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Muhammad Ali From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search For other persons named Muhammad Ali, see Muhammad Ali (disambiguation). "Cassius Clay" redirects here. For other uses, see Cassius Clay (disambiguation). Muhammad Ali Statistics Name Muhammad Ali Birth name Cassius Marcellus Clay Jr. Nickname The Greatest, The Champ, The Louisville Lip Height 1.91 m (6 ft 3 in) Reach 2 m Weight division Heavyweight Nationality United States Birth date January 17, 1942 (1942-01-17) (age 66) Birth place Louisville, Kentucky, U.S. Stance Orthodox Boxing record Total fights 61 Wins 56 Wins by KO 37 Losses 5 Draws 0 No contests 0 Medal record Olympic Games boxing Gold 1960 Rome Light heavyweight Muhammad Ali (born Cassius Marcellus Clay Jr. on January 17, 1942) is a retired American boxer and former three-time World Heavyweight Champion. To date, he remains the only man to have won the linear heavyweight championship three times (the linear title is recognized by tracing an - almost - unbroken lineage of titleholders going back over 100 years, with nearly every champion defeating the previous titleholder in the ring). Ali was also the winner of an Olympic Light-heavyweight gold medal. In 1999, Ali was crowned "Sportsman of the Century" by Sports Illustrated and the BBC. Cassius Marcellus Clay, Jr., was born in Louisville, Kentucky. He was named after his father, Cassius Marcellus Clay Sr., who was named for the 19th century abolitionist and politician Cassius Clay. Ali changed his name after joining the Nation of Islam in 1964, subsequently converting to Sunni Islam in 1975 and then Sufism. Ali was known for his fighting style, which he described as "Float like a butterfly, sting like a bee". Throughout his career Ali made a name for himself with great handspeed, as well as swift feet and taunting tactics. While Ali was renowned for his fast, sharp out-fighting style, he also had a great chin, and displayed great courage and an ability to take a punch throughout his career.
Contents [hide] 1 Biography 1.1 Early life 1.2 Amateur career; Olympic gold 1.3 Early professional career 1.4 First title fight 1.5 Religion 1.6 Vietnam War 1.7 The Fight of the Century 1.8 The Rumble in the Jungle 1.9 Thrilla in Manila 1.10 Ali's legacy 1.11 In retirement 2 Ranking in heavyweight history 3 Personal life 4 Ali in the media and popular culture 5 Professional boxing championship accomplishments 6 Professional boxing record 7 See also 8 Notes 9 References 10 External links Biography Early life Cassius Clay, Jr., was born on January 17, 1942. His father, Clay Sr., painted billboards and signs, and his mother, Odessa Grady Clay, was a household domestic. Although Clay Sr. was a Methodist, he allowed Odessa to bring up both Clay boys as Baptists. Amateur career; Olympic gold Clay was first directed toward boxing by the white Louisville police officer and boxing coach Joe E. Martin, who encountered the then twelve-year-old Cassius Clay fuming over the fact that his bicycle had been stolen. However, without Martin knowing, Clay also began training with Fred Stoner, an African-American trainer working at the local community center. In this way, Clay could make $4 a week on Tomorrow's Champions, a local, weekly TV show that Martin hosted, while benefiting from the coaching of the more experienced Stoner, who continued working with Clay throughout his amateur career. Clay's last amateur loss was to Kent Green of Chicago, who could say he was the last person to defeat the champion until Ali lost to Joe Frazier in 1971 as a pro. Under Stoner's guidance, Cassius Clay went on to win six Kentucky Golden Gloves titles, two national Golden Gloves titles, an Amateur Athletic Union National Title, and the Light Heavyweight gold medal in the 1960 Summer Olympics in Rome. Clay's record was 100 wins, with five losses, when he ended his amateur career. Ali states (in his 1975 autobiography)
YouTube Muhammad ALI-MUHAMMAD ALI VS OSCAR BONAVENA
that he threw his Olympic gold medal into the Ohio River after being refused service at a 'whites-only' restaurant, and fighting with a white gang. Whether this is true is still debated, although he was given a replacement medal during the opening ceremony of the 1996 Olympics in Atlanta, where he lit the torch to start the games. Early professional career After his Olympic triumph, Clay returned to Louisville to begin his professional career. There, on October 29, 1960, he won his first professional fight, a six-round decision over Tunney Hunsaker, who was the police chief of Fayetteville, West Virginia. Standing tall, at 6-ft, 3-in (1.91 m), Clay had a highly unorthodox style for a heavyweight boxer. Rather than the normal style of carrying the hands high to defend the face, he instead relied on foot speed and quickness to avoid punches and carried his hands low. From 1960 to 1963, the young fighter amassed a record of 19-0, with 15 knockouts. He defeated boxers such as Tony Esperti, Jim Robinson, Donnie Fleeman, Alonzo Johnson, George Logan, Willi Besmanoff, Lamar Clark (who had won his previous 40 bouts by knockout), Doug Jones and Henry Cooper. Clay built a reputation by correctly predicting the round in which he would "finish" several opponents, and by boasting before his triumphs. Clay admitted he adopted the latter practice from "Gorgeous" George Wagner, a popular professional wrestling champion in the Los Angeles area who drew thousands of fans. Often referred to as "the man you loved to hate," George could incite the crowd with a few heated remarks, and Ali followed suit. Among Clay's victims were Sonny Banks (who knocked him down during the bout), Alejandro Lavorante, and the aged Archie Moore (a boxing legend who had fought over 200 previous fights, and who had been Clay's trainer prior to Angelo Dundee). Clay had considered continuing using Moore as a trainer following the bout, but Moore had insisted that the cocky "Louisville Lip" perform training camp chores such as sweeping and dishwashing. He also considered having his idol, Sugar Ray Robinson, as a manager, but instead hired Dundee. Clay first met Dundee when the latter was in Louisville with light heavyweight champ Willie Pastrano. The teenaged Golden Glove winner traveled downtown to the fighter's hotel, called Dundee from the house phone, and was asked up to their room. He took advantage of the opportunity to query Dundee (who was working with, or had, champions Sugar Ramos and Carmen Basilio) about what his fighters ate, how long they slept, how much roadwork (jogging) they did, and how long they sparred. Following his bout with Moore, Clay won a disputed 10-round decision over Doug Jones in a matchup that was named "Fight of the Year" for 1963. Clay's next fight was against Henry Cooper, who knocked Clay down with a left hook near the end of the fourth round. The fight was stopped in the fifth due to deep cuts over Cooper's eyes. Despite these close calls, Clay became the top contender for Sonny Liston's title. Despite his impressive record, however, he was not widely expected to defeat the champ. The fight was scheduled for February 25, 1964 in Miami, Florida, but was nearly canceled when the promoter, Bill Faversham, heard that Clay had been seen around Miami and in other cities with the controversial Malcolm X. At the time, The Nation of Islam — of which Malcolm X was a member — was portrayed as a "hate group" by most of the media. Because of this, news of this association was perceived as a potential gate-killer to a bout where, given Liston's overwhelming status as the favorite to win (7-1 odds), had Clay's colorful persona and nonstop braggadocio as its sole appeal. Faversham confronted Clay about his association with Malcolm X (who, at the time, was actually under suspension by the Nation as a result of controversial comments made in the wake of President Kennedy's assassination, which he called a case of "the chickens coming home to roost"). While stopping short of admitting he was a member of the Nation, Clay protested the suggested cancellation of the fight. As a compromise, Faversham
