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United States presidential election, 2008 From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
"2008 American election", "2008 United States election", and "2008 U.S. election" re-direct here. For other uses, see 2008 United States election (disambiguation). This article or section contains information about an upcoming or ongoing election in the United States. ‹ 2004 2012 ›
United States presidential election, 2008 November 4, 2008 Nominee Barack Obama / John McCain Party Democratic Republican Home state Illinois Arizona Running mate Joe Biden / Sarah Palin
Electoral college votes per state for 2008. The winning candidate needs a majority of electoral votes: at least 270 out of a total of 538. The United States presidential election of 2008, scheduled for Tuesday November 4, 2008, will be the 56th consecutive quadrennial United States presidential election and will select the President of the United States and Vice President of the United States. The Republican Party has chosen John McCain, the senior United States Senator from Arizona as its nominee; Barack Obama, the junior United States Senator from Illinois, has been chosen as the nominee for the Democratic Party. The 2008 election is particularly notable because it is the first time in U.S. history that two sitting senators will run against each other for president, and because it is the first time an African American is a presidential nominee for a major party, as well as the first time both major candidates were born outside the continental United States - Hawaii for Obama and the Panama Canal Zone for McCain. With African American candidate Barack Obama, who is of mixed African and Caucasian parentage, as the Democratic Party nominee for President and John McCain's selection of female Alaska Governor Sarah Palin as the Republican Party nominee for Vice-President, the eventual winning ticket is very likely to have a historic context, as either the first African American will be elected President or the first woman or the first Roman Catholic will be elected Vice President.
227's YouTube "Chili"-DUI! Alexandra Kerry Arrested for Allegedly Driving Drunk
The Libertarian Party has nominated former Congressman Bob Barr, the Constitution Party has nominated pastor and radio talk show host Chuck Baldwin, and the Green Party has nominated former Congresswoman Cynthia McKinney. Ralph Nader declined to seek the Green Party nomination and is running as an independent candidate. The election will coincide with the 2008 Senate elections in thirty-three states, House of Representatives elections in all states, and gubernatorial elections in eleven states, as well as various state referendums and local elections. As in the 2004 presidential election, the allocation of electoral votes to each state will be based partly on the 2000 Census. The president-elect and vice president-elect are scheduled to be inaugurated on January 20, 2009.
Contents 1 Characteristics 1.1 No incumbents 1.2 Leading candidates are senators 1.3 Leading candidates' origins and age 1.4 Candidates switching parties 1.5 Election controversies 2 Campaign 2.1 Pre-primary campaign 2.2 Primaries and caucuses 2.2.1 January 2008 2.2.2 February 2008 2.2.3 March 2008 2.2.4 April through June 2008 2.3 Party conventions 2.4 Presidential and vice-presidential debates 2.5 Campaign costs 2.5.1 Internet campaigns 2.6 Criticism of media coverage 2.7 Election day through to Inauguration 3 Candidates 3.1 Republican Party 3.2 Democratic Party 3.3 Third party and independent candidates 3.3.1 Ralph Nader 3.3.2 Libertarian Party 3.3.3 Constitution Party 3.3.4 Green Party 3.4 Other parties 3.4.1 America's Independent Party 3.4.2 Boston Tea Party 3.4.3 Prohibition Party 3.4.4 Reform Party 3.4.5 Party for Socialism and Liberation 3.4.6 Socialist Party USA 3.4.7 Socialist Workers Party 4 Swing states 5 Opinion polling 6 See also 7 References 8 External links
Characteristics Wikinews has 2008 United States presidential election news: September 25: McCain delays campaign, Obama says continue the debates September 24: Wikinews interviews Frank McEnulty, New American Independent Party nominee for President of the United States September 23: Mass delivery of anti-Islamic DVDs in swing voting states September 23: Republican Congressman Ron Paul endorses Constitution Party nominee Chuck Baldwin for President of the United States September 20: Alaskan Governor and Republican U.S. vice presidential nominee Sarah Palin's email account hacked
No incumbents The 2008 election marks the first time since the 1928 election in which neither an incumbent President nor an incumbent Vice President ran for their party's nomination in the presidential election, and the first time since the 1952 election that neither the incumbent President nor incumbent Vice President is a candidate in the general election. The incumbent President, George W. Bush, is serving his second term and is barred from running again by the term limits in the Twenty-second Amendment to the United States Constitution. Vice President Dick Cheney has chosen not to seek the presidency. From 2001, Cheney frequently stated he would never run for President: "I will say just as hard as I possibly know how to say... If nominated, I will not run; if elected, I will not serve." In the three previous two-term Presidential administrations—those of Dwight D. Eisenhower, Ronald Reagan, and Bill Clinton—the incumbent vice president has immediately thereafter run for president. Richard Nixon lost the 1960 election, George H. W. Bush won the 1988 election, and Al Gore lost the 2000 election. The 2008 election is the first in which the Vice President is not a candidate for either the presidency or the vice presidency since Nelson Rockefeller in 1976. Leading candidates are senators The nominees for the major party nominations were both serving United States Senators: Republican candidate John McCain (Arizona) and Democratic candidate Barack Obama (Illinois). It is the first time in history that the two main opponents in the general election are both sitting Senators. Therefore, it appears virtually certain that the 2008 election will mark the first time since the election of John F. Kennedy in 1960 that a sitting Senator will be elected President of the United States, and only the third time ever in American history, after John F. Kennedy and Warren G. Harding. Obama's running mate, Joe Biden (Delaware), is also a sitting senator.
Leading candidates' origins and age Either candidate would become the first president born outside the Continental United States, as Obama was born in Honolulu, Hawaii and McCain was born at Coco Solo, Panama Canal Zone, a US naval base. A bipartisan legal review agreed that McCain is a natural-born citizen of the United States, a constitutional requirement to become president. Obama, having a white mother and Kenyan father of the Luo ethnic group would be the first president to be black and to be biracial. McCain would be the first president from Arizona, while Obama would be the third president elected from Illinois, the first two being Abraham Lincoln and Ulysses S. Grant. The last candidates to run from these states were Adlai Stevenson (D) of Illinois, who ran and lost in 1952 and 1956, and Barry Goldwater (R) of Arizona, who ran and lost in 1964. While being elected from Illinois, Obama would become the first president from Hawaii, his home state by birth. Also, if inaugurated on January 20, 2009, McCain would be the oldest U.S. president upon ascension to the presidency at age 72 years and 144 days, and the second-oldest president to be inaugurated (Ronald Reagan was 73 years and 350 days old at his second inauguration). Barack Obama and John McCain are 24 years and 340 days apart in age. This is the largest age disparity between the two major party presidential candidates, surpassing Bill Clinton and Bob Dole (23 years and 28 days apart in age) who ran against each other in 1996. This is also the first Presidential election since 1976, and only the fourth since the American Civil War, in which none of the four nominees for President and Vice-President from the two major parties have ties of birth or political office to any of the three most populous states in the Union (New York, Texas, or California). Obama was born in Hawaii and represents Illinois, McCain was born in the Panama Canal Zone and represents Arizona, Biden was born in Pennsylvania and represents Delaware, while Palin was born in Idaho and represents Alaska.
