teng Tina Turner Tom Jones U2 Valeriya The Ventures Whitney Houston The Who
Annie Lennox B'z Britney Spears Carlos Santana Dalida Earth, Wind & Fire Eddy Arnold Eminem Eurythmics Gloria Estefan Hibari Misora Journey Scorpions Van Halen Ace of Base Alan Jackson Country Alice Cooper Hard rock Andrea Bocelli Opera The Andrews Sisters Swing Ayumi Hamasaki Pop Black Sabbath Heavy metal Barbra Streisand Pop / Adult contemporary Beach Boys Rock Pop Bob Dylan Folk / Rock Bob Seger Rock Boston Arena rock Boyz II Men R&B Bruce Springsteen Rock Bryan Adams Def Leppard Destiny's Child R&B / Pop Dreams Come True Pop / Jazz Duran Duran Enya Ireland Four Tops George Strait Glay Iron Maiden Jay-Z Hip hop Jean Michel Jarre Jethro Tull Johnny Cash Kazuhiro Moriuchi Kiss Hard rock Kenny G Kylie Minogue Luis Miguel Linkin Park Meat Loaf Michael Bolton Mills Brothers Mötley Crüe Mr.Children Nat King Cole New Kids on the Block Nirvana 'N Sync Oasis Orhan Gencebay Pearl Jam Petula Clark Red Hot Chili Peppers The Police Ray Conniff Reba McEntire R.E.M. Richard Clayderman Ricky Martin Robbie Williams Roxette Sweden Shakira Colombia
The Seekers Australia Spice Girls Tom Petty & The Heartbreakers Tony Bennett T.Rex UB40 Vicente Fernandez Village People Willie Nelson
Jamaal Al-Din, a native of Grand Rapids, Michigan and former leading scorer of Olympic Basketball and LSU great, Ed Palubinskas brings to you Michigan State University's and the NBA's Earvin "Magic" Johnson at 227's YouTube "MAGIC!" provided by Jamaal Al-Din's Hoops 227-the everything basketball website, featuring YouTube Videos and Wikipedia information on the legendary Earvin "Magic" Johnson, The Magic Johnson Foundation, Magic Johnson Enterprises, and everything including the magical phrase..."MAGIC!" 227's YouTube "MAGIC!"
As we look to expand basketball marketing, camps and clinics nationally, our basketball affiliate programs are scheduled to begin in March of 2008. Our affiliates, exciting, take a look at this list: ebay, StubHub.com, Yahoo Affiliate Program!, TickCo Premium Seating, RazorGator Affiliate Program, SightSell, VistaPrint.com, Pokeorder and WeHaveSeats.com. Jamaal Al-Din's Hoops 227 welcomes our affiliate partners for 2008. Among the items offered our NCAA & NBA basketball tickets both premium and discounted rates. Basketball shoes and apparel for kids, fans, players and coaches ranging from Air Jordans, LeBron James, NIKE, Adidas, AND1, hats, collectibles and memoralbilia! Jamaal Al-Din's Hoops 227- The everything basketball website!
?227's YouTube "Chili" features these exciting YouTube music and entertainment celebrities...click onto to these 227 YouTube "Chili" links, channels and articles for the most watched YouTube hip-hop music videos in the world!
Sean Kingston, Justin Timberlake, M.I.A'"Paper Planes!" , Timbaland, 50 Cent, P-Diddy, Kanye West. Rihanna, Chris Brown, T.I.-"Big Things Poppin!" , Rihanna- Hate That I Love You (over 29 million views on YouTube)!, Leona Lewis, Soulja Boy, Britney Spears, Alicia Keys, Avril Lavigne, Alicia Keys- No One, Akon, NE-YO, LL Cool J, Dr. Dre, Snoop Dogg, Dmx, Jay-z, The Notorious B.I.G, 2PAC, Will Smith, Jonas Brothers, Pink "So What!" , Jordin Sparks feta. Chris Brown- "No Air" Official Music Video-over 33 million views on YouTube!), Lil Jon- get low music movie, Ludacris, Ice Cube, Flo Rida feat. T.Pain Music from the Movie Step Up 2 "Low," Chris Brown*Chris Brown feat. T.Pain- Kiss Kiss (over 51 million views on YouTube)!, Chris Brown-"With You," Chris Brown feat. Lil' Wayne (over 56 million views on YouTube!, Chris Brown "YO," Chris Brown-Run It, Chris Brown- Forever, Wu Tang Clan, The Fugees, Jordin Sparks-Tattoo, Rhianna- Cry, Rihanna- unfaithful, Rhianna- Umbrella (over 43 million views on YouTube/You Tube)!, Ashanti, Fergie Fergalicious, Fergie- Clumsy!, Rhianna- Dont' Stop The Music (over 62 million views on YouTube), Avril Lavign- Girlfriend (over 92 million views on YouTube)!, Clay Aiken, Akon, Christina Aguilera-Hurt, Clay Aiken-On My Way Here, All-American Rejects, All-American Rejects-Move Along, All-American Rejects-It Ends Tonight, Ashley Parker Angel, Michael Jackson ("Thriller"), Backstreet Boys, Augustana, Natasha Bedingfeild, Michael Jackson, Natasha Bedingfield feat. Sean Kingston-Love Like This, Natasha Bedingfield-Pocketful of Sunshine and lots more at 227's YouTube Chili!!! Your source for the world's most watched YouTube Music Videos at Jamaal Al-Din's Hoops 227- the everything basketball website!
Also: Jesse McCartney, Ray J,Usher,Elliott Yamin,Jonas Brothers,Fergie,Taylor Swift, Nelly Furtado, Jennifer Lopez, Flyleaf,Maroon 5,Kanye West,Keyshia Cole, The Pussycat Dolls,Colby O'Donis,Ashanti,R. Kelly,Girlicious, Colbi Calliat, Boy George,Mario,Three Days Grace,Beyonce', Gorillaz,Carrie Underwood,3 Doors Down,Finger Eleven, Ginuwine,Baby Bash,Kid Rock,Joe, Gwen Steffani, Billy Ray Cyrus, Danity Kane, Janel Parrish, Ciara, NLT, Fall Out Boy, Josh Turner, Fantasia and more!