asked the fighter to delay his announcement about his conversion to Islam until after the fight. The incident is described in the 1975 book The Greatest: My Own Story by Ali (with Richard Durham). During the weigh-in on the day before the bout, the ever-boastful Clay, who frequently taunted Liston during the buildup by dubbing him "the big ugly bear" (among other things), declared that he would "float like a butterfly and sting like a bee," and, summarizing his strategy for avoiding Liston's assaults, said, "Your hands can't hit what your eyes can't see." First title fight Main article: Muhammad Ali versus Sonny Liston Clay had a plan for his first title fight. At the pre-fight weigh-in, Clay's pulse rate was around 120, more that double his norm of 54. Liston, along with others, misread this as nervousness, and as such, was typically over-confident and unprepared for any result other than a quick knockout victory in his favour. In the opening rounds, Clay's speed kept him away from Liston's powerful head and body shots, as he used his height advantage to beat Liston to the punch with his own lightning-quick jab. By the third round, Clay was ahead on points and had opened a cut under Liston's eye. Liston regained some ground in the fourth, as Clay was blinded by a substance in his eyes. It is unconfirmed whether this was something used to close Liston's cuts, or deliberately applied to Liston's gloves for a nefarious purpose; however, Bert Sugar (author, boxing historian and insider) has recalled at least two other Liston fights in which a similar situation occurred, suggesting the possibility that the Liston corner deliberately attempted to cheat. Whatever the case, Liston came into the fourth round aggressively looking to put away the challenger. As Clay struggled to recover his vision, he sought to escape Liston's offensive. He was able to keep out of range until his sweat and tears rinsed the substance from his eyes, responding with a flurry of combinations near the end of the fifth round. By the sixth, he was looking for a finish and dominated Liston. Then, Liston shocked the boxing world when he failed to answer the bell for the seventh round, later claiming a shoulder injury as the reason. Cassius Clay had indeed "Shook up the world!" just as he had promised. In the rematch, which was held in May 1965 in relatively-remote Lewiston, Maine, Ali (who had by now publicly converted to Islam and changed his name) won by knockout in the first round as a result of what came to be called the "phantom punch." Many believe that Liston, possibly as a result of threats from Nation of Islam extremists, or in an attempt to "throw" the fight to pay off debts, just wanted to call it a day and waited to be counted out (see Muhammad Ali versus Sonny Liston). Others, however, discount both scenarios and insist that it was a quick, chopping Ali punch to the side of the head that legitimately felled Liston.In November 1965 Ali fought Floyd Patterson in his second title defense including his rematch with Liston. Patterson lost by technical knockout at the end of the 12th round in a bout that mirrored what he would later do against Ernie Terrell, savagely beating his opponent but refusing to knock him out. Ali was scheduled to fight WBA champion Ernie Terrell (the WBA stripped Ali of his title after he announced his conversion) in a unification bout in Toronto on March 29, but Terrell backed out and Ali won a 15-round decision against substitute opponent George Chuvalo. He then went to England and defeated Henry Cooper by stoppage on cuts and Brian London. Ali's next defense was against German southpaw Karl Mildenberger, the first German to fight for the title since Max Schmeling. In one of the tougher fights of his life, Ali stopped his opponent in round 12. Ali returned to the United States in November 1966 to fight Cleveland "Big Cat" Williams in the Houston Astrodome, in front of an indoor record 35,460 fight fans. A year and a half before the fight, Williams had been shot in the stomach at point-blank range by a Texas policeman. As a result, Williams went into the fight missing one kidney and 10 feet of his small intestine, and with a shriveled left leg from nerve damage from the bullet. Ali beat Williams in three rounds. On February 6, 1967, Ali returned to a Houston boxing ring to
fight Terrell in what became one of the uglier fights in boxing. Terrell had angered Ali by calling him Clay, and the champion vowed to punish him for this insult. During the fight, Ali kept shouting at his opponent, "What's my name, Uncle Tom ... What's my name?" Terrell suffered 15 rounds of brutal punishment, losing 13 rounds on two judges' scorecards, but Ali did not knock him out. Analysts, including several who spoke to ESPN on the sports channel's "Ali Rap" special, speculated that the fight continued only because Ali wanted to thoroughly punish and humiliate Terrell. After the fight, Tex Maule wrote, "It was a wonderful demonstration of boxing skill and a barbarous display of cruelty." Ali returned to Madison Square Garden in New York City on March 22, 1967 beating Zora Folley in a TKO after 7 rounds. Religion Ali at an address by Elijah MuhammadAfter winning the championship from Liston in 1964, Clay revealed that he was a member of the Nation of Islam (often called the Black Muslims at the time) and the Nation gave Clay the name Cassius X, discarding his surname as a symbol of his ancestors' enslavement, as had been done by other Nation members. On Friday, March 6, 1964, Malcolm X took Clay on a guided tour of the United Nations building (for a second time). Malcolm X announced that Clay would be granted his "X." That same night, Elijah Muhammad recorded a statement over the phone to be played over the radio that Clay would be renamed Muhammad (one who is worthy of praise) Ali (fourth rightly guided caliph). Only a few journalists (most notably Howard Cosell) accepted it at that time. Venerable boxing announcer Don Dunphy addressed the champion by his adopted name, as did British reporters. The adoption of this name symbolized his new identity as a member of the Nation of Islam. Many sportswriters of the early 1960s reported that it was Ali's brother, Rudy Clay, who converted to Islam first (estimating the date as 1961). Others wrote that Clay had been seen at Muslim rallies a few years before he fought Liston. Ali's own version is that he would sneak into Nation of Islam meetings through the backdoor roughly three years before he fought Sonny Liston. He was afraid that if others knew he wouldn't be able to fight for his title. Aligning himself with the Nation of Islam made him a lightning rod for controversy, turning the outspoken but popular champion into one of that era's most recognizable and controversial figures. Appearing at rallies with Nation of Islam leader Elijah Muhammad and declaring his allegiance to him at a time when mainstream America viewed them with suspicion — if not outright hostility — made Ali a target of outrage, as well as suspicion. Ali seemed at times to provoke such reactions, with viewpoints that wavered from support for civil rights to outright support of separatism. For example, Ali once stated, in relation to integration: "We who follow the teachings of Elijah Muhammad don't want to be forced to integrate. Integration is wrong. We don't want to live with the white man; that's all." And in relation to inter-racial marriage: "No intelligent black man or black woman in his or her right black mind wants white boys and white girls coming to their homes to marry their black sons and daughters." Indeed, Ali's religious beliefs at the time included the notion that the white man was "the devil" and that white people were not "righteous." Ali claimed that white people hated black people. Ali converted from the Nation of Islam sect to mainstream Sunni Islam in 1975. In a 2004 autobiography, written with daughter Hana Yasmeen Ali, Muhammad Ali attributes his conversion to the shift toward Sunni Islam made by W.D. Muhammad after he gained control of the Nation of Islam upon the death of Elijah Muhammad in 1975. Vietnam War In 1964, Ali failed the U.S. Armed Forces qualifying test because his writing and spelling skills were sub-par. However, in early 1966, the tests were revised and Ali was reclassified as 1A. This classification meant he was now eligible for the draft and induction into the U.S. Army. This was especially important because the United States was engaged in the Vietnam War. When