Candidates switching parties Former ambassador Alan Keyes, former Congressman Bob Barr, and businessman Wayne Allyn Root left the Republican Party to join or seek the nomination of a third party. Keyes was defeated at the Constitution Party National Convention in a bid for the party's presidential nomination and is currently running as the nominee of the newly formed America's Independent Party. Bob Barr became the Libertarian Party nominee, and Root became Barr's running mate. Former Congresswoman Cynthia McKinney and former Senator Mike Gravel left the Democratic Party to join or seek the nomination of a third party. McKinney won the nomination of the Green Party, and Gravel lost his bid for the Libertarian nomination after being eliminated in the fourth round of voting.
Election controversies The issues of caging lists and other techniques of voter suppression which gave rise to many 2004 United States election voting controversies have not been addressed by further legislation or a regulatory crackdown, and are predicted by Greg Palast (a reporter who has investigated these controversies) to recur to the extent that they could swing the result. An allegation that the Republican Party in Michigan plans to challenge the eligibility of voters based on lists of foreclosed homes has lead to a lawsuit from the Obama campaign and a letter from the House Judiciary Committee to the Department of Justice calling for an investigation.
Campaign See also: United States presidential election, 2008 timeline Pre-primary campaign "Front runner" status is dependent on the news agency reporting, but by October 2007, the consensus listed about six candidates as leading the pack. For example, CNN listed Hillary Clinton, John Edwards, Rudolph Giuliani, Barack Obama, Fred Thompson, and Mitt Romney as the front runners. The Washington Post listed Clinton, Edwards and Obama as the Democratic frontrunners, "leading in polls and fundraising and well ahead of the other major candidates". MSNBC's Chuck Todd christened Giuliani and John McCain the Republican front runners after the second Republican presidential debate. Three candidates, Clinton, Obama, and Romney, raised over $20 million in the first three months of 2007, and three others, Edwards, Giuliani, and McCain, raised over $12 million; the next closest candidate was Bill Richardson, who raised over $6 million. In the third quarter of 2007, the top four GOP fund raisers were Romney, Giuliani, Thompson, and Ron Paul. Paul set the GOP record for the largest online single day fund raising on November 5, 2007. Hillary Clinton set the Democratic record for largest single day fund raising on June 30, 2007.
Primaries and caucuses Main articles: Democratic Party (United States) presidential primaries, 2008 and Republican Party (United States) presidential primaries, 2008 Although the nomination process for each of the two major political parties technically continues through June, in previous cycles the candidates were effectively chosen by the March primaries. This trend continued in 2008 on the Republican side, with John McCain locking up the nomination with victories in Texas and Ohio on March 4, but Democrat Barack Obama did not win the nomination until June 3, after a long campaign against Hilary Clinton. Obama has a wide lead in states won, but Democratic state delegate contests have been decided by a form of proportional representation since 1976. Clinton claimed a lead in the popular vote, but the Associated Press found her numbers accurate only in one very close scenario. During late 2007, both parties adopted rules against states moving their primaries to an earlier date in the year. For the Republicans, the penalty for this violation is supposed to be the loss of half the state party's delegates to the convention. The Democratic Party only allowed four states to hold elections before February 5, 2008. Initially the Democratic Party leadership said it would strip all Democratic delegates from Florida and Michigan, which had moved their primaries all the way into January. All major candidates agreed officially not to campaign in Florida or Michigan, and Edwards and Obama had their names removed from the Michigan ballot. Clinton won a majority of delegates from both states (though 40% voted uncommitted) and subsequently led a fight to fully seat the Florida and Michigan delegates. Political columnist Christopher Weber notes that while this was self-serving, it was also pragmatic on the part of Clinton should Florida or Michigan voters have not voted for Democrats in the general election based on the Democratic Party's decision regarding the seating of delegates. This led to speculation that the fight over the delegates could last until the convention in August. However, on May 31, 2008, a deal was reached by the Rules and Bylaws Committee of the Democratic Party that allows for delegates from Michigan and Florida to receive half a vote each.
January 2008 Around the start of the year, support for Mike Huckabee and Barack Obama began rising in the polls, passing longtime front runners Romney and Clinton for first place in Iowa: the two upstart campaigns were triumphant. Suddenly John McCain displaced Rudy Giuliani and Romney as the front-runner in New Hampshire. While Huckabee had little money and was hoping for a third place finish, Obama was the new front runner in New Hampshire and the Clinton campaign was struggling. However, in a turning point for her campaign, Clinton's voice wavered with emotion in a public interview broadcast live on TV. By the end of that day, Clinton won the primary by 2 points, contrary to the predictions of pollsters who had her as much as twelve points behind on the day of the primary itself. McCain also staged a turnaround victory, having been written off by the pundits and in single digits less than a month before. With the Republicans stripping Michigan and Florida of half their delegates, the Republican race was based there, while the Democrats focused on Nevada and South Carolina, which were given special permission to have early contests; in South Carolina Obama got 55% of the vote. Meanwhile, McCain managed a small victory in South Carolina, setting him up for a larger and more important victory in Florida soon after.
February 2008 On February 3 on the UCLA campus, celebrities Oprah Winfrey, Caroline Kennedy and Stevie Wonder, among others, made appearances to show support for Barack Obama in a rally led by Michelle Obama. Obama trailed in the California polling by an average of 6.0%; he ended up losing the state by 8.3%. Some analysts cited a large Latino turnout as the deciding factor. On the Republican side, John McCain was endorsed by Governor of California Arnold Schwarzenegger and Rudy Giuliani (who had dropped out of the race following the Florida primary), giving McCain a significant boost in the state. Schwarzenegger's wife, Maria Shriver, endorsed Obama. By February 4, it was apparent that McCain might be able to wrap up the nomination quickly, while the Democratic candidates were hoping for a swing of momentum following the February 5 primaries. Super Tuesday: On February 5, 2008, the largest-ever simultaneous number of state United States presidential primary elections was held. Twenty-four states and American Samoa held either caucuses or primary elections for one or both parties on this date, leaving the Democrats in a virtual tie, and John McCain just short of clinching the Republican nod. A few days later, Mitt Romney suspended his presidential campaign and endorsed McCain, leaving Mike Huckabee and Ron Paul as the only major challengers of McCain in the remaining Republican primaries. Louisiana and Washington voted for both parties on February 9, while Nebraska and the U.S. Virgin Islands voted for the Democrats and Kansas voted for the Republicans. Obama swept all four Democratic contests, as well as the Maine caucuses the next day, and Huckabee also came out on top in Kansas, winning by an even greater percentage. The District of Columbia, Maryland and Virginia voted for both parties on February 12 in what was referred to as Potomac primary. Obama won all three for the Democrats (giving him eight consecutive victories after Super Tuesday) and McCain took all three for the Republicans. Obama carried both Hawaii and Wisconsin, the last two states that voted for the Democrats in February, on the 19th. Wisconsin and Washington voted for the Republicans on February 19; John McCain won these states. The Virgin Islands and Puerto Rico closed February for the Republicans, on the 23rd and 24th.
