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Rick Ross (rapper) From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search This article is about the rapper whose stage name is "Rick Ross". For other people with the same name, see Rick Ross. Rick Ross Background information Birth name William Leonard Roberts II Born January 28, 1976 (1976-01-28) (age 33) Coahoma County, Mississippi Origin Miami, Florida Genre(s) Hip hop Label(s) Suave House, Slip-n-Slide, Def Jam, Poe Boy, Maybach Music Group Website rickross.defjam.com William Leonard Roberts II (born January 28, 1976), better known by his stage name Rick Ross is an American rapper. He took his stage name from the drug trafficker "Freeway" Ricky Ross, to whom he has no connection. Rick Ross has also founded his own record label Maybach Music Group, on which he released his third studio album Deeper Than Rap. Contents [hide] 1 Early life 2 Music career 2.1 Port of Miami (2006) 2.2 Trilla (2008) 2.3 Deeper Than Rap (2009) 3 Controversy 3.1 Corrections officer photos 3.2 Lawsuit 3.3 Feud with 50 Cent 3.4 2008 Arrest 4 Discography 4.1 Solo albums 4.2 Collaboration albums 5 References 6 External links Early life Rick Ross was born William Leonard Roberts II in Coahoma County, Mississippi. and raised in Carol City, Florida, of Miami. After graduating from Carol City Senior High School, he later attended the historically black college Albany State University in Albany, Georgia.. He joined Suave House Records, former label for rap duo 8Ball & MJG. He eventually signed a deal with Slip-n-Slide Records, which has been under the Def Jam umbrella since 2006. While signed to Slip-n-Slide, Ross toured with fellow rapper Trick Daddy and made guest performances on other Slip-n-Slide rap albums. Music career Port of Miami (2006) Main article: Port of Miami (album) His debut album Port of Miami, was released in August 2006 and debuted at the top spot on the Billboard 200 album chart with sales at 187,000 units its first week out. Christian Hoard of Rolling Stone magazine predicted that it would be "the summer's biggest rap record". The second single was "Push It", which samples "Scarface (Push It to the Limit)", the theme song off the gangster film Scarface. The music video for "Push It" was also modeled after the film. During that time, Ross made guest performances on two singles from DJ Khaled's debut Listennn... the Album: "Born-N-Raised" and "Holla at Me". Port of Miami received Gold certification from the Recording Industry Association of America on November 8, 2006. Trilla (2008) Main article: Trilla In March 2008, his second album Trilla was released and, as its predecessor Port of Miami had, debuted at the top of the Billboard 200. Its lead single "Speedin'" featuring R. Kelly peaked at #121 on the Billboard Hot 100; the next one, "The Boss" featuring T-Pain peaked at #17 on the Hot 100. The third single "Here I Am" featured Nelly and Avery Storm. MTV News ranked Ross on the fourth spot in its 2008 "Hottest MCs In The Game" list among ten rappers. The fourth Single "This Is The Life" featured Trey Songz and was YouTube-Rick Ross - Mafia Music (Deeper than rap 2009)
227's YouTube "Chili" Rick Ross-"Mafia Music (NBA Mix)"-Rick Ross Get Robbed By 4 Hoes
released in July. Deeper Than Rap (2009) Main article: Deeper Than Rap His third studio album was released on April 21, 2009 under his own label, Maybach Music Group, unlike his previous releases with Slip-N-Slide Records. The first single, "Magnificent" featuring John Legend, peaked at #62 on the Billboard Hot 100. The second single, "Usual Suspects" features Nas and was released on April 7, 2009. Deeper Than Rap was also one of the most highly anticipated hip-hop albums of the year, due to the fallout from Rick Ross's heated battle with rival 50 Cent. Ross talks about how when other rappers are on the throne, Jay-Z, Lil Wayne, Kanye West and Birdman are rappers who come to mind. "I look at the game and the business and all different aspects, it's a lot of great lyricists on the corner that will never properly understand the business and know how to market themselves and get in a position where they can gain capital. I look at all the strategies people use and what made them successful. What made Birdman just as relevant today after selling 50 million records? That intrigues me. To see the class of Jay-Z, his accomplishments and see how he sits backs and accurately makes his moves" Ross also calls it "the best music of his career", however, it is his lowest selling album thus far. YouTube-Rick Ross- Mafia Music REMIX ft. The Game, Fat Joe & Ja Rule
 A track from the album called "Valley of Death" was what stood out to MTV reporters. In the song, Ross speaks briefly on his controversial stint as a prison guard. "Keep it trilla, nigga, never had a gun and badge," which he stresses, leaving the word that he was indeed an officer of the law. "Kept a nice watch, smoking on a hundred sack/ Back in the day I sold crack for some nice kicks/ Skippin' school, I saw my friend stabbed with an ice pick/ Can't criticize niggas trying to get jobs/ Better get smart, young brother, live yours." However, many fans are not buying that nonsense. Later, he implies that while he was working as a corrections officer, he was also on the streets. "Only lived once and I got two kids/ And for me to feed them, I'll get two gigs," he raps. "I'll shovel shit, I'll C.O./ So we can bow our heads and pray over the meatloaf." Although, he still provided no explanation for lying about being a C.O. to begin with, nor did he explain why he failed to pay child support for his children.  Controversy This article's Criticism or Controversy section(s) may mean the article does not present a neutral point of view of the subject. It may be better to integrate the material in such sections into the article as a whole. Corrections officer photos Controversial photo of Rick Ross in his correctional officer uniform.In July 2008, The Smoking Gun produced details linking Ross's social security number to a two-year stint as a correctional officer in a Florida prison facility, along with a photograph purporting to be Ross in his correctional officer uniform. Ross initially denied that the photograph was of him; however, after overwhelming evidence of his past came into the public's eye, Ross later admitted that he did in fact work as a corrections officer in Florida during the early 90's.In a recent interview with AllHipHop.com, "Freeway" Ricky Ross, claimed offense that Roberts used his name and identity when he learned that The Smoking Gun posted documents revealing Roberts' previous employment as a Florida corrections officer.  