notified of this status, he declared that he would refuse to serve in the United States Army and publicly considered himself a conscientious objector. Ali stated that "War is against the teachings of the Holy Qur'an. I'm not trying to dodge the draft. We are not supposed to take part in no wars unless declared by Allah or The Messenger. We don't take part in Christian wars or wars of any unbelievers." Ali also famously said in 1966: "I ain't got no quarrel with them Viet Cong ... They never called me nigger." Appearing for his scheduled induction into the U.S. Armed Forces on April 28, 1967 in Houston, he refused three times to step forward at the call of his name. An officer warned him he was committing a felony punishable by five years in prison and a fine of $10,000. Once more, Ali refused to budge when his name was called. As a result, on that same day, the New York State Athletic Commission suspended his boxing license and stripped him of his title. Other boxing commissions followed suit. At the trial two months later, the jury, after only 21 minutes of deliberation, found Ali guilty. After a court of appeals upheld the conviction, the case went to the U.S. Supreme Court. During this time, people turned against the war, and support for Ali grew. Ali financially supported himself by visiting many college universities to give speeches across the country. The Fight of the Century Main article: Fight of the Century In 1970, Ali was allowed to fight again. With the help of a state senator, he was granted a license to box in Georgia because it was the only state in America without a boxing commission. In October 1970, he stopped Jerry Quarry on a cut after three rounds. Shortly after the Quarry fight, the New York State Supreme Court ruled that Ali had been unjustly denied a boxing license. Once again able to fight in New York, he fought Oscar Bonavena at Madison Square Garden in December 1970. After a tough 14 rounds, Ali stopped Bonavena in the 15th, paving the way for a title fight against Joe Frazier, who was himself undefeated. Ali and Frazier met in the ring on March 8, 1971, at Madison Square Garden. The fight, known as '"The Fight of the Century," was one of the most eagerly anticipated bouts of all time and remains one of the most famous. It featured two skilled, undefeated fighters, both of whom had legitimate claims to the heavyweight crown. Frank Sinatra — unable to acquire a ringside seat — took photos of the match for Life magazine. Legendary boxing announcer Don Dunphy and actor and boxing aficionado Burt Lancaster called the action for the broadcast, which reached millions of people. The fight lived up to the hype, and Frazier punctuated his victory by flooring Ali with a hard left hook in the 15th and final round. Frazier retained the title on a unanimous decision, dealing Ali his first professional loss. However, Ali won a more important victory on June 28, 1971, when the Supreme Court reversed his conviction for refusing induction by unanimous decision in Clay v. United States. In 1974, following splitting two bouts with Ken Norton (one Ali lost in which Norton broke his jaw) Ali fought a rematch against Joe Frazier, Ali-Frazier II, which was notable for a pre-fight brawl on ABC Sports sparked by Ali calling Frazier "ignorant." In the fight at Madison Square Garden, Ali won a unanimous decision. The Rumble in the Jungle Main article: The Rumble in the Jungle In one of the biggest upsets in boxing history, Ali regained his title on October 30, 1974 by defeating champion George Foreman in their bout in Kinshasa, Zaire. Hyped as "The Rumble In The Jungle," the fight was promoted by Don King. Almost no one, not even Ali's long-time supporter Howard Cosell, gave the former champion a chance of winning. Analysts pointed out that Joe Frazier and Ken Norton had given Ali four tough battles in the ring and won two of them, while Foreman had knocked out both of them in the second round. As a matter of fact, so total was the domination that, in their bout, Foreman had knocked down Frazier an incredible six times in only four minutes and 25 seconds. During the bout, Ali employed an unexpected strategy. Leading up to the fight, he had declared he was going to "dance" and use his speed to keep away from Foreman and outbox him. However, in the first round, Ali headed straight for
the champion and began scoring with a right hand lead, clearly surprising Foreman. Ali caught Foreman nine times in the first round with this technique but failed to knock him out. He then decided to take advantage of the young champion's weakness: staying power. Foreman had won 37 of his 40 bouts by knockout, mostly within three rounds. Eight of his previous bouts didn't go past the second round. Ali saw an opportunity to outlast Foreman, and capitalized on it. In the second round, the challenger retreated to the ropes - inviting Foreman to hit him, while counterpunching and verbally taunting the younger man. Ali's plan was to enrage Foreman and absorb his best blows to exhaust him mentally and physically. While Foreman threw wide shots to Ali's body, Ali countered with stinging straight punches to Foreman's head. Foreman threw hundreds of punches in seven rounds, but with decreasing technique and potency. Ali's tactic of leaning on the ropes, covering up, and absorbing ineffective body shots was later termed "The Rope-A-Dope." By the end of the seventh round, Foreman was exhausted. In the eighth round, Ali dropped Foreman with a combination at center ring and Foreman failed to make the count. Against the odds, Ali had regained the title. Many years later, Foreman would become champ again at age 45. Muhammad Ali (Foreman's best friend at the time) did not attend the title bout. When asked why, he said "I would deviate attention from George. It was his moment, not mine." The "Rumble in the Jungle" was the subject of a 1996 Academy Award winning documentary film, When We Were Kings. The match was ranked seventh in the British television program The 100 Greatest Sporting Moments. Thrilla in Manila Main article: Thrilla in Manila After beating Foreman, Ali would have a successful string of title defenses. In March 1975, Ali faced Chuck Wepner in a bout that inspired the original Rocky. While it was largely thought that Ali would dominate, Wepner surprised everyone by not only knocking Ali down in the ninth round, but nearly going the distance. Ali eventually stopped Wepner in the fading minutes of the 15th round, but Wepner's display of courage and resilience gave Sylvester Stallone, then an aspiring writer, actor and director, the basis of the plot for the first of the Rocky franchise, which led to five sequels that have endured for 30 years. Ali continued to defend his title, winning victories over Ron Lyle and Joe Bugner. In October 1975, Ali fought Joe Frazier for the third time. The bout was promoted as the Thrilla in Manila by Don King, who had ascended to prominence following the Ali-Foreman fight. The anticipation was enormous for this final clash between two great heavyweights. Ali believed Frazier was "over the hill" by that point, and his overconfidence may have caused him to train less than he could have. Ali's frequent insults, slurs and demeaning poems increased the anticipation and excitement for the fight, but also enraged a determined Frazier. Regarding the fight, Ali famously remarked, "It will be a killa... and a chilla... and a thrilla... when I get the gorilla in Manila." The fight lasted 14 grueling rounds in temperatures approaching 100 degrees Fahrenheit. Ali won many of the early rounds, but Frazier staged a comeback in the middle rounds. By the late rounds, however, Ali had reasserted control and the fight was stopped when Frazier was unable to answer the bell for the 15th and final round (his eyes were swollen closed). Frazier's trainer, Eddie Futch, refused to allow Frazier to continue. Ali, in one of the toughest fights of his entire career, was quoted as saying, "It was the closest thing to death that