March 2008 For the Republicans, on March 1 American Samoa voted. March 4 was dubbed by some as this year's Mini Tuesday, when the delegate-rich states of Texas and Ohio, along with Rhode Island and Vermont, voted for both parties. Wyoming then voted for the Democrats and Guam voted for the Republicans on March 8. Mississippi voted for both parties on March 11.
On March 4, Hillary Clinton carried Ohio and Rhode Island in the Democratic primaries; some considered this a surprise upset, though she led in the polling averages in both states. She also carried the primary in Texas, but Obama won the Texas caucuses held the same day and netted more delegates from the state than Clinton. John McCain clinched the Republican nomination after sweeping all four primaries, Texas, Ohio, Vermont and Rhode Island, putting him over the top of the 1,191 delegates required to win the GOP nomination. Mike Huckabee conceded the race to McCain, leaving Ron Paul, who had just 16 delegates, as his only remaining opponent for the Republican nomination. In the Wyoming Democratic caucuses, Obama edged out Clinton to gain 7 delegates to her 5, and three days later he beat her again, 59%–39%, in Mississippi.
April through June 2008 Only one state voted in April: Pennsylvania, which held a primary for both parties on April 22. Hillary Clinton won this Democratic primary, with approximately 55% of the vote. Barack Obama won the Guam caucuses on May 3 by 7 votes out of more than 4,500. On May 6, Hillary Clinton won the Indiana primary with 51% of the vote while Barack Obama won in North Carolina with 56% of the vote. Nebraska's Republican and West Virginia's Democratic primaries were held on May 13. In West Virginia, Clinton won with 67% of the vote and 20 of 28 pledged delegates. On May 20, Kentucky and Oregon held primaries for both parties. In Kentucky, Clinton won with 65% of the vote to Obama's 31%. In Oregon, Obama defeated Clinton, by a margin of 18%. Idaho voted for Republicans only on May 27. On May 31, Democratic Party officials, after a tense meeting between Clinton supporters and Obama backers, voted to seat all of Florida and Michigan's delegates at the party's convention, with each getting a half-vote. Puerto Rico held a Democratic primary on June 1, which Clinton won with 68% of the vote to Obama's 32%. The primary season ended on June 3, with contests in New Mexico (Republican), Montana (Democratic), and South Dakota (both parties). Clinton won South Dakota's primary, while Obama was victorious in the Montana primary. As expected, John McCain won all the states during this time period handily, though typically 20-25% of the vote in the Republican primaries went to Huckabee and Paul, despite the fact both had already been mathematically eliminated from contention for the nomination.
Party conventions April 23-26, 2008: 2008 Constitution Party National Convention held in Kansas City, Missouri. May 23-26, 2008: 2008 Libertarian National Convention, held in Denver, Colorado. July 10-13, 2008: 2008 Green Party National Convention, held in Chicago, Illinois. July 18-20, 2008: 2008 Reform Party National Convention, held in Dallas, Texas. August 25-28, 2008: 2008 Democratic National Convention, held in Denver, Colorado. September 1-4, 2008: 2008 Republican National Convention, held in Saint Paul, Minnesota.
Presidential and vice-presidential debates Main article: United States presidential election debates, 2008 Four debates have been announced by the Commission on Presidential Debates September 26: First CPD Presidential Debate in Oxford, Mississippi at the University of Mississippi on Foreign Policy & National Security. The debate will be formatted into nine nine-minute segments, with the moderator introducing the topics. October 2: Vice Presidential Debate in St. Louis, Missouri at Washington University in St. Louis. The format and issues have not been decided. October 7: Second CPD Presidential Debate in Nashville, Tennessee at Belmont University. It will have a town meeting format and will include any issues raised by members of the audience. October 15: Third CPD Presidential Debate in Hempstead, New York at Hofstra University on Domestic and Economic Policy. Like the first CPD debate, this debate will be formatted into nine nine-minute segments, with the moderator introducing the topics. A Zogby International poll released on August 15, 2008, indicated that most Republicans and Democrats want Libertarian candidate Bob Barr to be included in the presidential debates. Nearly 70% of independent voters would like to see Barr included. The same poll indicated that nearly half of likely voters, and a majority (59%) of independent voters would like to see independent candidate Ralph Nader included in the debates as well.
Campaign costs Main article: Fundraising for the 2008 United States presidential election The reported cost of campaigning for President has increased significantly in recent years. One source reported that if the costs for both Democratic and Republican campaigns are added together (for the Presidential primary election, general election, and the political conventions) the costs have more than doubled in only eight years ($448.9 million in 1996, $649.5 million in 2000, and $1.01 billion in 2004). In January 2007, Federal Election Commission Chairman Michael E. Toner estimated the 2008 race will be a $1 billion election, and that to be taken seriously, a candidate needed to raise at least $100 million by the end of 2007. Although he had said he would not be running for president, published reports indicated that billionaire and New York City mayor Michael Bloomberg had been considering a presidential bid as an independent with up to $1 billion of his own fortune to finance it. Bloomberg ultimately ended this speculation by unequivocally stating that he would not run. Had Bloomberg decided to run, he would not have needed to campaign in the primary elections or participate in the conventions, greatly reducing both the necessary length and cost of his campaign. With the increase in money, the public financing system funded by the presidential election campaign fund checkoff has not been used by many candidates. John McCain, Tom Tancredo, John Edwards, Chris Dodd, and Joe Biden qualified for and elected to take public funds in the primary. Other major candidates eschewed the low amount of spending permitted, or gave other reasons as in the case of Barack Obama, and have chosen not to participate.
Internet campaigns Howard Dean collected large contributions via the internet in his 2004 primary run. In 2008 candidates have gone even further in reaching out to Internet users through their own sites and through sites such as YouTube, MySpace and Facebook. Republican Ron Paul and Democratic Party candidate Barack Obama have been the most active in courting voters through the Internet. On December 16, 2007, Ron Paul collected more money on a single day through Internet donations than any presidential candidate in US history with over $6 million. Anonymous and semi-anonymous smear campaigns traditionally done with fliers and push calling have also spread to the Internet.
Criticism of media coverage Significant criticism has been leveled at media outlets' poor coverage of the presidential election season. Erica Jong commented that "our press has become a sea of triviality, meanness and irrelevant chatter". ABC News hosted a debate in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania on April 16 and moderators Charles Gibson and George Stephanopoulos were criticized by viewers, bloggers and media critics for the poor quality of their questions. Some of the questions that many viewers said they considered irrelevant when measured against the faltering economy or the Iraq war, such as why Senator Barack Obama did not wear an American flag pin on his lapel, the incendiary comments of Obama’s former pastor, or Senator Hillary Rodham Clinton’s assertion that she had to duck sniper fire in Bosnia more than a decade ago. The questions from the moderators were considered to be focused on campaign gaffes and trained mostly on Obama, which Stephanopoulos defended by saying that "Senator Obama was the front-runner" and the questions were "not inappropriate or irrelevant at all".