Lawsuit In August 2008, YouTube entertainer DJ Vlad filed a 4 million dollar lawsuit against Rick Ross for assault. Vlad claimed Ross organized an ambush on him at the 2008 Ozone Awards in Houston, Texas for asking questions about his past as a correctional officer. Vlad was left with seven stitches below one of his eyes, three facial fractures, a corneal abrasion and possible permanent nerve damage. Feud with 50 Cent Rick Ross started a feud with rapper 50 Cent because he supposedly looked at him the wrong way at the BET Awards. However, 50 cent told news sources that he did not even remember seeing Rick Ross there.In late January, a track entitled "Mafia Music" by Rick Ross, leaked onto the Internet. There were several lines that seem to diss 50 Cent. Days later, 50 Cent released "Officer Ricky (Go Head, Try Me)" in response to Rick Ross's disparaging remarks on his "Mafia Music" song. In early February, 50 Cent once again made a video which he uploaded to YouTube where he interviews "Tia", the mother of one of Rick Ross's children. She verifies his being a correctional officer and claims his whole persona is fake and fraudulent. On Thursday, February 5, 2009, The Game, who 50 Cent has a long-standing "beef" with, called up Seattle's KUBE 93 Radio Station. When asked about the beef between 50 Cent and Rick Ross, The Game sided with 50 Cent and said that things are not looking good for Rick Ross. However, he offered to help Rick Ross get out of this situation, stating "Rick Ross, holla at your boy, man," and, "50 eating you, boy." In his album Deeper Than Rap, Ross references 50 in his song "In Cold Blood." A video for the song was released that portrayed 50's "funeral." With this, Ross feels that he has ended 50's career. In March, 50 released a sex tape to the internet which included the mother of Rick Ross's child, yet filmed with another man. The woman was identified as "Brooke" by the "Double R" tattoo on her chest, who is the mother of Ross' youngest child. 50, in a wig, proceeded to narrate the film verbally attacking Ross. Some of commented on Rick Ross being the Gusto of Hip-hop. In an interview, 50 Cent said, Rick Ross is ‘Albert From CB4. You ever seen the movie? He's Albert," he added. "It never gets worse than this. You get a guy that
was a correctional officer come out and base his entire career on writing material from a drug dealer's perspective such as "Freeway" Ricky Ross".  2008 Arrest During a deposition of Officer Rey Hernandez, a Miami Beach cop who arrested Ross in January 2008 on gun and marijuana charges, Ross’s lawyer, Allan Zamren, asked Hernandez why Ross’s case was assigned to the gang task force. The officer stated that it was because Ross claimed affiliation with Carol City Cartel and other known gang members. Zamren then pressed Hernandez for a personal link between Ross and the gang members, but ultimately one could not be established.  Discography Main article: Rick Ross discography Solo albums 2006: Port of Miami 2008: Trilla 2009: Deeper Than Rap Collaboration albums 2009: The H (with Birdman) References ^ a b c Birth certificate of William Roberts (Rick Ross) as scanned by The Smoking Gun ^ a b Cordor, Cyril (2008-02-19). "Rick Ross > Biography". Allmusic. http://allmusic.com/cg/amg.dll?p=amg&sql=11:3zftxqtsldhe~T1. ^ Handelsman, Jason (2008-01-10). "Rick Ross Spins a New One". Miami New Times. http://miaminewtimes.com/2008-01-10/music/rick-ross-spins-a-new-one/full. Retrieved on 2008-05-24. ^ Harris, Chris (2006-08-16). "Rick Ross Sails Past Breaking Benjamin, Takes Port Of Miami To #1". MTV News. http://www.mtv.com/news/articles/1538669/20060816/ross__rick__rap_.jhtml. Retrieved on 2008-05-24. ^ "Port of Miami - Charts & Awards". Allmusic. 2006. http://www.allmusic.com/cg/amg.dll?p=amg&sql=10:ioge4j578waq~T31. ^ Hoard, Christian (2006-06-01). "A Primer on Rick Ross, Miami's Latest Hip-Hop Phenom". Rolling Stone. http://www.rollingstone.com/news/story/10464338/a_primer_on_rick_ross_miamis_latest_hiphop_phenom. Retrieved on 2008-07-07. ^ Moss, Corey (2006-07-18). "Rick Ross Ready to 'Blow' Up When He Docks At Port Of Miami In August". MTV News. http://www.mtv.com/news/articles/1536628/20060718/ross__rick__rap_.jhtml. Retrieved on 2008-05-24. ^ Reid, Shaheem (2006-07-26). "A Newcomer 10 Years In The Making: Rick Ross Gets Help From Jay-Z, Akon On First LP". MTV News. http://www.mtv.com/news/articles/1537187/20060726/ross__rick__rap_.jhtml. Retrieved on 2008-05-24. ^ Reid, Shaheem (2008-03-19). "Rick Ross On #1 Trilla Beating Out Snoop, Fat Joe: 'I Told Them We Bossin' Up'". MTV News. http://www.mtv.com/news/articles/1583694/20080319/ross__rick__rap_.jhtml. Retrieved on 2008-05-24. ^ Reid, Shaheem (2008-05-20). "Rick Ross Talks About Tiger Attack -- Seriously! -- On The Set Of His 'Here I Am' Video". MTV News. http://www.mtv.com/news/articles/1587800/20080520/ross__rick__rap_.jhtml. Retrieved on 2008-05-24. ^ "'Hottest MCs In The Game': Rick Ross Bosses Up To #4". MTV News. 2008-05-16. http://www.mtv.com/news/articles/1587657/20080516/ross__rick__rap_.jhtml. Retrieved on 2008-07-07. ^ Rick Ross Is 'Competing For The Throne' With Deeper Than Rap, mtv.com ^ Ross Album Preview: Deeper Than Rap Is 'The Best Music Of My Career', mtv.com ^ Rick Ross Justifies Prison-Guard Past In New Track -- Listen Here, mtv.com ^ Rick Ross' 'Valley Of Death' Was Intended For Jay-Z, mtv.com ^ Kuperstein, Slava (2008-07-21). "Rick Ross Exposed By TheSmokingGun.com". HipHopDX.com. http://www.hiphopdx.com/index/news/id.7356/title.rick-ross-exposed-by-thesmokinggun-com. ^ Reid, Shaheem (2008-07-22). "Rick Ross Reaffirms Gangster Past In New Freestyle, Despite Report That He Worked As Prison Guard". MTV News. http://www.mtv.com/news/articles/1591284/20080722/ross__rick__rap_.jhtml. Retrieved on 2008-08-05. ^ Burgess, Omar (2008-10-07). "Rock Ross Admits Correctional Officer past". http://www.hiphopdx.com/index/news/id.7847/title.rick-ross-admits-correctional-officer-past. ^ Freeway Ricky Ross: Name Check - AllHipHop.com ^ Screw Rick Ross - TheSmokingGun.com ^ Kaufman, Gil (2008-08-15). "DJ Vlad Files $4 Million Lawsuit Against Rick Ross Over Alleged Ozone Awards Beatdown". MTV News. http://www.mtv.com/news/articles/1592890/20080815/ross__rick__rap_.jhtml. ^ "How feud Started Rick Ross and 50cent". 2009-02-07. http://www.vibe.com/news/news_headlines/2009/01/50_cent_vs_rick_ross_video/. ^ HipHopDX.com - 50 Cent - Interviews Rick Ross' Baby Mama. HipHopDX.com. Accessed February 2, 2008. ^ http://www.mtv.com/news/articles/1604407/20090205/ross__rick__rap_.jhtml ^ http://www.mtv.com/news/articles/1609554/20090420/ross__rick__rap_.jhtml ^ "50 Cent Releases Sex Tape To Humiliate Rap Rival". Fleshbot. 2009-03-16. http://fleshbot.com/5170859/50-cent-releases-sex-tape-to-humiliate-rap-rival. Retrieved on 2009-03-16. ^ http://www.ballerstatus.com/2009/03/03/50-cent-says-rick-ross-is-gusto-from-cb4-laughs-off-ross-sales-predictions/ ^ Guns "Rick Ross' Own Lawyer De-Values". 2009-02-10. http://highbridnation.com/2009/02/10/rick-ross-own-lawyer-de-values-his-gangsta/ Guns. ^ T.I. Tests Himself As A Producer: Mixtape Monday - News Story | Music, Celebrity, Artist News | MTV News External links Rick Ross Official Def Jam Website Rick Ross at the Internet Movie Database Rick Ross at MySpace Rick Ross channel at YouTube [hide]v • d • eRick Ross Studio albums Port of Miami · Trilla · Deeper Than Rap Other albums Rise to Power Notable singles "Hustlin'" · "Push It" · "Speedin'" · "The Boss" · "Here I Am" · "Magnificent" · "All I Really Want" Notable featured singles "Holla at Me" · "Make It Rain (Remix)" · "We Takin' Over" · "I'm So Hood" · "100 Million" · "Lights Get Low" · "Cash Flow" · "Foolish (Remix)" · "Out Here Grindin" · "You're Everything" · "Welcome to the World" · "What It Is" Related articles Discography · Poe Boy Entertainment · Slip-n-Slide Records · Def Jam Recordings Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rick_Ross_(rapper)" Categories: 1976 births | Living people | African American rappers | Albany State University alumni | Def Jam Recordings artists | Rappers from Miami, Florida | People from Coahoma County, Mississippi | Tribute bands