I could feel." Another version had Ali saying, "It was like death. Closest thing to dyin' that I know of." The fight was ultimately detrimental to the health of both fighters, Frazier would retire after losing a fight to George Foreman, while Ali would continue to box but with skills that were beginning to decline. In early 1976, Ali would go on to face easy fighters such as Jean-Pierre Coopman and Richard Dunn (Ali's last knockout of his career), winning easily inside the distance against both. In April 1976, an out-of-shape Ali out-pointed the tough, young brawler Jimmy Young by decision. Young, who would later defeat George Foreman, made Ali appear slow and immobile. Ali's next match after Dunn was a June 25 exhibition against the Japanese wrestler Antonio Inoki.Although widely perceived as a publicity stunt, the match would have a long-term detrimental affect on Ali's mobility. Inoki spent much of the fight on the ground trying to damage Ali’s legs, while Ali spent most of the fight dodging the kicks or staying on the ropes. At the end of 15 rounds, the bout was called a draw. Ali's legs, however, were bleeding, leading to an infection. He suffered two blood clots in his legs as well. Nevertheless, in September, at Yankee Stadium, Ali faced Ken Norton in their third fight, with Ali winning a close 15-round decision. After a successful defense against Alfredo Evangelista Ali returned to Madison Square Garden on September 29, 1977
against Earnie Shavers winning a 15 round decision. After the bout, fight doctor Ferdie Pacheco left Ali's entourage after he first noticed the champion's reflexes slowing down, and after his requests Ali box no longer were ignored. In February 1978 an aged and out of shape Ali lost the title to 1976 Olympic Champion Leon Spinks. Ali defeated Spinks seven months later, winning the Heavyweight Title a third time, following which he retired. Ali's retirement was short lived. In 1980 he returned to face Larry Holmes to win the heavyweight title back an unprecedented four times. By this time Ali was already on medication for what developed into Parkinson's Disease (or syndrome) and was unable to recover his former skills or stamina. Angelo Dundee refused to let his man come out for the 11th round, in what became Ali's first and only loss by anything other than a decision. Ali's final fight, a loss by unanimous decision after 10 rounds, was to up-and-coming challenger Trevor Berbick in 1981. Ali's legacy The torch Ali used to light the flame at the 1996 Summer OlympicsMuhammad Ali defeated almost every top heavyweight in his era, which has been called the golden age of heavyweight boxing. Ali was named "Fighter of the Year" by Ring Magazine more times than any other fighter, and was involved in more Ring Magazine "Fight of the Year" bouts than any other fighter. He is an inductee into the International Boxing Hall of Fame and holds wins over seven other Hall of Fame inductees. He is also one of only three boxers to be named "Sportsman of the Year" by Sports Illustrated. He is regarded as one of the best pound for pound boxers in history. He was a masterful self-promoter, and his psychological tactics before, during, and after fights became legendary. It was his athleticism and boxing skill, however, that enabled him to scale the heights and sustain his position for so many years. In 1978, three years before Ali's permanent retirement, the Board of Aldermen in his hometown of Louisville, Kentucky voted 6–5 to rename Walnut Street to Muhammad Ali Boulevard. This was controversial at the time, as within a week 12 of the 70 street signs were stolen. Earlier that year, a committee of the Jefferson County Public Schools considered renaming Central High School in his honor, but the motion failed to pass. At any rate, in time, Muhammad Ali Boulevard—and Ali himself—came to be well accepted in his hometown. He was the recipient of the 1997 Arthur Ashe Courage Award. In retirement A recent photograph of AliAli was officially diagnosed with Parkinson's Syndrome in 1984 by Dr. Stanley Fahn after seeing several doctors in the early 1980s. Despite the disability, he remains a beloved and active public figure. Recently he was voted into Forbes Celebrity 100 coming in at number 13 behind Donald Trump. In 1985, he served as a guest referee at the inaugural WrestleMania event. In 1987 he was selected by the California Bicentennial Foundation for the U.S. Constitution to personify the vitality of the U.S. Constitution and Bill of Rights in various high profile activities. Ali rode on a float at the 1988 Tournament of Roses Parade, launching the U.S. Constitution's 200th birthday commemoration. He also published an oral history, Muhammad Ali: His Life and Times by Thomas Hauser, in 1991. Ali received a Spirit of America Award calling him the most recognized American in the world. In 1996, he had the honor of lighting the flame at the 1996 Summer Olympics in Atlanta, Georgia. The Muhammad Ali Center, alongside Interstate 64 on Louisville's riverfrontHe has appeared at the 1998 AFL (Australian Football League) Grand Final, where Anthony Pratt invited him to watch the game. He also greets runners at the start line of the Los Angeles Marathon every year. In 1999, Ali received a special one-off award from the BBC at its annual BBC Sports Personality of the Year Award ceremony, namely the BBC Sports Personality of the Century Award in which he received more votes than the other four contenders combined. His daughter Laila Ali also became a boxer in 1999, despite her father's earlier comments against female boxing in 1978: "Women are not made to be hit in the breast, and face like that... the body's not made to be punched right here [patting his chest]. Get hit in the breast... hard... and all that." On September 13, 1999, Ali was named "Kentucky Athlete of the Century" by
the Kentucky Athletic Hall of Fame in ceremonies at the Galt House East. Ali's Presidential Medal of Freedom on display at the Ali CenterIn 2001, a biographical film, entitled Ali, was made, with Will Smith starring as Ali. The film received mixed reviews, with the positives generally attributed to the acting, as Smith and supporting actor Jon Voight earned Academy Award nominations. Prior to making the Ali movie, Will Smith had continually rejected the role of Ali until Muhammad Ali personally requested that he accept the role. According to Smith, the first thing Ali said about the subject to Smith was: "You ain't pretty enough to play me." On November 17, 2002, Muhammad Ali went to Afghanistan as "U.N. Messenger of Peace". He was in Kabul for a three-day goodwill mission as a special guest of the United Nations. He received the Presidential Medal of Freedom at a White House ceremony on November 9, 2005, and the "Otto Hahn peace medal in Gold" of the United Nations Association of Germany (DGVN) in Berlin for his work with the US civil rights movement and the United Nations (December 17, 2005). On November 19, 2005 (Ali's 19th wedding anniversary), the $60 million non-profit Muhammad Ali Center opened in downtown Louisville. In addition to displaying his boxing memorabilia, the center focuses on core themes of peace, social responsibility, respect, and personal growth. As Mrs. Lonnie Ali looks on, President George W. Bush embraces Muhammad Ali after presenting him with the Presidential Medal of Freedom on November 9, 2005, during ceremonies at the White House.According to the Ali Center website, "Since he retired from boxing, Ali has devoted himself to humanitarian endeavors around the globe. He is a devout Muslim, and travels the world over, lending his name and presence to hunger and poverty relief, supporting education efforts of all kinds, promoting adoption and encouraging people to respect and better understand one another. It is estimated that he has helped to provide more than 22 million meals to feed the hungry. Ali travels, on average, more than 200 days per year." At the FedEx Orange Bowl on January 2, 2007, Ali was an honorary captain for the Louisville Cardinals wearing their white jersey, number 19. Ali was accompanied by golf legend Arnold Palmer, who was the honorary captain for the Wake Forest Demon Deacons, and Miami Heat