A similar event occurred earlier at a debate in February where Tim Russert of NBC News for what was perceived as his disproportionately tough questioning of Clinton. Among the questions Russert had asked Clinton, but not Obama, was to provide the name of the new Russian leader (Dmitry Medvedev), an event which was subsequently parodied on Saturday Night Live. In October 2007, liberal commentators accused Russert of harassing Clinton over driver's licenses for illegal immigrants and other issues. In an op-ed published on April 27, 2008 in The New York Times, Elizabeth Edwards bemoaned that the media covered much more of "the rancor of the campaign" and "amount of money spent" than "the candidates' priorities, policies and principles". She went on to compare much of the media coverage to a soap opera and stated that, as result, "voters who take their responsibility to be informed seriously enough to search out information about the candidates are finding it harder and harder to do so, particularly if they do not have access to the Internet". Edwards continued, "an informed electorate is essential to freedom itself. But as long as corporations to which news gathering is not the primary source of income or expertise get to decide what information about the candidates 'sells,' we are not functioning as well as we could if we had the engaged, skeptical press we deserve". Edwards stated that what was worse is that trends hold out dim hope that the quality of media coverage will improve, stating that "media consolidation is leading to one-size-fits-all journalism." Worst of all, she said, poor media coverage "gives us permission to ignore issues and concentrate on things that don’t matter". The Project for Excellence in Journalism and Harvard University's Joan Shorenstein Center on the Press, Politics and Public Policy conducted a study of 5,374 media narratives and assertions about the presidential candidates from January 1, 2008 through March 9, 2008. The study found that Obama and Clinton received 69 and 67% favorable coverage, respectively, compared to only 43% favorable media coverage of McCain. Election day through to Inauguration November 4, 2008: Election Day in all 50 states and the District of Columbia. Voters cast votes for listed presidential candidates but are actually selecting their state's slate of Electoral College members. Although Guam has no votes in the Electoral College, they have held a straw poll for their presidential preferences since 1980. In 2008, their ballot will include Barr, McCain, and Obama. Initially, their legislature passed a law moving that poll forward to gain notoriety for Guam's election; the legislation was vetoed and the poll will take place contemporaneously with the proper election. December 15, 2008: Members of the U.S. Electoral College meet in each state to cast their votes for President and Vice President. January 6, 2009: Electoral votes officially tallied before both Houses of Congress. Members of Congress may object to the certification of a state's electoral votes at this time. January 20, 2009: Inauguration Day. Candidates Main articles: List of candidates in the United States presidential election, 2008 and Comparison of United States presidential candidates, 2008
Republican Party Main articles: Republican Party (United States) presidential candidates, 2008 and Republican Party (United States) vice presidential candidates, 2008 Nominees for the Republican Party: Presidential candidate Senator John McCain of Arizona (Campaign Article) Vice Presidential candidate Governor Sarah Palin of Alaska McCain was nominated by roll call at the 2008 Republican National Convention. On August 29, Alaska’s youngest as well as its first female governor Sarah Palin was announced as McCain's running mate at a rally in Dayton, Ohio. She is the first female vice presidential pick on a major party ticket since Geraldine Ferraro in 1984, and the first in the history of the Republican Party. Palin was nominated by acclamation at the convention. Republican National Convention presidential vote, 2008 Candidate Votes Percentage John McCain 2,343 98.45% Ron Paul 15 0.63% Mitt Romney 2 0.08% Delegates that did not vote 20 0.84% Totals 2,380 100.00% Democratic Party Main articles: Democratic Party (United States) presidential candidates, 2008 and Democratic Party (United States) vice presidential candidates, 2008 Nominees for the Democratic Party: Presidential candidate Senator Barack Obama of Illinois (Campaign Article) Vice-presidential candidate Senator Joe Biden of Delaware
Democratic National Convention presidential vote, 2008 Candidate Votes Percentage Barack Obama 1,549.5 35.07% Hillary Clinton 341.5 7.73% Abstentions 1.0 0.02% Delegates who did not vote[A] 2,527.0 57.18% Totals 4,418.0 100.00% A Part way through the roll call, Senator Clinton of New York motioned to suspend the rules of the roll call and nominate Obama by acclamation. This was done and the voting was never officially completed. Earlier the same day, Clinton had released her delegates, allowing them to vote for Obama. Obama is also the nominee of the United Citizens Party in South Carolina. On August 23, Senator Joe Biden of Delaware was announced as Obama's running mate via a text message to supporters. This was the first time in a presidential campaign where a text message was used for such an announcement. Biden was nominated by acclamation at the convention. Third party and independent candidates Main article: Third party (United States) presidential candidates, 2008 The following candidates have achieved sufficient ballot access to win the presidency. Due to the effect of the Electoral College on United States presidential elections, candidates must appear on enough ballots to get at least 270 electoral votes in order to win. Ralph Nader Main article: Ralph Nader presidential campaign, 2008 Presidential Candidate Consumer Advocate Ralph Nader of Connecticut (Campaign article) Vice Presidential Candidate Activist Matt Gonzalez of California
Ralph Nader, consumer advocate, of Connecticut. The two time (1996, 2000) presidential nominee of the Green Party and 2004 independent presidential candidate announced his candidacy for another independent bid in February 2008. He is also on the ballot in some states as the nominee of the Peace and Freedom Party or the newly formed Independent Party. Matt Gonzalez, political activist, of California is Nader's running mate. Libertarian Party Nominees for the Libertarian Party: Presidential Candidate Former Congressman Bob Barr of Georgia (Campaign article) Vice Presidential Candidate Wayne Allyn Root of Nevada Bob Barr, former Republican Congressman from Georgia was chosen as the Libertarian Party's nominee for President, at the Libertarian Party National Convention in Denver, Colorado on May 25, 2008.