Mafia From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search This article is about the Sicilian criminal society. For the American counterpart, see American Mafia. For other uses, see Mafia (disambiguation). The Mafia (also known as Cosa Nostra) is a Sicilian criminal society which is believed to have emerged in late 19th century Sicily, and the first such society to be referred to as a mafia. It is a loose association of criminal groups that share a common organizational structure and code of conduct. Each group, known as a "family", "clan" or "cosca", claims sovereignty over a territory in which it operates its rackets - usually a town or village or a neighborhood of a larger city. Offshoots of the Mafia emerged in the United States and in Australia during the late 19th century following waves of Sicilian and Southern Italian emigration (see Italian-American Mafia). Contents [hide] 1 Etymology 2 The name "Cosa Nostra" 3 Structure and composition 3.1 Commission 4 Rituals and codes of conduct 4.1 Initiation ceremony 4.2 Introductions 4.3 Ten Commandments 4.4 Omertà: the code of silence 5 Activities 5.1 Extortion 5.2 Drug trafficking 5.3 Arms trafficking 5.4 Loan sharking 5.5 Control of contracting 6 History 6.1 Post-feudal Sicily 6.2 Fascist repression 6.3 Post-Fascist revival 6.4 First Mafia War 6.5 Heroin boom 6.6 Second Mafia War 6.7 Maxi Trial and war against the government 6.8 The Provenzano years 6.9 The modern Mafia in Italy 7 Prominent Sicilian mafiosi 8 See also 9 References 9.1 Notes 10 Sources 11 External links  Etymology There are several theories about the origin of the term "Mafia" (sometimes spelt "Maffia" in early texts). The Sicilian adjective mafiusu may derive from the slang Arabic mahyas (مهياص), meaning "aggressive boasting, bragging", or marfud مرفوض meaning "rejected". Roughly translated, it means "swagger", but can also be translated as "boldness, bravado". In reference to a man, mafiusu in 19th century Sicily was ambiguous, signifying a bully, arrogant but also fearless, enterprising, and proud, according to scholar Diego Gambetta. The public's association of the word with the criminal secret society was perhaps inspired by the 1863 play "I mafiusi di la Vicaria" ("The Mafiosi of the Vicaria") by Giuseppe Rizzotto and Gaetano Mosca. The words Mafia and mafiusi are never mentioned in the play; they were probably put in the title to add a local flair. The play is about a Palermo prison gang with traits similar to the Mafia: a boss, an initiation ritual, and talk of "umirtà" ("humility") and "pizzu" (a codeword for protection money). The play had great success throughout Italy. Soon after, the use of the term "mafia" began appearing in the Italian state's early reports on the phenomenon. The word made its first official appearance in 1865 in a report by the prefect of Palermo, Filippo Antonio Gualterio. Leopoldo Franchetti, an Italian deputy who travelled to Sicily and who wrote one of the first authoritative reports on the mafia in 1876, saw the Mafia as an "industry of violence" and described the designation of the term "mafia": "the term mafia found a class of violent criminals ready and waiting for a name to define them, and, given their special character and importance in Sicilian society, they had the right to a different name from that defining vulgar criminals in other countries." Franchetti saw the Mafia as deeply rooted in Sicilian society and impossible to quench unless the very structure of the island's social institutions were to undergo a fundamental change. Some observers have seen "mafia" as a set of attributes deeply rooted in popular culture, as a "way of being", as illustrated in the definition by the Sicilian ethnographer, Giuseppe Pitrè, at the end of the 19th century: "Mafia is the consciousness of one's own worth, the exaggerated concept of individual force as the sole arbiter of every conflict, of every clash of interests or ideas." According to popular myth, the word Mafia was first used in the Sicilian rebellion - the Sicilian Vespers - against the oppressive Anjou rule on 30 March 1282. Mafia is the acronym for "Morta alla Francia, Italia anela" (Italian for "Death to France, Italy groans cry"). However, this version is discarded by most serious historians nowadays.  The name "Cosa Nostra" The Sicilian Mafia has no formal name, as members see no need for one. Nonetheless, in many Italian publications the term "Cosa Nostra" is used to distinguish the Sicilian Mafia from other criminal networks that are also sometimes referred to as "mafias" (such as the
Camorra, the "Neapolitan Mafia"). When the American mafioso Joseph Valachi testified before the Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations of the U.S. Senate Committee on Government Operations in 1962, he revealed that American mafiosi referred to their organization by the term cosa nostra ("our thing"). At the time, it was understood as a proper name, fostered by the FBI and disseminated by the media. The designation gained wide popularity and almost replaced the term Mafia. The FBI even added the article to the term, calling it La Cosa Nostra. In Italy the article la is never used when referring to the Sicilian Mafia. Italian investigators did not take the term seriously, believing it was only used by the American Mafia. Then, in 1984, the Mafia turncoat Tommaso Buscetta revealed to the anti-mafia magistrate Giovanni Falcone that the term was used by the Sicilian Mafia as well. According to Buscetta, the word "mafia" was a literary creation. Other defectors, such as Antonio Calderone and Salvatore Contorno, confirmed this. Mafiosi introduce known members to each other as belonging to cosa nostra ("our thing") or la stessa cosa ("the same thing"), e.g. "he is the same thing, a mafioso, as you". The Sicilian Mafia has used other names to describe itself throughout its history, such as "The Honoured Society." Mafiosi are known among themselves as "men of honour" or "men of respect".  