star Dwyane Wade. A youth club in Ali's hometown and a species of rose (Rosa ali) have also been named after him. On June 5, 2007, he received an honorary doctorate of humanities at Princeton University's 260th graduation ceremony. Ali lives in Scottsdale, Arizona with his fourth wife, Yolanda 'Lonnie' Ali. They own a house in Berrien Springs, Michigan, which is for sale. On January 9, 2007, they purchased a house in eastern Jefferson County, Kentucky for $1,875,000. Ranking in heavyweight history There is no consensus among boxing experts and historians as to who is the greatest heavyweight boxer of all time. Ring Magazine, a prominent boxing magazine, named Muhammad Ali as number 1 in a 1998 ranking of greatest heavyweights from all eras. In a 1971 article, Nat Fleischer, the founder of the Ring who saw every heavyweight champion from Jim Jeffries to Joe Frazier, refused to include Ali in his all-time top ten, saying: "he does not qualify for rating with the greatest heavyweights of all time". Fleischer was writing after Ali's loss to Frazier, several years before his performance against Foreman and rematches with Frazier. Recently, Ali was named the second greatest fighter in boxing history by ESPN.com behind only welterweight and middleweight great Sugar Ray Robinson. In December 2007, ESPN listed its choice of the greatest heavyweights of all time. Ali was second on this list also behind Joe Louis, despite the fact that the earlier poll placed Ali ahead of Louis. Personal life Muhammad Ali has been married four times and has seven daughters and two sons. Ali met his first wife, cocktail waitress Sonji Roi, approximately one month before they married on August 14, 1964. Roi's objections to certain Muslim
customs in regard to dress for women contributed to the breakup of their marriage. They divorced on January 10, 1966. On August 17, 1967, Ali (aged 25) married 17-year old Belinda Boyd. After the wedding, she converted to Islam and changed her name to Khalilah Ali, though she was still called Belinda by old friends and family. They had four children: Maryum (b. 1968), Jamillah and Liban (b. 1970), and Muhammad Ali Jr. (b. 1972). In 1975, Ali began an affair with Veronica Porsche, an actress and model. By the summer of 1977, Ali's second marriage was over and he had married Veronica. At the time of their marriage, they had a baby girl, Hana, and Veronica was pregnant with their second child. Their second daughter, Laila, was born in December 1977. By 1986, Ali and Veronica were divorced. On November 19, 1986, Ali married Yolanda Ali. They had been friends since 1964 in Louisville. Their mothers were close friends, although Lonnie has publicly denied the popular notion that Muhammad Ali was once her babysitter. They have one adopted son, Asaad. Ali has two other daughters, Miya and Khaliah, from extramarital relationships. Ali in the media and popular culture Main article: Muhammad Ali in media and popular culture As a world champion boxer and social activist, Ali has been the subject of numerous books, films and other creative works. He has appeared on the cover of Sports Illustrated on 37 different occasions, second only to Michael Jordan. His autobiography The Greatest: My Own Story, written with Richard Durham, was published in 1975. When We Were Kings, a 1996 documentary about the Rumble in the Jungle, won an Academy Award, and the 2001 biopic Ali garnered an Oscar nomination for Will Smith's portrayal of the lead role. For contributions to the theater industry, Muhammad Ali was honored with a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame at 6801 Hollywood Boulevard. Professional boxing championship accomplishments Awards and achievements Preceded by Sonny Liston WBA Heavyweight boxing champion 1964-02-25 – 1964-06-19 (Stripped) Succeeded by Ernie Terrell filled vacancy WBC Heavyweight boxing champion 1964-02-25 – 1967-04-28 (Stripped) Succeeded by Joe Frazier filled vacancy Preceded by Ernie Terrell WBA Heavyweight boxing champion 1967-02-06 – 1967-04-28 (Stripped) Succeeded by Jimmy Ellis filled vacancy Preceded by Leotis Martin (Vacated) NABF Heavyweight boxing champion 1970-12-17 – 1971 (Vacated) Succeeded by George Foreman filled vacancy Preceded by George Foreman (Vacated) NABF Heavyweight boxing champion 1971-07-26 – 1973-03-31 Succeeded by Ken Norton Preceded by Ken Norton NABF Heavyweight boxing champion 1973-09-10 – 1974 (Vacated) Succeeded by Ken Norton filled vacancy Preceded by George Foreman WBA Heavyweight boxing champion 1974-10-30 – 1978-02-15 Succeeded by Leon Spinks WBC Heavyweight boxing champion 1974-10-30 – 1978-02-15 Preceded by Leon Spinks WBA Heavyweight boxing champion 1978-09-15 – 1979-09-06 (Vacated) Succeeded by John Tate filled vacancy Professional boxing record 56 Wins (37 knockouts, 19 decisions), 5 Losses (4 decisions, 1 retirement), 0 Draws Res. Opponent Type Rd., Time Date Location Notes Loss Trevor Berbick Decision (unanimous) 10 (10) 1981-12-11 Nassau, Bahamas Loss Larry Holmes Corner retirement 10 (15) 1980-10-02 Las Vegas, NV Match was for WBC Heavyweight title Win Leon Spinks Decision (unanimous) 15 (15) 1978-09-15 New Orleans, LA Won WBA Heavyweight title; Vacated title on 1979-09-06 Loss Leon Spinks Decision (split) 15 (15) 1978-02-15 Las Vegas, NV Lost WBA/WBC Heavyweight titles Win Earnie Shavers Decision (unanimous) 15 (15) 1977-09-29 New York City, NY Retained WBA/WBC Heavyweight titles Win Alfredo Evangelista Decision (unanimous) 15 (15) 1977-05-16 Landover, MD Retained WBA/WBC Heavyweight titles Win Ken Norton Decision (unanimous) 15 (15) 1976-09-28 The Bronx, New York Retained WBA/WBC Heavyweight titles Win Richard Dunn TKO 5 (15) 1976-05-24 Munich, Germany Retained WBA/WBC Heavyweight titles Win Jimmy Young Decision (unanimous) 15 (15) 1976-04-30 Landover, MD Retained WBA/WBC Heavyweight titles Win Jean-Pierre Coopman KO 5 (15) 1976-02-20 San Juan, Puerto Rico Retained WBA/WBC Heavyweight titles Win Joe Frazier TKO 14 (15), 0:59 1975-10-01 Quezon City, Philippines "The Thrilla in Manila"; Retained WBA/WBC Heavyweight titles Win Joe Bugner Decision (unanimous) 15 (15) 1975-06-30 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Retained WBA/WBC Heavyweight titles Win Ron Lyle TKO 11 (15) 1975-05-16 Las Vegas, NV Retained WBA/WBC Heavyweight titles Win
Chuck Wepner TKO 15 (15), 2:41 1975-03-24 Richfield, OH Retained WBA/WBC Heavyweight titles Win George Foreman KO 8 (15), 2:58 1974-10-30 Kinshasa, Zaire "The Rumble in the Jungle"; Won WBA/WBC Heavyweight titles Win Joe Frazier Decision (unanimous) 12 (12) 1974-01-28 New York City, NY Retained NABF Heavyweight title; Vacated title later in 1974 Win Rudi Lubbers Decision (unanimous) 12 (12) 1973-10-20 Jakarta, Indonesia Win Ken Norton Decision (split) 12 (12) 1973-09-10 Inglewood, CA Won NABF Heavyweight title Loss Ken Norton Decision (split) 12 (12) 1973-03-31 San Diego, CA Lost NABF Heavyweight title Win Joe Bugner Decision (unanimous) 12 (12) 1973-02-14 Las Vegas, NV Win Bob Foster KO 7 (12) 1972-11-21 Stateline, NV Retained NABF Heavyweight title Win Floyd Patterson TKO 7 (12) 1972-09-20 New York City, NY Retained NABF Heavyweight title Win Alvin Lewis TKO 11 (12), 1:15 1972-07-19 Dublin, Ireland Win Jerry Quarry TKO 7 (12), 0:19 1972-06-27 Las Vegas, NV Retained NABF Heavyweight title Win George Chuvalo Decision (unanimous) 12 (12) 1972-05-01 Vancouver, Canada Retained NABF Heavyweight title Win Mac Foster Decision (unanimous) 15 (15) 1972-04-01 Tokyo, Japan Win Jürgen Blin KO 7 (12), 2:12 1971-12-26 Zurich, Switzerland Win Buster Mathis Decision (unanimous) 12 (12) 1971-11-17 Houston, TX Retained NABF Heavyweight title Win Jimmy Ellis TKO 12 (12), 2:10 1971-07-26 Houston, TX Won vacant NABF Heavyweight title Loss Joe Frazier Decision (unanimous) 15 (15) 1971-03-08 New York City, NY "The Fight of the Century"; Match was for WBA/WBC Heavyweight titles Win Oscar Bonavena TKO 15 (15), 2:03 1970-12-07 New York City, NY Won NABF Heavyweight title; Vacated title in 1971 Win Jerry Quarry TKO 3 (15) 1970-10-26 Atlanta, GA Win Zora Folley KO 7 (15), 1:48 1967-03-22 New York City, NY Retained WBA/WBC Heavyweight titles; Stripped of titles on 1967-04-28 Win Ernie Terrell Decision (unanimous) 15 (15) 1967-02-06 Houston, TX Retained WBC Heavyweight title, Won WBA Heavyweight title Win Cleveland Williams TKO 3 (15) 1966-11-14 Houston, TX Retained WBC Heavyweight title Win Karl Mildenberger TKO 12 (15) 1966-09-10 Frankfurt, Germany Retained WBC Heavyweight title Win Brian London KO 3 (15) 1966-08-06 London England Retained WBC Heavyweight title Win Henry Cooper TKO 6 (15), 1:38 1966-05-21 London, England Retained WBC Heavyweight title Win George Chuvalo Decision (unanimous) 15 (15) 1966-03-29 Toronto, Canada Retained WBC Heavyweight title Win Floyd Patterson TKO 12 (15), 2:18 1965-11-22 Las Vegas, NV Retained WBC Heavyweight title Win Sonny Liston KO 1 (15), 2:12 1965-05-25 Lewiston, ME Retained WBC Heavyweight title Win Sonny Liston Corner retirement 7 (15) 1964-02-25 Miami Beach, FL Won WBA/WBC Heavyweight titles; Stripped of WBA title on 1964-06-19 Win Henry Cooper TKO 5 (10), 2:15 1963-06-18 London, England Win Doug Jones Decision (unanimous) 10 (10) 1963-03-13 New York City, NY Win Charley Powell KO 3, 2:04 1963-01-24 Pittsburgh, PA Win Archie Moore TKO 4 (10), 1:35 1962-11-15 Los Angeles, CA Win Alejandro Lavorante KO 5 (10), 1:48 1962-07-20 Los Angeles, CA Win Billy Daniels TKO 7 (10), 2:21 1962-05-19 Los Angeles, CA Win George Logan TKO 4 (10), 1:34 1962-04-23 New York City, NY Win Don Warner TKO 4, 0:34 1962-03-28 Miami Beach, FL Win Sonny Banks TKO 4 (10), 0:26 1962-02-10 New York City, NY Win Willi Besmanoff TKO 7 (10), 1:55 1961-11-29 Louisville, KY Win Alex Miteff TKO 6 (10), 1:45 1961-10-07 Louisville, KY Win Alonzo Johnson Decision (unanimous) 10 (10) 1961-07-22 Louisville, KY Win Duke Sabedong Decision (unanimous) 10 (10) 1961-06-26 Las Vegas, NV Win LaMar Clark KO 2 (10), 1:27 1961-04-19 Louisville, KY Win Donnie Fleeman TKO 7 (8) 1961-02-21 Miami Beach, FL Win Jimmy Robinson KO 1 (8), 1:34 1961-02-07 Miami Beach, FL Win Tony Esperti TKO 3 (8), 1:30 1961-01-17 Miami Beach, FL Win Herb Siler KO 4 (8) 1960-12-27 Miami Beach, FL Win Tunney Hunsaker Decision (unanimous) 6 (6) 1960-10-29 Louisville, KY See also List of heavyweight boxing champions List of North American Muslims List of people from Louisville, Kentucky List of WBA world champions List of WBC world champions Notable boxing families Conscientious Objector Notes ^ "Ali crowned Sportsman of Century", BBC News (1999-12-13). ^ Caldwell, Deborah, "Muhammad Ali's New Spiritual Quest", Beliefnet, http://www.beliefnet.com/story/160/story_16045_1.html, retrieved on 20 May 2008. ^ http://www.quotedb.com/quotes/3980 ^ http://www.brainyhistory.com/events/1942/january_17_1942_100655.html ^ Hauser 2004, p. 14 ^ http://www.articleclick.com/Article/Boxing-Legend---Muhammad-Ali/938509 ^ "Muhammad Ali", University of Florida, http://iml.jou.ufl.edu/projects/Spring05/Shaffer/clay.html, retrieved on 20 May 2008. ^ Kindred, Dave (2006). Sound and Fury: Two Powerful Lives, One Fateful Friendship. Simon and Schuster. p. 34. ISBN 9780743262118. http://books.google.com/books?id=qvz2QD6g4usC. ^ http://forum.boxrec.com/viewtopic.php?f=3&t=2223&start=0&st=0&sk=t&sd=a ^ "Muhammad Ali Timeline",
Infoplease, http://www.infoplease.com/spot/malitimeline1.html, retrieved on 20 May 2008. ^ http://www.gale.cengage.com/free_resources/bhm/bio/ali_m.htm ^ "Boxing Classics - Sonny Liston v Cassius Clay - February 25, 1964", Saddo Boxing, http://www.saddoboxing.com/boxing-article/Sonny-Liston-v-Cassius-Clay.html, retrieved on 20 May 2008. ^ a b c d e Lipsyte, Robert (1964-02-26). "Clay Wins Title in Seventh-Round Upset As Liston Is Halted by Shoulder Injury", The New York Times. Retrieved on 27 December 2008. ^ a b Hauser, Thomas (2003-11-02), "The living flame", The Observer, http://observer.guardian.co.uk/osm/story/0,,1072751,00.html, retrieved on 20 May 2008. ^ ""The Greatest" Is Gone", Time (1978-02-27), pp. 5. Retrieved on 4 August 2007. ^ "This Week in Black History", Jet (1994-05-02). Retrieved on 4 August 2007. ^ Skyhorse Publishing Inc. (2007). Through the Eyes of the World. pp. 481. ^ a b Tallent, Aaron, "The Joke That Almost Ended Ali's Career", The Sweet Science, http://www.thesweetscience.com/boxing-article/1716/joke-almost-ended-ali-career/, retrieved on 4 December 2007. ^ "Inoki vs. Ali Footage", YouTube, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VrXzH4WOUdc, retrieved on 4 December 2007. ^ Hill, Bob (2005-11-19). "Ali stirs conflicting emotions in hometown", The Courier-Journal. Retrieved on 22 December 2006. ^ http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?sec=health&res=9D07E2DA173BF933A1575AC0A962948260 ^ http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9500EEDF143BF931A1575AC0A962948260 ^ http://www.forbes.com/forbes/2006/0703/131.html ^ http://www.wwe.com/shows/wrestlemania/exclusives/boxervswrestler/ ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport1/hi/tv_and_radio/sports_personality_2003/3222644.stm ^ http://www.womenboxing.com/lailaali.htm ^ http://www.womenboxing.com/ali.htm ^ Spears, Marc J. (1999-09-14). "Ali: The Greatest of 20th century; Show stops when the champ arrives for awards dinner", The Courier-Journal. Retrieved on 7 January 2007. ^ http://www.un.org/apps/news/story.asp?NewsID=5382&Cr=Muhammad&Cr1=Ali ^ "Muhammad Ali visits Kabul", Getty Images, http://www.jamd.com/image/g/1647010?epmid=1, retrieved on 20 May 2008. ^ William Plumber (2003-11-03), "Presidential Medal of Freedom Recipients", White House Press Secretary, http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2005/11/20051103-5.html, retrieved on 20 May 2008. ^ Ryan, Joe (2007-06-05). "Boxing legend Ali gets Princeton degree", The Star-Ledger. Retrieved on 5 June 2007. ^ Dahlberg, Tim (2007-01-17). "Ali turns 65 with a whisper and twinkle", The Courier-Journal. Retrieved on 18 January 2007. ^ Shafer, Sheldon S. (2007-01-25). "Ali coming home, buys house in Jefferson County", The Courier-Journal. Retrieved on 25 January 2007. ^ http://www.boxinginsider.com/columns/was-ali-the-greatest-heavyweight/ ^ "CLAY AN ALL-TIME TOP 10?", The Ring Online, http://www.thering-online.com/ringpages/boxinghistory.html#clayalltime, retrieved on 20 May 2008. ^ http://espn.go.com/boxing/fnf/981202topten.html ^ http://www.amazon.com/ESPN-Classic-Ringside-Top-Heavyweights/dp/B000R7HY5K ^ http://www.whosdatedwho.com/celebrities/people/dating/khalilah-belinda-ali.htm ^ http://content.usatoday.com/topics/topic/Veronica+Porsche+Anderson ^ http://www.famoushookups.com/site/celebrity_profile.php?celebid=2763&name=Yolanda_Ali ^ http://www.famoushookups.com/site/celebrity_profile.php?celebid=2763&name=Yolanda_Ali ^ http://www.thebiographychannel.co.uk/biography_home/741:0/Muhammed_Ali.htm ^ http://www.dtmagazine.com/magazineofweek9282006.html ^ http://www.amazon.com/Greatest-My-Own-Story/dp/0394462688 ^ http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0118147/ ^ http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0248667/ ^ "Hollywood Walk of Fame database", Hollywood Chamber of Commerce, http://www.tibp.com/cgi-bin/foxweb.dll/wlx/dir/wlxdirectory?cc=WOFAME&lcName=Muhammad_Ali. ^ "boxer: Muhammad Ali", BoxRec, http://www.boxrec.com/list_bouts.php?human_id=180&cat=boxer, retrieved on 20 May 2008. References Hauser, Thomas (2004), Muhammad Ali: His Life and Times, Robson Books, ISBN 1861057385, OCLC 56645513 External links Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Muhammad Ali Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Muhammad Ali www.ali.com Official website Top Ali Fight Photos from Sports Illustrated Muhammad Ali at the Internet Movie Database www.maprc.com Muhammad Ali Parkinson Center (MAPC) Professional boxing record for Muhammad Ali from Boxrec Muhammad Ali: Made in Miami Awards and achievements Preceded by Antonio Rebollo Barcelona 1992 Final Summer Olympic Torchbearer Muhammad Ali Atlanta 1996 Succeeded by Cathy Freeman Sydney 2000 Preceded by none United Press International Athlete of the Year 1974 Succeeded by João Carlos de Oliveira Preceded by O.J. Simpson Associated Press Male Athlete of the Year 1974 Succeeded by Fred Lynn Preceded by O.J. Simpson Hickok Belt Winner 1974 Succeeded by Pete Rose [show]v • d • eMuhammad Ali Fights Boxing at the 1960 Summer Olympics · Muhammad Ali versus Sonny Liston · Fight of the