Wayne Allyn Root of Nevada, author, small business CEO, and TV producer is the vice-presidential nominee. 2008 Libertarian Party National Convention total vote count Candidate 1st round (pct) 2nd round (pct) 3rd round (pct) 4th round (pct) 5th round (pct) 6th round (pct)
Constitution Party Nominee for the Constitution Party: Chuck Baldwin of Florida, pastor, political activist and 2004 Constitution Party vice presidential nominee, received the presidential nomination of the Constitution Party at its national convention in Kansas City, Missouri on April 26, 2008. Darrell Castle of Tennessee, activist, attorney, and former Marine Corps Lieutenant is the vice-presidential nominee. Green Party Nominee for the Green Party: Former Congresswoman Cynthia McKinney of Georgia (Campaign article) Cynthia McKinney, former Democratic Congresswoman from Georgia, was chosen as the Green Party's nominee for President at that party's National Convention in Chicago on July 12, 2008. She also received the endorsement of the Workers World Party in July. Rosa Clemente of New York, political hip-hop activist and journalist, is the vice-presidential nominee. 2008 Green Party National Convention Floor Vote Candidate Presidential Primaries Convention Delegate Vote Count
Cynthia McKinney 313
Ralph Nader 86½
Kat Swift 38½
Kent Mesplay 35
Jesse Johnson 32½
Elaine Brown 9
Jared Ball 8
Howie Hawkins 8
Other parties Main article: List of candidates in the United States presidential election, 2008
America's Independent Party Nominee for the America's Independent Party: Former ambassador Alan Keyes of Maryland (Campaign article) Alan Keyes, former U.S. ambassador, of Maryland. After unsuccessful attempts to secure the 2008 nominations of the Republican and Constitution parties, Keyes announced his intention to run as the nominee of the newly formed America's Independent Party, and as an independent in states where the party does not have ballot status. Brian Rohrbough of Colorado, businessman and pro-life activist, is the vice-presidential nominee. Boston Tea Party Charles Jay of Florida, 2004 Presidential nominee of the Personal Choice Party, was selected as the nominee for President of the United States at the online Convention of the Boston Tea Party June 15-16, 2008. Thomas L. Knapp of Missouri, blogger and editor of the online magazine Rational Review, is the vice-presidential nominee. Prohibition Party Gene Amondson of Washington, minister and temperance movement activist, received the Prohibition Party's presidential nomination at its national convention on September 13, 2007. Leroy Pletten of Michigan is the vice-presidential nominee.
Reform Party Ted Weill of Mississippi was selected as the presidential nominee of the Reform Party at its National convention on July 20, 2008 in Dallas, Texas. Frank McEnulty of California is the vice-presidential nominee. Party for Socialism and Liberation Nominee for the Party for Socialism and Liberation: American politician, Gloria La Riva of California Gloria La Riva of California, was announced as the presidential nominee of the Party for Socialism and Liberation in January 2008. Eugene Puryear of Washington D.C. is the vice-presidential nominee. Socialist Party USA Nominees for the Socialist Party USA: Antiwar activist Brian Moore of Florida Stewart Alexander of California Brian Moore of Florida received the Socialist Party USA's presidential nomination at its national convention, October 19-21, 2007 in St. Louis, Missouri. He is also the nominee of Liberty Union Party of Vermont. Stewart Alexander of California is the vice-presidential nominee. Socialist Workers Party Róger Calero of New York, journalist, was announced as the presidential nominee of the Socialist Workers Party in January 2008. This is Calero's second run on the party's ballot; however, because he was born in Nicaragua, if he were to win, Calero would nonetheless be ineligible for the Presidency. Alyson Kennedy is the vice-presidential nominee. Swing states Further information: Swing state
Statewide opinion polling for the United States presidential election, 2008. >10% Obama lead
4%–10% Obama lead
1%–4% Obama lead
1%–4% McCain lead
4%–10% McCain lead
>10% McCain leadPolitical experts and polling have identified certain swing states where close votes might prove crucial to the outcome of the election. The states most likely to alter the outcome of a close election are located in two areas of the US: in and around the Rust Belt and in the south of the Mountain States division. Swing states include (electoral college votes in brackets):
Colorado (9) The Centennial State held its second Democratic National Convention in Denver after 100 years. The election of Ken Salazar, a Hispanic-American to the U.S. Senate; Bill Ritter to the Governorship in 2006 and a U.S. House seat pick-up in 2006 made it a prized apple for the Democrats, prompting DNC Chairman Howard Dean to claim the West holds the key to victory in 2008, which effectively led to Denver being the location of the Convention. A strong Hispanic-American concentration and the attention brought to bear on such issues as immigration reform, labor union support and minimum wage have made this a possible Democratic state. Polls show Obama with a slight lead. Florida (27) The key player in 2000, whose votes went narrowly to George W. Bush, making him the winner. Experts agree the winner of Florida will have a significant advantage towards advancing to the White House. Florida has trended toward the Republican Party since 2000. For Democrats, the vote of the elderly is seen as a potential boon, due to the party's traditional stance on Medicare and Social Security - two key components of winning the elderly vote - while Republicans have an advantage with their stance on tax cuts and values issues. The Hispanic and African American populations in Florida could also give the Democrats an edge in a close race. For Republicans, the business attention of tax cuts and Cuban American attention has made it a strong contender. Polls show McCain with a moderate lead in Florida. Indiana (11) The state has not voted for a Democratic Presidential Nominee since Lyndon B. Johnson in 1964. A poll by The Indianapolis
Star showed the Iraq War and the sluggish economy to be the biggest issues among Hoosiers. In 2006, Democrats won three house seats here. Polls show McCain with a slight lead in Indiana. Michigan (17) The Great Lakes State has been a fairly safe bet for the Democrats in recent decades, giving its substantial electoral votes to Bill Clinton, Al Gore, and John Kerry. However, with each election, the margin of victory has narrowed, opening a window for the Republicans. Populism and a historically strong labor movement have dominated the state and given Democrats an advantage, but Republicans have gained ground in advancing tax cuts and other social issues appealing to "Reagan Democrats". A population exodus from Democratic Detroit has made the conservative Republican west more influential. Still, Democratic governor Jennifer Granholm was soundly re-elected in 2006 despite the state having the highest unemployment rate in the country on her watch. Polls show Michigan with a moderate Obama lead. Minnesota (10) Minnesota has been solidly Democratic in most recent elections, and was the only state that Democrat Walter Mondale successfully won in his 1984 presidential bid. However, the state is seen as “competitive” in most recent polls. The 2008 Republican National Convention was held in the state, and the current governor, Republican Tim Pawlenty, has shown tremendous support for McCain, two factors which could court swing voters. Polls show Minnesota with a slight Obama lead.  Missouri (11) The Show Me State has long been dubbed the bellwether for the nation because historically it has correlated very closely with the national Zeitgeist – with the single exception of 1956, Missouri has supported the winner of every Presidential election since 1904. The home state of President Harry Truman leans slightly Republican, and granted its 11 electoral votes to Bush in both 2000 and 2004. Despite the relative strength of Republicans in this Midwestern state, it has a strong penchant for advancing populist causes such as stem cell research and universal health care. In 2006, Missouri elected its first female U.S. Senator in Democrat Claire McCaskill. Moreover, the national mood souring over the Iraq war and a contentious gubernatorial election with a Democratic favorite in Jay Nixon make this state a strong possibility for the Democrats. Polls show McCain with a sizeable lead in Missouri. Nevada (5) Although Nevada has historically leaned Republican, the high concentration of labor unions and Hispanic and Latino Americans make it a potential swing state. Its 2006 gubernatorial election was particularly competitive: Republican Jim Gibbons won only by a slim margin. The Las