Structure and composition Hierarchy of a Cosa Nostra clan.Cosa Nostra is not a monolithic organization, but loose association of groups called "families", "coscas" or "clans". Today, Cosa Nostra is estimated to have about 100 clans, almost half of them in the province of Palermo, with at least 3,500 to 4,000 full members. In 1984, the mafioso informant Tommaso Buscetta explained to prosecutors the pyramidal command structure of a typical clan. A clan is led by a "boss" (capofamiglia), who is aided by a second-in-command (a sotto capo or "underboss") and one or more advisers (consigliere). Under his command are crews of about 10 "soldiers", each led by a capodecina (or sometimes caporegime). Other than its members, Cosa Nostra makes extensive use of "associates". This is the furthest in the Mafia hierarchy that non-Italians can go. These are people who aid or work for a family (or even multiple families) but are not treated as true members. These include corrupt officials and prospective mafiosi. An associate is considered nothing more than a tool; "nothing mixed with nil." The most powerful boss is often referred to as the capo di tutti capi ("boss of all bosses"), who allegedly commands all the clans of Cosa Nostra. Calogero Vizzini, Salvatore Riina and Bernardo Provenzano were especially influential bosses that have each been described by the media and law enforcement as being the "boss of bosses" of their times. However, such a position does not formally exist, according to Mafia turncoats such as Buscetta. Traditionally, only men can become mafiosi, though in recent times there have been reports of women assuming the responsibilities of imprisoned mafioso relatives.  Commission For many years, the power apparatuses of the individual clans were the sole ruling bodies within the association, and they have remained the real centers of power even after superordinate bodies were created in Cosa Nostra beginning in the late 1950s (the Sicilian Mafia Commission also known as Commissione or Cupola). The Commission is a body of leading Cosa Nostra members who decide on important questions concerning the actions of, and settling disputes within the organization. It is composed of representatives of a mandamento (a "district" of three geographically contiguous Mafia families) that are called capo mandamento or rappresentante. The Commission is not a central government of the Mafia, but a representative mechanism for consultation of independent families who decide by consensus. "Contrary to the wide-spread image presented by the media, these superordinate bodies of coordination cannot be compared with the executive boards of major legal firms. Their power is intentionally limited. And it would be entirely wrong to see in the Cosa Nostra a centrally managed, internationally active Mafia holding company," according to criminologist Letizia Paoli. The jurisdiction extends over a province; each province of Sicily has some kind of a Commission, except Messina, Siracusa and Ragusa. Beyond the provincial level, details are vague. According to Buscetta, a commissione interprovinciale – interprovincial commission – was set up in the 1970s, while Calderone claims that there had been a rappresentante regionale in the 1950s even before the Commissions and the capi mandamento were created.  Rituals and codes of conduct  Initiation ceremony A prospective mafioso is carefully supervised and tested to assess his obedience, discretion, ability and ruthlessness. He is almost always required to commit murder as his ultimate trial. After his arrest, the mafioso Giovanni Brusca described the ceremony in which he was formally made a full member of Cosa Nostra. In 1976 he was invited to a "banquet" at a country house. He was brought into a room where several mafiosi were sitting around a table upon which sat a pistol, a dagger and an image of a saint. They questioned his commitment and his feelings about criminality and murder (despite already having a history of such acts). When he affirmed himself, Salvatore Riina, then the most powerful boss of Cosa Nostra, took a needle and pricked Brusca's finger. Brusca smeared his blood on the image of the saint, which he held in his cupped hands as Riina set it alight. As Brusca juggled the burning image in his hands, Riina said to him: "If you betray Cosa Nostra, your flesh will burn like this saint."  Introductions A mafioso is not supposed to introduce himself to another mafioso. He must ask a third, mutually-known mafioso, to introduce him to the latter as "a friend of ours". Right after his initiation, Brusca was introduced to his own mafioso father in this manner by Riina.  Ten Commandments In November 2007 Sicilian police reported to have found a list of "Ten Commandments" in the hideout of mafia boss Salvatore Lo Piccolo. Similar to the Biblical Ten Commandments, they are thought to be a guideline on how to be a good, respectful honourable mafioso. The commandments are as follows: No one can present himself directly to another of our friends. There must be a third person to do it. Never look at the wives of friends. Never be seen with cops. Don't go to pubs and clubs. Always being available for Cosa Nostra is a duty - even if your wife is about to give birth. Appointments must absolutely be respected. Wives must be treated with respect. When asked for any information, the answer must be the truth. Money cannot be appropriated if it belongs to others or to other families. People who can't be part of Cosa Nostra: anyone who has a close relative in the police, anyone with a two-timing relative in the family, anyone who behaves badly and doesn't hold to moral values.  Omertà: the code of silence Omertà is a code of silence that forbids members from cooperating at all with the police or prosecutors should they be arrested. The penalty for transgression is death, and relatives of the turncoat may also be murdered. To a degree, Cosa Nostra also imposes this code on the general population, persecuting any citizen who aids the authorities.  Activities  Extortion It is estimated that the Sicilian Mafia costs the Sicilian economy more than €10 billion a year through protection rackets. Roughly 80% of Sicilian businesses pay protection money to Cosa Nostra, which can range from €200 a month for a small shop or bar to €5,000 a month for a supermarket.  In Sicily, protection money is known as pizzo; the anti-extortion support group Addiopizzo derives its name from this.  Drug trafficking In 2003, the Sicilian Mafia is estimated to have made over €8 billion through drug trafficking. Sicily is a major transshipment center for Southwest and Southeast Asian heroin.  Arms trafficking In 2003, the Sicilian Mafia is estimated to have made over €1.5 billion through weapons trafficking.  Loan sharking In a 2007 publication, the Italian small-business association Confesercenti reported that about 25.2% of Sicilian businesses are indebted to loan sharks, who collect around €1.4 billion a year in payments.  Control of contracting The Sicilian Mafia makes around €6.5 billion a year through control of public and private contracts.  