Century · Ali-Frazier II · The Rumble in the Jungle · Thrilla in Manila Media Ali (film) · I Am the Greatest: The Adventures of Muhammad Ali · Muhammad Ali (song) · When We Were Kings · The Greatest (film) · Muhammad Ali Heavyweight Boxing · Foes of Ali People Cassius Marcellus Clay, Sr. (father) · Odessa Grady Clay (mother) · Rahman Ali (brother) · Veronica Porsche Ali (wife) · Laila Ali (daughter) · Drew Bundini Brown (trainer and cornerman) · Archie Moore (trainer) · Angelo Dundee (cornerman) · Joe E. Martin Other Clay v. United States · Muhammad Ali Center · Nation of Islam · Sunni Islam · Malcolm X [show]v • d • eSports Illustrated Sportsman of the Year 1954: Roger Bannister | 1955: Johnny Podres | 1956: Bobby Joe Morrow | 1957: Stan Musial | 1958: Rafer Johnson | 1959: Ingemar Johansson | 1960: Arnold Palmer | 1961: Jerry Lucas | 1962: Terry Baker | 1963: Pete Rozelle | 1964: Ken Venturi | 1965: Sandy Koufax | 1966: Jim Ryun | 1967: Carl Yastrzemski | 1968: Bill Russell | 1969: Tom Seaver | 1970: Bobby Orr | 1971: Lee Trevino | 1972: Billie Jean King & John Wooden | 1973: Jackie Stewart | 1974: Muhammad Ali | 1975: Pete Rose | 1976: Chris Evert | 1977: Steve Cauthen | 1978: Jack Nicklaus | 1979: Terry Bradshaw & Willie Stargell | 1980: U.S. Olympic Hockey Team | 1981: Sugar Ray Leonard | 1982: Wayne Gretzky | 1983: Mary Decker | 1984: Edwin Moses & Mary Lou Retton | 1985: Kareem Abdul-Jabbar | 1986: Joe Paterno | 1987: Bob Bourne, Judi Brown King, Kipchoge Keino, Dale Murphy, Chip Rives, Patty Sheehan, Rory Sparrow, & Reggie Williams | 1988: Orel Hershiser | 1989: Greg LeMond | 1990: Joe Montana | 1991: Michael Jordan | 1992: Arthur Ashe | 1993: Don Shula | 1994: Bonnie Blair & Johann Olav Koss | 1995: Cal Ripken, Jr. | 1996: Tiger Woods | 1997: Dean Smith | 1998: Mark McGwire & Sammy Sosa | 1999: U.S. Women's Soccer Team | 2000: Tiger Woods | 2001: Curt Schilling & Randy Johnson | 2002: Lance Armstrong | 2003: David Robinson & Tim Duncan | 2004: Boston Red Sox | 2005: Tom Brady | 2006: Dwyane Wade | 2007: Brett Favre | 2008: Michael Phelps [show]v • d • eOlympic Boxing Champions in Men's Light Heavyweight 1920-1936: 160-175 lb (72.6-79.4 kg), 1948: 73-80 kg 1952-2008: 75-81 kg 1920: Eddie Eagan (USA) • 1924: Harry Mitchell (GBR) • 1928: Víctor Avendaño (ARG) • 1932: David Carstens (RSA) • 1936: Roger Michelot (FRA) • 1948: George Hunter (RSA) • 1952: Norvel Lee (USA) • 1956: James Boyd (USA) • 1960: Cassius Clay (USA) • 1964: Cosimo Pinto (ITA) • 1968: Danas Pozniakas (URS) • 1972: Mate Parlov (YUG) • 1976: Leon Spinks (USA) • 1980: Slobodan Kačar (YUG) • 1984: Anton Josipović (YUG) • 1988: Andrew Maynard (USA) • 1992: Torsten May (GER) • 1996: Vassiliy Jirov (KAZ) • 2000: Aleksandr Lebziak (RUS) • 2004: Andre Ward (USA) • 2008: Zhang Xiaoping (CHN) Persondata NAME Ali, Muhammad ALTERNATIVE NAMES Clay, Cassius Marcellus, Jr. (prior to conversion to Islam) SHORT DESCRIPTION American boxer, world heavyweight champion, Olympic gold medallist; anti-Vietnam War activist DATE OF BIRTH January 17, 1942 PLACE OF BIRTH Louisville, Kentucky DATE OF DEATH PLACE OF DEATH Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Muhammad_Ali" Categories: Muhammad Ali | 1942 births | Living people | American Muslims | African American boxers | American anti-Vietnam War activists | American boxers | American conscientious objectors | American Sunni Muslims | Boxers at the 1960 Summer Olympics | COINTELPRO targets | Converts to Islam | International Boxing Hall of Fame | Kentucky colonels | Olympic boxers of the United States | Olympic gold medalists for the United States | Olympic torchbearers | People with Parkinson's disease | Presidential Medal of Freedom recipients | Professional wrestling referees | Sportspeople from Louisville, Kentucky | WBA Champions | WBC Champions | Winners of the United States Championship for amateur boxers | World Heavyweight Champions
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2009 NCAA Basketball Tournament! List of NCAA Division 1 Teams & Coaches at 227!
America East Conference Albany - Will Brown Binghamton - Kevin Broadus Boston University - Dennis Wolff Hartford - Dan Leibovitz Maine - Ted Woodward New Hampshire - Bill Herrion Stony Brook - Steve Pikiell UMBC - Randy Monroe Vermont - Mike Lonergan 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! America East Conference
Atlantic 10 Conference Charlotte - Bobby Lutz Dayton - Brian Gregory Duquesne - Ron Everhart Fordham - Dereck Whittenburg George Washington - Karl Hobbs La Salle - John Giannini Rhode Island - Jim Baron Richmond - Chris Mooney St. Bonaventure - Mark Schmidt Saint Joseph's - Phil Martelli Saint Louis - Rick Majerus Temple - Fran Dunphy UMass - Derek Kellogg Xavier - Sean Miller 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Atlantic 10 Conference
Atlantic Coast Conference Boston College - Al Skinner Clemson - Oliver Purnell Duke - Mike Krzyzewski Florida State - Leonard Hamilton Georgia Tech - Paul Hewitt Maryland - Gary Williams Miami (Florida) - Frank Haith North Carolina - Roy Williams North Carolina State - Sidney Lowe Virginia - Dave Leitao Virginia Tech - Seth Greenberg Wake Forest - Dino Gaudio 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Atlantic Coast Conference
Atlantic Sun Conference Belmont - Rick Byrd Campbell - Robbie Laing East Tennessee State - Murry Bartow Florida Gulf Coast - Dave Balza Jacksonville - Cliff Warren Kennesaw State - Tony Ingle Lipscomb - Scott Sanderson Mercer - Bob Hoffman North Florida - Matt Kilcullen Stetson - Derek Waugh USC Upstate - Eddie Payne 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Atlantic Sun Conference
Big 12 Conference Baylor - Scott Drew Colorado - Jeff Bzdelik Iowa State - Greg McDermott Kansas - Bill Self Kansas State - Frank Martin Missouri - Mike Anderson Nebraska - Doc Sadler Oklahoma - Jeff Capel III Oklahoma State - Travis Ford Texas - Rick Barnes Texas A&M - Mark Turgeon Texas Tech - Pat Knight 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Big 12 Conference
Big East Conference Cincinnati - Mick Cronin Connecticut - Jim Calhoun DePaul - Jerry Wainwright Georgetown - John Thompson III Louisville - Rick Pitino Marquette - Buzz Williams Notre Dame - Mike Brey Pittsburgh - Jamie Dixon Providence - Keno Davis Rutgers - Fred Hill St. John's - Norm Roberts Seton Hall - Bobby Gonzalez South Florida - Stan Heath Syracuse - Jim Boeheim Villanova - Jay Wright West Virginia - Bobby Huggins 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Big East Conference
Big Sky Conference Eastern Washington - Kirk Earlywine Idaho State - Joe O'Brien Montana - Wayne Tinkle Montana State - Brad Huse Northern Arizona - Mike Adras Northern Colorado - Tad Boyle Portland State - Ken Bone Sacramento State - Brian Katz Weber State - Randy Rahe 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Big Sky Conference
Big South Conference Charleston Southern - Barclay Radebaugh Coastal Carolina - Cliff Ellis Gardner-Webb - Rick Scruggs High Point - Bart Lundy Liberty - Ritchie McKay Presbyterian - Gregg Nibert Radford - Brad Greenberg UNC-Asheville - Eddie Biedenbach VMI - Duggar Baucom Winthrop - Randy Peele 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Big South Conference
Big Ten Conference Illinois - Bruce Weber Indiana - Tom Crean Iowa - Todd Lickliter Michigan - John Beilein Michigan State - Tom Izzo Minnesota - Tubby Smith Northwestern - Bill Carmody Ohio State - Thad Matta Penn State - Ed DeChellis Purdue - Matt Painter Wisconsin - Bo Ryan 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Big Ten Conference
Big West Conference Cal Poly - Kevin Bromley Cal State Fullerton - Bob Burton Cal State Northridge - Bobby Braswell Long Beach State - Dan Monson Pacific - Bob Thomason UC Davis - Gary Stewart UC Irvine - Pat Douglass UC Riverside - Jim Wooldridge UC Santa Barbara - Bob Williams 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Big West Conference
Colonial Athletic Association Delaware - Monte Ross Drexel - Bruiser Flint George Mason - Jim Larranaga Georgia State - Rod Barnes Hofstra - Tom Pecora James Madison - Matt Brady Northeastern - Bill Coen Old Dominion - Blaine Taylor Towson - Pat Kennedy UNC-Wilmington - Benny Moss Virginia Commonwealth - Anthony Grant William & Mary - Tony Shaver 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Colonial Athletic Association