Vegas metropolitan area with its dramatic increase in population has become an attractive destination for Democratic campaign resources, and Democrats are buoyed by the strong disapproval ratings - as of June 2008 - of Gibbons and Bush. Furthermore, Nevada has, with the single exception of 1976, been won by the victor of every US Presidential election since 1912, a record which makes it a secondary bellwether state. Polls show McCain with a slight lead in Nevada. New Hampshire (4) Once very reliably Republican, New Hampshire became a swing state in the 1990s. Republicans still have somewhat of an edge in statewide elections, however the Democrats took control of the state legislature and both Congressional seats in 2006. The New Hampshire Republican Party tends to be more socially liberal than the national party, and as a result their behavior in national elections is harder to determine. New Hampshire was the only state in the nation that went for Bush in 2000 and then for Kerry in 2004, although by narrow margins both times. Polls show Obama with a slight lead in New Hampshire. New Jersey: (15) New Jersey has been solidly Democratic in all elections since the 1990’s, but most recent polls show a changing trend. Barack Obama’s rival, Hillary Clinton, won the state in the primaries and John McCain significantly defeated his other competitors in the primaries. The state has a large number of independents and former Clinton supporters that could deliver this state to John McCain. Current polls show Obama with a lead in the state. New Mexico (5) New Mexico has been long eschewed as a nominal state, but that thinking has changed dramatically. With elections being heavily contested and victories being decided by two or three states, New Mexico has become one of the centers of political fighting. In 2000, Gore won by a razor-thin margin and in 2004, Bush won by a small, yet safe margin. These results have made experts conclude that New Mexico's five electoral votes, even though small in calculation, could tip the balance. New Mexico's large Hispanic and Native American populations tend to vote Democrat, and could be the key for a Democratic candidate in a close race. Its penchant for populist streaks have made it an attraction for the Democrats, and Governor Bill Richardson was a contender for the 2008 nomination, and had been widely speculated as a vice presidential candidate. Polls show Obama with a moderate lead in New Mexico. North Carolina (15) North Carolina has been considered a "safe" Republican state for decades. It last supported a Democratic presidential candidate in 1976. North Carolina has a large African American population, and a large number of well educated whites, two demographics that favored Barack Obama in the primaries. With the potential of Obama becoming the first African American president in the U.S's history, a large African American turnout could tilt the state Democrat. After early polls showed McCain with a double digit lead, the four most recent polls show the race to be either a tie or McCain leading by one to three points. An average of the five most recent five polls shows McCain to have a lead in North Carolina.  Ohio (20) "I think 2008 is very likely to be a hotly contested race in Ohio," stated Eric Rademacher, director of the University of Cincinnati's Ohio Poll, for The Cincinnati Enquirer. Its 20 electoral votes were
critical to President Bush's re-election in 2004, and their tally was close enough to be contested. In 2006, Ohio voters elected Democrats Ted Strickland and Sherrod Brown for Governor and U.S. Senator, respectively. The Republicans have never won the presidency without winning Ohio. Polls show McCain with a slight lead in Ohio. Pennsylvania (21) Pennsylvania Secretary of the Commonwealth Pedro A. Cortés stated in March 2007, that "The commonwealth’s large number of electoral college votes and diverse population make Pennsylvania a key swing state." Pennsylvania has leaned Democratic since 1992, giving its electoral votes to Bill Clinton (1992 and 1996), Gore (2000) and Kerry (2004). President Bush visited the state more than 40 times during his 2004 campaign. Polls show Obama with a slight lead in Pennsylvania. Virginia (13) No Democratic presidential candidate has won Virginia since Lyndon Johnson's landslide victory in 1964, and it was the only Southern state that went Republican in 1976. Virginia is no longer as reliably Republican as it once was, as evidenced by Democrat Tim Kaine's winning the Governor's Mansion in 2005, Jim Webb's narrow victory in the 2006 Senate race against incumbent Republican George Allen, and in the 2007 when the Democrats reached a majority in the State Senate election. Additionally, Northern Virginia, the fastest-growing region in the state also is part of the Baltimore-Washington Metropolitan Area the second highest income metropolitan area in the country, tends to lean Democratic. Virginia also has a large African American population, which could benefit a Democratic candidate in a close race. Unique political timing may come into play in Virginia in 2008, as popular former governor and Democrat Mark Warner is running for the Senate in 2008 for the seat of retiring Senator John Warner (no relation). His popularity could be a significant asset to Obama in Virginia. Polls show McCain with a moderate lead in Virginia. Washington (11) Washington state went for Kerry in 2004 and Gore in 2000, but polls are showing the state trending more Republican in this election than in previous elections. The state was close in both previous contests, and will likely be close this time. Both McCain and Obama won the state in the primaries. Current polls show Obama with a sizeable lead in Washington.  Wisconsin (10) Wisconsin very narrowly went to Gore in 2000 and Kerry in 2004. These two results were much closer than the results previously, so Wisconsin maybe trending Republican in presidential elections, though Kerry won by a slightly larger margin than Gore. Polls show Obama with a slight lead in Wisconsin. The swing states listed above total 210 electoral votes; some may become "safe" for one party as the election progresses. Of the states that are not expected to be competitive, 163 electoral votes (Alabama, Alaska, Arizona, Arkansas, Georgia, Idaho, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, Montana, Nebraska, North Dakota, Oklahoma, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, West Virginia, Wyoming) are likely to go to the Republican party, while 165 (California, Connecticut, D.C., Delaware, Hawaii, Illinois, Iowa, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, New York, Oregon, Rhode Island, Vermont) are expected to go to the Democrats. Maine and Nebraska have rules which allow a split in their electoral votes depending on results in congressional districts; no split is currently expected in this election.
Opinion polling Nationwide opinion polling for the United States presidential election, 2008 Statewide opinion polling for the United States presidential election, 2008 Scientific forecasts: PollyVote
See also History of the United States (1991–present)
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227's YouTube "Chili" - STOMP THE YARD (BLACK COLLEGE STEP SHOW MOVIE) Starring Columbus Short, Meagan Good, Ne-Yo, Darrin Henson, Chris Brown, Brian White, Las Alonso, Valerie Pettiford & Harry Lennix (NBA Mix)!
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Jamaal Al-Din's Hoops 227 (227's YouTube Chili")!
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2009 NCAA Basketball Tournament! List of NCAA Division 1 Teams & Coaches at 227!