History  Post-feudal Sicily The genesis of Cosa Nostra is hard to trace because of its secretive nature and lack of historical record-keeping. It is widely believed that its seeds were planted in the upheaval of Sicily's transition from feudalism to capitalism in 1812 and its later annexation by mainland Italy in 1860. The Sicilian state couldn't fully enforce law and order. Many groups, from bandits to artisan guilds, used violence to plunder or settle disputes. The common traditions and structure that distinguishes the Mafia may have been shared between criminals in prison. In 1864, Niccolò Turrisi Colonna, leader of the Palermo National Guard, wrote of a "sect of thieves" that operated across Sicily. This "sect" had special signals to recognize each other, had political protection in many regions, and a code of loyalty and non-interaction with the police known as umirtà ("humility"). The sect was mostly rural, comprising plantation wardens and smugglers, among others. Colonna warned in his report that the Italian government's brutal and ham-fisted attempts to crush unlawfulness only made the problem worse by alienating the populace. An 1865 dispatch from the prefect of Palermo to Rome first officially described the phenomenon as a "Mafia". Much of the Mafia's early activity centered around the lucrative citrus export industry around Palermo, whose fragile production system made it quite vulnerable to extortion. What is probably the earliest detailed account of Mafia activity comes from the memoirs of a citrus plantation owner named Gaspare Galati in the 1870s. After firing his warden for stealing coal and produce, Galati received threatening letters demanding that he rehire this "man of honour". Two successive replacements he hired were shot by hitmen, but the police failed to find any evidence implicating the "man of honour". Galati's own inquiries led him to believe the "man of honour" was part of a group known as a cosca, based in a nearby village and led by a local landowner and former revolutionary. Many such groups existed that disrupted citrus plantations to either extort money or buy them at low prices. Worse still, these groups appeared to have allies in the police and local government. Galati gave up and fled home to Naples. The accounts of Galati and others alarmed politicians in Rome. One described the mafia as "an instrument of local government", given its level of collusion with Sicilian officials. Throughout the late 1870s, the government ordered numerous authoritarian crackdowns in which entire towns were encircled and suspects deported en masse. The crackdowns failed, however, to deal with the political corruption, and many well-connected mafiosi escaped the dragnet. Mafiosi meddled in politics early on, bullying voters into voting for candidates they favoured. At this period in history, only a small fraction of the Sicilian population could vote, so a single mafia boss could control a sizeable chunk of the electorate and thus wield considerable political leverage. Mafiosi used their allies in government to avoid prosecution as well as persecute less well-connected rivals. The highly fragmented and shaky Italian political system allow cliques of Mafia-friendly politicians to exert a lot of influence. In an 1898 report to prosecutors, the police chief of Palermo identified eight mafia clans operating in the suburbs and villages near the city. The report mentioned initiation rituals and codes of conduct, as well as criminal activities that included counterfeiting, ransom kidnappings, robbery, murder and witness intimidation. The mafia also maintained funds to support the families of imprisoned members and pay defense lawyers.  Fascist repression In 1925, Benito Mussolini initiated a campaign to destroy the Mafia and its political allies. In doing so, he would suppress many political opponents on the island and score a great propaganda coup for Fascism. In October 1925, he appointed Cesare Mori prefect of Palermo and gave him special powers to attack the Mafia. Like previous crackdowns, it involved massive round-ups of suspected criminals; over 11,000 arrests were made over the course of the campaign. Wives and children of mafiosi were sometimes taken hostage to force their surrender. Many were tried in en masse. More than 1,200 were convicted and imprisoned, and many others were internally exiled without trial. Mori's campaign ended in June 1929 when Mussolini recalled him to Rome. Although he did not totally crush the Mafia as the Fascist press proclaimed, his campaign was nonetheless very successful. In 1986, the mafioso defector Antonino Calderone said of the period: "The music changed. Mafiosi had a hard life. [...] After the war the mafia hardly existed anymore. The Sicilian Families had all been broken up." Many mafiosi fled to the United States. Among these were Carlo Gambino and Joseph Bonanno, who would go on to become powerful mafia bosses in New York City.  Post-Fascist revival In 1943, nearly half a million Allied troops invaded Sicily. The crime rate soared in the upheaval and chaos. Many inmates escaped from their prisons. Banditry returned and the black market thrived. During the first six months of Allied occupation, party politics in Sicily was banned. As Fascist mayors were deposed, the Allies simply appointed replacements. Many turned out to be mafiosi, such as Calogero Vizzini and Giuseppe Genco Russo. They could easily present themselves as political dissidents, and their anti-communist position made them further desirable. The changing economic landscape of Sicily would shift the Mafia's power base from the rural to the urban. The Minister of Agriculture - a communist - pushed for reforms in which peasants were to get larger shares of produce, be allowed to form cooperatives and take over badly used land, and remove the system by which leaseholders (known as "gabelloti") could rent land from landowners for their own short-term use. Owners of especially large estates were to be forced to sell off their excess land. The Mafia, which had connections to many landowners, murdered many socialist reformers. In the end, though, they couldn't stop the process, and many landowners chose to sell their land to mafiosi, who offered more money than the government. After the war, the Italian government poured public money into rebuilding Sicily, leading to a big construction boom. In 1956, two Mafia-connected officials, Vito Ciancimino and Salvatore Lima, took control of Palermo's Office of Public Works. Between 1959 and 1963, about 80% of building permits were given to just five people, none of whom represented major construction firms and were probably Mafia frontmen. Construction companies unconnected with the Mafia were forced to pay protection money. Many buildings were illegally constructed before the city's planning was finalized. In 1982, the antimafia prosecutor Giovanni Falcone noted: "Mafia organizations entirely control the building sector in Palermo - the