Conference USA East Carolina - Mack McCarthy Houston - Tom Penders Marshall - Donnie Jones Memphis - John Calipari Rice - Ben Braun Southern Methodist - Matt Doherty Southern Mississippi - Larry Eustachy Tulane - Dave Dickerson Tulsa - Doug Wojcik UAB - Mike Davis UCF - Kirk Speraw UTEP - Tony Barbee 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Conference USA
Horizon League - Butler - Brad Stevens Cleveland State - Gary Waters Detroit - Ray McCallum Loyola (Chicago) - Jim Whitesell UIC - Jimmy Collins UW-Green Bay - Tod Kowalczyk UW-Milwaukee - Rob Jeter Valparaiso - Homer Drew Wright State - Brad Brownell Youngstown State - Jerry Slocum 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Horizon League
Independents Bryant - Tim O'Shea Cal State Bakersfield - Keith Brown Chicago State - Benjy Taylor Houston Baptist - Ron Cottrell Longwood - Mike Gillian New Jersey Institute of Technology - Jim Engles North Carolina Central - Henry Dickerson Savannah State - Horace Broadnax SIU-Edwardsville - Lennox Forrester Texas-Pan American - Tom Schuberth Utah Valley - Dick Hunsaker 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! NCAA Division I independent schools (basketball)
Ivy League Brown - Jesse Agel Columbia - Joe Jones Cornell - Steve Donahue Dartmouth - Terry Dunn Harvard - Tommy Amaker Penn - Glen Miller Princeton - Sydney Johnson Yale - James Jones 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Ivy League
Metro Atlantic Athletic Conference Canisius - Tom Parrotta Fairfield - Ed Cooley Iona - Kevin Willard Loyola (Maryland) - Jimmy Patsos Manhattan - Barry Rohrssen Marist - Chuck Martin Niagara - Joe Mihalich Rider - Tommy Dempsey St. Peter's - John Dunne Siena - Fran McCaffery 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Mid-American Conference
Mid-American Conference Akron – Keith Dambrot Ball State – Billy Taylor Bowling Green – Louis Orr Buffalo – Reggie Witherspoon Central Michigan – Ernie Ziegler Eastern Michigan – Charles Ramsey Kent State – Geno Ford Miami – Charlie Coles Northern Illinois – Ricardo Patton Ohio – John Groce Toledo – Gene Cross Western Michigan – Steve Hawkins 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Mid-American Conference
Mid-Eastern Athletic Conference Bethune-Cookman - Clifford Reed Coppin State - Ron Mitchell Delaware State - Greg Jackson Florida A&M - Mike Gillespie Hampton - Kevin Nickelberry Howard - Gil Jackson Maryland-Eastern Shore - Meredith Smith Morgan State - Todd Bozeman Norfolk State - Anthony Evans North Carolina A&T - Jerry Eaves South Carolina State - Tim Carter Winston-Salem State - Bobby Collins 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Mid-Eastern Athletic Conference
Missouri Valley Conference Bradley - Jim Les Creighton - Dana Altman Drake - Mark Phelps Evansville - Marty Simmons Illinois State - Tim Jankovich Indiana State - Kevin McKenna Missouri State - Cuonzo Martin Northern Iowa - Ben Jacobson Southern Illinois - Chris Lowery Wichita State - Gregg Marshall 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Missouri Valley Conference
Mountain West Conference Air Force - Jeff Reynolds Brigham Young - Dave Rose Colorado State - Tim Miles New Mexico - Steve Alford San Diego State - Steve Fisher Texas Christian - Neil Dougherty UNLV - Lon Kruger Utah - Jim Boylen Wyoming - Heath Schroyer 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Mountain West Conference
Northeast Conference Central Connecticut State - Howie Dickenman Fairleigh Dickinson - Tom Green LIU-Brooklyn - Jim Ferry Monmouth - Dave Calloway Mount St. Mary's - Milan Brown Quinnipiac - Tom Moore Robert Morris - Mike Rice Jr. Sacred Heart - Dave Bike St. Francis (PA) - Don Friday St. Francis (NY) - Brian Nash Wagner - Mike Deane 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Northeast Conference
Ohio Valley Conference Austin Peay - Dave Loos Eastern Illinois - Mike Miller Eastern Kentucky - Jeff Neubauer Jacksonville State - James Green Morehead State - Donnie Tyndall Murray State - Billy Kennedy Southeast Missouri - Zac Roman Tennessee-Martin - Bret Campbell Tennessee State - Cy Alexander Tennessee Tech - Mike Sutton 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Ohio Valley Conference
Pacific-10 Conference Arizona - Russ Pennell Arizona State - Herb Sendek California - Mike Montgomery Oregon - Ernie Kent Oregon State - Craig Robinson Stanford - Johnny Dawkins UCLA - Ben Howland USC - Tim Floyd Washington - Lorenzo Romar Washington State - Tony Bennett 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Pacific-10 Conference
Patriot League American - Jeff Jones Army - Jim Crews Bucknell - Dave Paulsen Colgate - Emmett Davis Holy Cross - Ralph Willard Lafayette - Fran O'Hanlon Lehigh - Brett Reed Navy - Billy Lange 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Patriot League
Southeastern Conference Alabama - Philip Pearson Arkansas - John Pelphrey Auburn - Jeff Lebo Florida - Billy Donovan Georgia - Pete Herrmann Kentucky - Billy Gillispie LSU - Trent Johnson Mississippi - Andy Kennedy Mississippi State - Rick Stansbury South Carolina - Darrin Horn Tennessee - Bruce Pearl Vanderbilt - Kevin Stallings 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Southeastern Conference
Southern Conference Appalachian State - Houston Fancher Chattanooga - John Shulman The Citadel - Ed Conroy College of Charleston - Bobby Cremins Davidson - Bob McKillop Elon - Ernie Nestor Furman - Jeff Jackson Georgia Southern - Jeff Price Samford - Jimmy Tillette UNC-Greensboro - Mike Dement Western Carolina - Larry Hunter Wofford - Mike Young 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Southern Conference
Southland Conference Central Arkansas - Rand Chappell Lamar - Steve Roccaforte McNeese State - Dave Simmons Nicholls State - J. P. Piper Northwestern State - Mike McConathy Sam Houston State - Bob Marlin Southeastern Louisiana - Jim Yarbrough Stephen F. Austin - Danny Kaspar Texas A&M-Corpus Christi - Perry Clark Texas-Arlington - Scott Cross Texas-San Antonio - Brooks Thompson Texas State - Doug Davalos 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Southland Conference
Southwestern Athletic Conference Alabama A&M - L. Vann Pettaway Alabama State - Lewis Jackson Alcorn State - Samuel West Arkansas-Pine Bluff - George Ivory Grambling State - Larry Wright Jackson State - Tevester Anderson Mississippi Valley State - Sean Woods Prairie View A&M - Byron Rimm II Southern - Rob Spivery Texas Southern - Tony Harvey 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Southwestern Athletic Conference
The Summit League Centenary - Greg Gary IPFW - Dane Fife IUPUI - Ron Hunter North Dakota State - Saul Phillips Oakland - Greg Kampe Oral Roberts - Scott Sutton South Dakota State - Scott Nagy Southern Utah - Roger Reid UMKC - Matt Brown Western Illinois - Derek Thomas 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! The Summit League
Sun Belt Conference Arkansas-Little Rock - Steve Shields Arkansas State - Dickey Nutt Denver - Joe Scott Florida Atlantic - Mike Jarvis Florida International - Sergio Rouco Louisiana-Lafayette - Robert Lee Louisiana-Monroe - Orlando Early Middle Tennessee - Kermit Davis New Orleans - Joe Pasternack North Texas - Johnny Jones South Alabama - Ronnie Arrow Troy - Don Maestri Western Kentucky - Ken McDonald 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Sun Belt Conference
West Coast Conference Gonzaga - Mark Few Loyola Marymount - Rodney Tention Pepperdine - Vance Walberg Portland - Eric Reveno Saint Mary's - Randy Bennett San Diego - Bill Grier San Francisco - Rex Walters Santa Clara - Kerry Keating 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! West Coast Conference
Western Athletic Conference Boise State - Greg Graham Fresno State - Steve Cleveland Hawai?i - Bob Nash Idaho - Don Verlin Louisiana Tech - Kerry Rupp Nevada - Mark Fox New Mexico State - Marvin Menzies San Jose State - George Nessman Utah State - Stew Morrill 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Western Athletic Conference
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