America East Conference Albany - Will Brown Binghamton - Kevin Broadus Boston University - Dennis Wolff Hartford - Dan Leibovitz Maine - Ted Woodward New Hampshire - Bill Herrion Stony Brook - Steve Pikiell UMBC - Randy Monroe Vermont - Mike Lonergan 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! America East Conference
Atlantic 10 Conference Charlotte - Bobby Lutz Dayton - Brian Gregory Duquesne - Ron Everhart Fordham - Dereck Whittenburg George Washington - Karl Hobbs La Salle - John Giannini Rhode Island - Jim Baron Richmond - Chris Mooney St. Bonaventure - Mark Schmidt Saint Joseph's - Phil Martelli Saint Louis - Rick Majerus Temple - Fran Dunphy UMass - Derek Kellogg Xavier - Sean Miller 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Atlantic 10 Conference
Atlantic Coast Conference Boston College - Al Skinner Clemson - Oliver Purnell Duke - Mike Krzyzewski Florida State - Leonard Hamilton Georgia Tech - Paul Hewitt Maryland - Gary Williams Miami (Florida) - Frank Haith North Carolina - Roy Williams North Carolina State - Sidney Lowe Virginia - Dave Leitao Virginia Tech - Seth Greenberg Wake Forest - Dino Gaudio 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Atlantic Coast Conference
Atlantic Sun Conference Belmont - Rick Byrd Campbell - Robbie Laing East Tennessee State - Murry Bartow Florida Gulf Coast - Dave Balza Jacksonville - Cliff Warren Kennesaw State - Tony Ingle Lipscomb - Scott Sanderson Mercer - Bob Hoffman North Florida - Matt Kilcullen Stetson - Derek Waugh USC Upstate - Eddie Payne 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Atlantic Sun Conference
Big 12 Conference Baylor - Scott Drew Colorado - Jeff Bzdelik Iowa State - Greg McDermott Kansas - Bill Self Kansas State - Frank Martin Missouri - Mike Anderson Nebraska - Doc Sadler Oklahoma - Jeff Capel III Oklahoma State - Travis Ford Texas - Rick Barnes Texas A&M - Mark Turgeon Texas Tech - Pat Knight 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Big 12 Conference
Big East Conference Cincinnati - Mick Cronin Connecticut - Jim Calhoun DePaul - Jerry Wainwright Georgetown - John Thompson III Louisville - Rick Pitino Marquette - Buzz Williams Notre Dame - Mike Brey Pittsburgh - Jamie Dixon Providence - Keno Davis Rutgers - Fred Hill St. John's - Norm Roberts Seton Hall - Bobby Gonzalez South Florida - Stan Heath Syracuse - Jim Boeheim Villanova - Jay Wright West Virginia - Bobby Huggins 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Big East Conference
Big Sky Conference Eastern Washington - Kirk Earlywine Idaho State - Joe O'Brien Montana - Wayne Tinkle Montana State - Brad Huse Northern Arizona - Mike Adras Northern Colorado - Tad Boyle Portland State - Ken Bone Sacramento State - Brian Katz Weber State - Randy Rahe 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Big Sky Conference
Big South Conference Charleston Southern - Barclay Radebaugh Coastal Carolina - Cliff Ellis Gardner-Webb - Rick Scruggs High Point - Bart Lundy Liberty - Ritchie McKay Presbyterian - Gregg Nibert Radford - Brad Greenberg UNC-Asheville - Eddie Biedenbach VMI - Duggar Baucom Winthrop - Randy Peele 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Big South Conference
Big Ten Conference Illinois - Bruce Weber Indiana - Tom Crean Iowa - Todd Lickliter Michigan - John Beilein Michigan State - Tom Izzo Minnesota - Tubby Smith Northwestern - Bill Carmody Ohio State - Thad Matta Penn State - Ed DeChellis Purdue - Matt Painter Wisconsin - Bo Ryan 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Big Ten Conference
Big West Conference Cal Poly - Kevin Bromley Cal State Fullerton - Bob Burton Cal State Northridge - Bobby Braswell Long Beach State - Dan Monson Pacific - Bob Thomason UC Davis - Gary Stewart UC Irvine - Pat Douglass UC Riverside - Jim Wooldridge UC Santa Barbara - Bob Williams 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Big West Conference
Colonial Athletic Association Delaware - Monte Ross Drexel - Bruiser Flint George Mason - Jim Larranaga Georgia State - Rod Barnes Hofstra - Tom Pecora James Madison - Matt Brady Northeastern - Bill Coen Old Dominion - Blaine Taylor Towson - Pat Kennedy UNC-Wilmington - Benny Moss Virginia Commonwealth - Anthony Grant William & Mary - Tony Shaver 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Colonial Athletic Association
Conference USA East Carolina - Mack McCarthy Houston - Tom Penders Marshall - Donnie Jones Memphis - John Calipari Rice - Ben Braun Southern Methodist - Matt Doherty Southern Mississippi - Larry Eustachy Tulane - Dave Dickerson Tulsa - Doug Wojcik UAB - Mike Davis UCF - Kirk Speraw UTEP - Tony Barbee 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Conference USA
Horizon League - Butler - Brad Stevens Cleveland State - Gary Waters Detroit - Ray McCallum Loyola (Chicago) - Jim Whitesell UIC - Jimmy Collins UW-Green Bay - Tod Kowalczyk UW-Milwaukee - Rob Jeter Valparaiso - Homer Drew Wright State - Brad Brownell Youngstown State - Jerry Slocum 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Horizon League
Independents Bryant - Tim O'Shea Cal State Bakersfield - Keith Brown Chicago State - Benjy Taylor Houston Baptist - Ron Cottrell Longwood - Mike Gillian New Jersey Institute of Technology - Jim Engles North Carolina Central - Henry Dickerson Savannah State - Horace Broadnax SIU-Edwardsville - Lennox Forrester Texas-Pan American - Tom Schuberth Utah Valley - Dick Hunsaker 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! NCAA Division I independent schools (basketball)
Ivy League Brown - Jesse Agel Columbia - Joe Jones Cornell - Steve Donahue Dartmouth - Terry Dunn Harvard - Tommy Amaker Penn - Glen Miller Princeton - Sydney Johnson Yale - James Jones 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Ivy League
Metro Atlantic Athletic Conference Canisius - Tom Parrotta Fairfield - Ed Cooley Iona - Kevin Willard Loyola (Maryland) - Jimmy Patsos Manhattan - Barry Rohrssen Marist - Chuck Martin Niagara - Joe Mihalich Rider - Tommy Dempsey St. Peter's - John Dunne Siena - Fran McCaffery 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Mid-American Conference
Mid-American Conference Akron – Keith Dambrot Ball State – Billy Taylor Bowling Green – Louis Orr Buffalo – Reggie Witherspoon Central Michigan – Ernie Ziegler Eastern Michigan – Charles Ramsey Kent State – Geno Ford Miami – Charlie Coles Northern Illinois – Ricardo Patton Ohio – John Groce Toledo – Gene Cross Western Michigan – Steve Hawkins 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Mid-American Conference
Mid-Eastern Athletic Conference Bethune-Cookman - Clifford Reed Coppin State - Ron Mitchell Delaware State - Greg Jackson Florida A&M - Mike Gillespie Hampton - Kevin Nickelberry Howard - Gil Jackson Maryland-Eastern Shore - Meredith Smith Morgan State - Todd Bozeman Norfolk State - Anthony Evans North Carolina A&T - Jerry Eaves South Carolina State - Tim Carter Winston-Salem State - Bobby Collins 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Mid-Eastern Athletic Conference