quarries where aggregates are mined, site clearance firms, cement plants, metal depots for the construction industry, wholesalers for sanitary fixtures, and so on". In the 1950s, a crackdown in the United States on drug trafficking led to the imprisonment of many American mafiosi. Furthermore, Cuba, a major hub for drug smuggling, fell to Fidel Castro. This prompted the American mafia boss Joseph Bonanno to return to Sicily in 1957 to franchise out his heroin operations to the Sicilian clans. Anticipating rivalries for the lucrative American drug market, he negotiated the establishment of a Sicilian Mafia Commission to mediate disputes.  First Mafia War Main article: Ciaculli massacre The First Mafia War was the first high-profile conflict between Mafia clans in post-war Italy (the Sicilian Mafia has a long history of violent rivalries). In December 1962 some heroin went missing from a shipment to America. When the Sicilian Mafia Commission could not decide who was to blame, one of the clans involved - the La Barbera clan - took matters into its own hands. They murdered a mafioso from the Greco clan whom they suspected of stealing the heroin, triggering a war in which many non-mafiosi would be killed in the crossfire. In April 1963, several bystanders were wounded during a shootout in Palermo. In May, Angelo La Barbera survived a murder attempt in Milan. In June, six military officers and a policeman in Ciaculli were killed while trying to dispose of a car bomb. The fact that the conflict spread outside Sicily and claimed innocent lives provoked national outrage and a crackdown in which nearly 2,000 arrests were made. Mafia activity fell as clans disbanded and mafiosi went into hiding. The Commission was dissolved; it would not reform until 1969. 117 suspects were put on trial in 1968, but most were acquitted or received light sentences.  Heroin boom When heroin refineries operated by the Corsican Mafia in Marseilles were shut down by French authorities, morphine traffickers looked to Sicily. Starting in 1975, Cosa Nostra set up heroin refineries across the island. As well as refining heroin, Cosa Nostra also sought to control its distribution. Sicilian mafiosi moved to America to personally control distribution networks there, often at the expense of their American counterparts. Heroin addiction in Europe and North America surged, and seizures by police increased dramatically. By 1982, the Sicilian Mafia controlled about 80% of the heroin trade in the north-eastern United States. Heroin was often distributed to street dealers from Mafia-owned pizzerias, and the revenues could be passed off as restaurant profits (the so-called Pizza Connection). Through the heroin trade, Cosa Nostra became wealthier and more powerful than ever.  Second Mafia War Main article: Second Mafia War In the early 1970s, Luciano Daniel, boss of the Corleone clan and member of the Sicilian Mafia Commission, forged a coalition of mafia clans known as the Corleonesi, with himself as its leader. He initiated a campaign to dominate Cosa Nostra and its narcotics trade. Because Daniel was imprisoned in 1974, he acted through his deputy, Salvatore Riina, to whom he would eventually hand over control. The Corleonesi bribed cash-strapped Palermo clans into the fold, subverted members of other clans and secretly recruited new members. In 1977, the Corleonesi had Gaetano Badalamenti expelled from the Commission on trumped-up charges of hiding drug revenues. In April 1981, the Corleonesi murdered another member of the Commission, Stefano Bontate, and the Second Mafia War began in earnest. Hundreds of enemy mafiosi and their relatives were murdered, sometimes by traitors in their own clans. In the end, the Corleonesi faction won and Riina effectively became the "boss of bosses" of the Sicilian Mafia. At the same time the Corleonesi waged their campaign to dominate Cosa Nostra, they also waged a campaign of murder against journalists, officials and policemen who dared to cross them. The police were frustrated with the lack of help they were receiving from witnesses and politicians. At the funeral of a policeman murdered by mafiosi in 1985, policemen insulted and spat at two attending statesmen, and a fight broke out between them and military police.  Maxi Trial and war against the government In the early 1980s, the magistrates Giovanni Falcone and Paolo Borsellino began a campaign against Cosa Nostra. Their big break came with the arrest of Tommaso Buscetta, a mafioso who chose to turn informant in exchange for protection from the Corleonesi, who had already murdered many of his friends and relatives. Other mafiosi would follow his example. Falcone and Borsellino compiled their testimonies and organised the Maxi Trial, which lasted from February 1986 to December 1987. It was held in a fortified courthouse specially built for the occasion. 474 mafiosi were put on trial, of which 342 were convicted. In January 1992 the Italian Supreme Court confirmed these convictions. The Mafia retaliated violently. In 1988, the Mafia murdered a Palermo judge and his son; three years later a prosecutor and an anti-mafia businesman were also murdered. Falcone and Borsellino were killed by bombs in 1992. This led to a public outcry and a massive government crackdown, resulting in the arrest of Cosa Nostra's "boss of bosses", Salvatore Riina, in January 1993. More and more defectors emerged. Many would pay a high price for their cooperation, usually through the murder of relatives. For example, Francesco Marino Mannoia's mother, aunt and sister were murdered. After Riina's arrest, the Mafia began a campaign of terrorism on the Italian mainland. Tourist spots such as the Via dei Georgofili in Florence, Via Palestro in Milan, and the Piazza San Giovanni in Laterano and Via San Teodoro in Rome were attacked, leaving 10 dead and 93 injured and causing severe damage to cultural heritage such as the Uffizi Gallery. When the Catholic Church openly condemned the Mafia, two churches were bombed and an antimafia priest shot dead in Rome. After Riina's capture, leadership of the Mafia was briefly held by Leoluca Bagarella, then passed to Bernardo Provenzano when the former was himself captured in 1995 (Mafia bosses are imprisoned under conditions designed to make it virtually impossible to rule from prison). Provenzano halted the campaign of violence and replaced it with a campaign of quietness known as pax mafiosi. This campaign has allowed the Mafia to slowly regain the power it once had.  The Provenzano years Under Bernardo Provenzano's leadership, murders of state officials was halted. He also halted the policy of murdering informants and their families, with a view instead to getting them to retract their testimonies and return to the fold. He also restored the common support fund for imprisoned mafiosi. The tide of defectors was greatly stemmed. The Mafia preferred to initiate relatives of existing mafiosi, believing them to be less prone to defection. Provenzano was arrested in 2006, after 43 years on the run.  