Missouri Valley Conference Bradley - Jim Les Creighton - Dana Altman Drake - Mark Phelps Evansville - Marty Simmons Illinois State - Tim Jankovich Indiana State - Kevin McKenna Missouri State - Cuonzo Martin Northern Iowa - Ben Jacobson Southern Illinois - Chris Lowery Wichita State - Gregg Marshall 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Missouri Valley Conference
Mountain West Conference Air Force - Jeff Reynolds Brigham Young - Dave Rose Colorado State - Tim Miles New Mexico - Steve Alford San Diego State - Steve Fisher Texas Christian - Neil Dougherty UNLV - Lon Kruger Utah - Jim Boylen Wyoming - Heath Schroyer 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Mountain West Conference
Northeast Conference Central Connecticut State - Howie Dickenman Fairleigh Dickinson - Tom Green LIU-Brooklyn - Jim Ferry Monmouth - Dave Calloway Mount St. Mary's - Milan Brown Quinnipiac - Tom Moore Robert Morris - Mike Rice Jr. Sacred Heart - Dave Bike St. Francis (PA) - Don Friday St. Francis (NY) - Brian Nash Wagner - Mike Deane 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Northeast Conference
Ohio Valley Conference Austin Peay - Dave Loos Eastern Illinois - Mike Miller Eastern Kentucky - Jeff Neubauer Jacksonville State - James Green Morehead State - Donnie Tyndall Murray State - Billy Kennedy Southeast Missouri - Zac Roman Tennessee-Martin - Bret Campbell Tennessee State - Cy Alexander Tennessee Tech - Mike Sutton 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Ohio Valley Conference
Pacific-10 Conference Arizona - Russ Pennell Arizona State - Herb Sendek California - Mike Montgomery Oregon - Ernie Kent Oregon State - Craig Robinson Stanford - Johnny Dawkins UCLA - Ben Howland USC - Tim Floyd Washington - Lorenzo Romar Washington State - Tony Bennett 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Pacific-10 Conference
Patriot League American - Jeff Jones Army - Jim Crews Bucknell - Dave Paulsen Colgate - Emmett Davis Holy Cross - Ralph Willard Lafayette - Fran O'Hanlon Lehigh - Brett Reed Navy - Billy Lange 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Patriot League
Southeastern Conference Alabama - Philip Pearson Arkansas - John Pelphrey Auburn - Jeff Lebo Florida - Billy Donovan Georgia - Pete Herrmann Kentucky - Billy Gillispie LSU - Trent Johnson Mississippi - Andy Kennedy Mississippi State - Rick Stansbury South Carolina - Darrin Horn Tennessee - Bruce Pearl Vanderbilt - Kevin Stallings 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Southeastern Conference
Southern Conference Appalachian State - Houston Fancher Chattanooga - John Shulman The Citadel - Ed Conroy College of Charleston - Bobby Cremins Davidson - Bob McKillop Elon - Ernie Nestor Furman - Jeff Jackson Georgia Southern - Jeff Price Samford - Jimmy Tillette UNC-Greensboro - Mike Dement Western Carolina - Larry Hunter Wofford - Mike Young 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Southern Conference
Southland Conference Central Arkansas - Rand Chappell Lamar - Steve Roccaforte McNeese State - Dave Simmons Nicholls State - J. P. Piper Northwestern State - Mike McConathy Sam Houston State - Bob Marlin Southeastern Louisiana - Jim Yarbrough Stephen F. Austin - Danny Kaspar Texas A&M-Corpus Christi - Perry Clark Texas-Arlington - Scott Cross Texas-San Antonio - Brooks Thompson Texas State - Doug Davalos 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Southland Conference
Southwestern Athletic Conference Alabama A&M - L. Vann Pettaway Alabama State - Lewis Jackson Alcorn State - Samuel West Arkansas-Pine Bluff - George Ivory Grambling State - Larry Wright Jackson State - Tevester Anderson Mississippi Valley State - Sean Woods Prairie View A&M - Byron Rimm II Southern - Rob Spivery Texas Southern - Tony Harvey 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Southwestern Athletic Conference
The Summit League Centenary - Greg Gary IPFW - Dane Fife IUPUI - Ron Hunter North Dakota State - Saul Phillips Oakland - Greg Kampe Oral Roberts - Scott Sutton South Dakota State - Scott Nagy Southern Utah - Roger Reid UMKC - Matt Brown Western Illinois - Derek Thomas 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! The Summit League
Sun Belt Conference Arkansas-Little Rock - Steve Shields Arkansas State - Dickey Nutt Denver - Joe Scott Florida Atlantic - Mike Jarvis Florida International - Sergio Rouco Louisiana-Lafayette - Robert Lee Louisiana-Monroe - Orlando Early Middle Tennessee - Kermit Davis New Orleans - Joe Pasternack North Texas - Johnny Jones South Alabama - Ronnie Arrow Troy - Don Maestri Western Kentucky - Ken McDonald 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Sun Belt Conference
West Coast Conference Gonzaga - Mark Few Loyola Marymount - Rodney Tention Pepperdine - Vance Walberg Portland - Eric Reveno Saint Mary's - Randy Bennett San Diego - Bill Grier San Francisco - Rex Walters Santa Clara - Kerry Keating 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! West Coast Conference
Western Athletic Conference Boise State - Greg Graham Fresno State - Steve Cleveland Hawai?i - Bob Nash Idaho - Don Verlin Louisiana Tech - Kerry Rupp Nevada - Mark Fox New Mexico State - Marvin Menzies San Jose State - George Nessman Utah State - Stew Morrill 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Western Athletic Conference
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Jamaal Al-Din, a native of Grand Rapids, Michigan and former leading scorer of Olympic Basketball and LSU great, Ed Palubinskas brings to you Michigan State University's and the NBA's Earvin "Magic" Johnson at 227's YouTube "MAGIC!" provided by Jamaal Al-Din's Hoops 227-the everything basketball website, featuring YouTube Videos and Wikipedia information on the legendary Earvin "Magic" Johnson, The Magic Johnson Foundation, Magic Johnson Enterprises, and everything including the magical phrase..."MAGIC!" 227's YouTube "MAGIC!"
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?227's YouTube "Chili" features these exciting YouTube music and entertainment celebrities...click onto to these 227 YouTube "Chili" links, channels and articles for the most watched YouTube hip-hop music videos in the world!
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Also: Jesse McCartney, Ray J,Usher,Elliott Yamin,Jonas Brothers,Fergie,Taylor Swift, Nelly Furtado, Jennifer Lopez, Flyleaf,Maroon 5,Kanye West,Keyshia Cole, The Pussycat Dolls,Colby O'Donis,Ashanti,R. Kelly,Girlicious, Colbi Calliat, Boy George,Mario,Three Days Grace,Beyonce', Gorillaz,Carrie Underwood,3 Doors Down,Finger Eleven, Ginuwine,Baby Bash,Kid Rock,Joe, Gwen Steffani, Billy Ray Cyrus, Danity Kane, Janel Parrish, Ciara, NLT, Fall Out Boy, Josh Turner, Fantasia and more!