The modern Mafia in Italy The main split in the Sicilian Mafia at present is between those bosses who have been convicted and are now imprisoned, chiefly Riina and capo di tutti capi Bernardo Provenzano, and those who are on the run, or who have not been indicted. The incarcerated bosses are currently subjected to harsh controls on their contact with the outside world, limiting their ability to run their operations from behind bars under the article 41-bis prison regime. Antonino Giuffrè – a close confidant of Provenzano, turned pentito shortly after his capture in 2002 – alleges that in 1993, Cosa Nostra had direct contact with representatives of Silvio Berlusconi who was then planning the birth of Forza Italia. The alleged deal had a repeal of 41 bis, among other anti-Mafia laws in return for electoral deliverances in Sicily. Giuffrè's declarations have not been confirmed. The Italian Parliament, with the support of Forza Italia, extended the enforcement of 41 bis, which was to expire in 2002 but has been prolonged for another four years and extended to other crimes such as terrorism. However, according to one of Italy’s leading magazines, L'Espresso, 119 mafiosi – one-fifth of those incarcerated under the 41 bis regime – have been released on an individual basis. The human rights group Amnesty International has expressed concern that the 41-bis regime could in some circumstances amount to "cruel, inhumane or degrading treatment" for prisoners. In addition to Salvatore Lima, mentioned above, the politician Giulio Andreotti and the High Court judge Corrado Carnevale have long been suspected of having ties to the Mafia.[who?] By the late 1990s, the weakened Cosa Nostra had to yield most of the illegal drug trade to the 'Ndrangheta crime organization from Calabria. In 2006, the latter was estimated to control 80% of the cocaine import to Europe.  Prominent Sicilian mafiosi See also: List of Sicilian mafiosi Vito Cascio Ferro Prominent early Don, imprisoned by Cesare Mori. Calogero Vizzini (1877 – 1954), boss of Villalba, was considered to be one of the most influential Mafia bosses of Sicily after World War II until his death in 1954. Giuseppe Genco Russo (1893 – 1976), boss of Mussomeli, considered to be the heir of Calogero Vizzini. Michele Navarra (1905 – 1958), boss of the Mafia Family in Corleone from 1940s to 1958 Salvatore "Ciaschiteddu" Greco (1923 – 1978), boss of the Mafia Family in Ciaculli, he was the first "secretary" of the first Sicilian Mafia Commission that was formed somewhere in 1958. Gaetano Badalamenti (1923 – 2004), boss of the Mafia Family in Cinisi Angelo La Barbera (1924 – 1975) boss of the Mafia Family in Palermo Centro Michele Greco (1924 – 2008), boss of the Mafia Family in Croceverde Luciano Liggio (1925 – 1993), boss of the Corleone clan and instigator of the Second Mafia War Tommaso Buscetta (1928 – 2000), a mafioso who turned informant in 1984. Buscetta's evidence was used to great effect during the Maxi-Trials. Salvatore Riina (born 1930), also known as Totò Riina, emerged from the Second Mafia War as the "boss of bosses" until his arrest in 1993. Bernardo Provenzano (born 1933), successor of Riina as head of the Corleonesi faction and as such was considered one of the most powerful bosses of the Sicilian Mafia. Provenzano was a fugitive from justice since 1963. He was captured on 11 April 2006 in Sicily. Before capture, authorities had reportedly been "close" to capturing him for 10 years. Stefano Bontade (1939 – 1981), boss of the Santa Maria di Gesù clan. His murder by the Corleonesi in 1981 inaugurated the Second Mafia War. Leoluca Bagarella (born 1941), member of the Mafia Family in Corleone arrested in 1995 Salvatore Lo Piccolo (born 1942), considered to be one of the successors of Provenzano. Salvatore Inzerillo (1944 – 1981), boss of the Mafia Family in Passo di Rigano Giovanni 'Lo Scannacristiani' Brusca (born 1957), who was involved in the murder of Giovanni Falcone. Matteo Messina Denaro (born 1962), considered to be one of the successors of Provenzano. Michele Cavataio died in Mafia hit in 1969 Benedetto Santapaola (born 1938), the most important boss of Catania.  See also American mafia Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives DEA FBI Jewish mafia Indian mafia Irish mob Camorra Made man 'Ndrangheta Organized Crime Russian Mafia Sacra Corona Unita Triad (underground societies) Yakuza United States Marshals Service  References  Notes ^ Omerta in the Antipodes, Time, 31 January 1964 ^ This etymology is based on the books Mafioso by Gaia Servadio; The Sicilian Mafia by Diego Gambetta; and Cosa Nostra by John Dickie (see Books below). ^ Gambetta, The Sicilian Mafia, p. 136 ^ a b Lupo, Storia della Mafia, p. 6 ^ Gambetta, The Sicilian Mafia, p. 137 ^ Servadio, Mafioso, p. 42-43 ^ Giuseppe Pitrè, Usi e costumi, credenze e pregiudizi del popolo siciliano, Palermo 1889 ^ Hess, Mafia & Mafiosi, pp. 2-3 ^ Their Thing, Time, 16 August 1963 ^ Killers in Prison, Time, 4 October 1963 ^ "The Smell of It", Time, 11 October 1963 ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m John Dickie. Cosa Nostra: A History of the Sicilian Mafia. ISBN 978-0-349-93526-2 ^ Paoli, Mafia Brotherhoods, p. 24 ^ Paoli, Mafia Brotherhoods, p. 32 ^ Arlacchi, Addio Cosa nostra, p. 106 ^ (Italian) Zu Binnu? Non è il superboss, Intervista a Salvatore Lupo di Marco Nebiolo, Naromafie, April 2006 ^ Italian police arrest the "Godmother", BBC News, December 18, 1997. ^ Warrant for British "Mafia wife, BBC News, January 8, 2007 ^ Meet the Modern Mob, TIME Magazine, June 2, 2002 ^ Review of Paoli, Mafia Brotherhoods by Klaus Von Lampe ^ Crisis among the "Men of Honor", interview with Letizia Paoli, Max Planck Research, February 2004 ^ Arlacchi, Gli uomini del disonore, p. 30 bone bone bone bone boner bone bone bone ^ "Mafia's 'Ten Commandments' found". BBC News. 2007-11-09. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/europe/7086716.stm. Retrieved on 2008-09-16. ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/6976779.stm ^ Le mani della criminalità sulle imprese ("The grip of criminality on enterprises"). Confesercenti. November 2008 ^ Fighting the Sicilian mafia through tourism, The Guardian, May 17, 2008 ^ Heroes in business suits stand up to fight back against Mafia, The Times, November 3, 2007 ^  ^ This article incorporates information from the Italian Wikipedia. Mafie: una guerra infinita, 700 morti in cinque anni, Eurispes press release, December 9, 2003 ^ Le mani della criminalità sulle imprese (The grip of criminality on enterprises), Oct 22 2007. The statistics in the report were obtained from the Italian Ministry of the Interior. ^ Patients die as Sicilian mafia buys into the hospital service. The Guardian. January 1, 2007 ^ John Dickie. Cosa Nostra. pg 39-46 ^ The sect made "affiliates every day of the brightest young people coming from the rural class, of the guardians of the fields in the Palermitan countryside, and of the large number of smugglers; a sect which gives and receives protection to and from certain men who make a living on traffic and internal commerce. It is a sect with little or no fear of public bodies, because its members believe that they can easily elude this." See: Paoli, Mafia Brotherhoods, p. 33 (Colonna seemed to have known what he was talking about, there was widespread suspicion that he was the protector of some important Mafiosi in Palermo) ^ Gaia Servadio. Mafioso, p. 18 ^ John Dickie. Cosa Nostra. pg 27-33 ^ John Dickie. Cosa Nostra. pg 72 ^ John Dickie. Cosa Nostra. pg 96 ^ Mafia Trial, Time, 24 October 1927 ^ Mafia Scotched, Time, 23 January 1928 ^ Selwyn Raab. Five Families. ISBN 978-1-86105-952-9 ^ a b John Dickie, Cosa Nostra, pp. 176 ^ John Dickie. Cosa Nostra. pg 243 ^ Servadio, Mafioso, p. 91 ^ Fighting the Mafia in World War Two, by Tim Newark, May 2007 ^ John Dickie. Cosa Nostra. pg 240 ^ John Dickie. Cosa Nostra. pg 245 ^  ^ John Dickie. Cosa Nostra. pg 281 ^ Letizia Paoli. Mafia Brotherhoods. pg 167 ^ John Dickie, Cosa Nostra, pg 293-297 ^ John Dickie. Cosa Nostra. pg 311 ^ John Dickie. Cosa Nostra. pg 312 ^ John Dickie. Cosa Nostra. pg 318 ^ John Dickie. Cosa Nostra. pg 325 ^ John Dickie. Cosa Nostra. pg 357 ^ John Dickie. Cosa Nostra. pg 358 ^ John Dickie. Cosa Nostra. pg 369-370 ^ John Dickie. Cosa Nostra. pg 371 ^ John Dickie. Cosa Nostra. pg 373 ^ John Dickie. Cosa Nostra. pg 389-390 ^ Dickie, Cosa Nostra, p. ?? ^ John Dickie. Cosa Nostra. pg 416 ^ John Dickie. Cosa Nostra. pg 427 ^ John Dickie. Cosa Nostra. pg 429 ^ "Berlusconi implicated in deal with godfathers", The Guardian, December 5, 2002 ^ "Berlusconi aide 'struck deal with mafia'", The Guardian, January 8, 2003 ^ "Mafia supergrass fingers Berlusconi" by Philip Willan, The Observer, January 12, 2003 ^ (Italian) Caserta, revocato 41 bis a figlio Bidognetti: lo dice ancora l'Espresso, Casertasete, January , 2006 ^ Move over, Cosa Nostra, The Guardian, 8 Juni 2006 ^ 'Top Mafia boss' caught in Italy, BBC News, April 11, 2006,  Sources Arlacchi, Pino (1988). Mafia Business. The Mafia Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism, Oxford: Oxford University Press ISBN 0-19-285197-7 (Italian) Arlacchi, Pino (1994). Addio Cosa nostra: La vita di Tommaso Buscetta, Milan: Rizzoli ISBN 88-17-84299-0 Judith Chubb (1989). The Mafia and Politics, Cornell Studies in International Affairs, Occasional Papers No. 23. John Dickie (2007). Cosa Nostra: A History of the Sicilian Mafia, Hodder. ISBN 978-0-340-93526-2 Diego Gambetta (1993).The Sicilian Mafia: The Business of Private Protection, London: Harvard University Press, ISBN 0-674-80742-1 bas** from lebanon(2008) classfile 978-1 Henner Hess (1998). Mafia & Mafiosi: Origin, Power, and Myth, London: Hurst & Co Publishers, ISBN 1-85065-500-6 (Italian) Lupo, Salvatore (1993). Storia della mafia dalle origine ai giorni nostri, Rome: Donzelli editore ISBN 88-7989-020-4 Letizia Paoli (2003). Mafia Brotherhoods: Organized Crime, Italian Style, New York: Oxford University Press ISBN 0-19-515724-9 (Review by Klaus Von Lampe) (Review by Alexandra V. Orlova) Selwyn Raab (2005). Five Families. The Rise, Decline, and Resurgence of America's Most Powerful Mafia Empires, New York: Thomas Dunne Books, ISBN 978-1-86105-952-9 Servadio, Gaia (1976), Mafios . A history of the Mafia from its origins to the present day, London: Secker & Warburg ISBN 0-436-44700-2  External links The financial mafia. The illegal accumulation of wealth and the financial-industrial complex by Umberto Santino, in "Contemporary Crises" 12, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, September 1988, pp.203–243 Competing for Protection: Land Fragmentation and the Rise of the Sicilian MafiaPDF (97.3 KiB), by Oriana Bandiera, London School of Economics, August 1999 Gangrule, American mafia history The Mafia in Sicilian History Cosa Nostra - Rebranding the Mafia Italian Mafia Terms Defined The 26 Original American Mafia Families- AmericanMafia.com FBI Mafia Monograph for more information go to http://www.mafiacorruption.com/register.php?REF=37587 Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mafia" Categories: Sicily | Mafia | Organized crime groups in Italy | Anti-communism | Organized crime terminology
227's YouTube "Chili" - STOMP THE YARD (BLACK COLLEGE STEP SHOW MOVIE) Starring Columbus Short, Meagan Good, Ne-Yo, Darrin Henson, Chris Brown, Brian White, Las Alonso, Valerie Pettiford & Harry Lennix (NBA Mix)!
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Jamaal Al-Din's Hoops 227 (227's YouTube Chili")!
Beyonce * Shakira * Jordin Sparks * Mariah Carey * New Boyz * Jason DeRulo * Mario ft. Gucci Mane & Sean Garrett * Katy Perry * The Black Eyed Peas * Colby Caillat * Fabolous ft. The Dream * Jason Aldean * Daughtry * Lady Gaga * Michael Franti & Spearhead Featuring Cherine Anderson * Boys Like Girls * Flo Rida Featuring Ne-Yo * Dorrough * Green Day * Linkin Park * Pink * Justin Bieber * Rob Thomas * Maxwell * Jason Mraz * Young Money * The Fray * Rascal Flatts * Zac Brown Band * Shinedown * Disney's Friends For Change * Toby Keith * Darius Rucker * Cascada * Billy Currington * Justin Moore * Kid Cudi Featuring Kanye West & Common * Keith Urban * Randy Houser * Drake Featuring Lil Wayne * Jeremih * Pearl Jam * Kelly Clarkson * George Strait * LMFAO * Twista Featuring Erika Shevon * Uncle Kracker * Eric Church * Jack Ingram * Love And Theft * Parachute * Chris Young * Theory Of A Deadman * Tim McGraw * Sean Paul * Gloriana * Creed * Ginuwine * Keyshia Cole Duet With Monica * Blake Shelton * Iyaz
2009 NCAA Basketball Tournament! List of NCAA Division 1 Teams & Coaches at 227!
America East Conference Albany - Will Brown Binghamton - Kevin Broadus Boston University - Dennis Wolff Hartford - Dan Leibovitz Maine - Ted Woodward New Hampshire - Bill Herrion Stony Brook - Steve Pikiell UMBC - Randy Monroe Vermont - Mike Lonergan 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! America East Conference
Atlantic 10 Conference Charlotte - Bobby Lutz Dayton - Brian Gregory Duquesne - Ron Everhart Fordham - Dereck Whittenburg George Washington - Karl Hobbs La Salle - John Giannini Rhode Island - Jim Baron Richmond - Chris Mooney St. Bonaventure - Mark Schmidt Saint Joseph's - Phil Martelli Saint Louis - Rick Majerus Temple - Fran Dunphy UMass - Derek Kellogg Xavier - Sean Miller 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Atlantic 10 Conference
Atlantic Coast Conference Boston College - Al Skinner Clemson - Oliver Purnell Duke - Mike Krzyzewski Florida State - Leonard Hamilton Georgia Tech - Paul Hewitt Maryland - Gary Williams Miami (Florida) - Frank Haith North Carolina - Roy Williams North Carolina State - Sidney Lowe Virginia - Dave Leitao Virginia Tech - Seth Greenberg Wake Forest - Dino Gaudio 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Atlantic Coast Conference
Atlantic Sun Conference Belmont - Rick Byrd Campbell - Robbie Laing East Tennessee State - Murry Bartow Florida Gulf Coast - Dave Balza Jacksonville - Cliff Warren Kennesaw State - Tony Ingle Lipscomb - Scott Sanderson Mercer - Bob Hoffman North Florida - Matt Kilcullen Stetson - Derek Waugh USC Upstate - Eddie Payne 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Atlantic Sun Conference
Big 12 Conference Baylor - Scott Drew Colorado - Jeff Bzdelik Iowa State - Greg McDermott Kansas - Bill Self Kansas State - Frank Martin Missouri - Mike Anderson Nebraska - Doc Sadler Oklahoma - Jeff Capel III Oklahoma State - Travis Ford Texas - Rick Barnes Texas A&M - Mark Turgeon Texas Tech - Pat Knight 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Big 12 Conference
Big East Conference Cincinnati - Mick Cronin Connecticut - Jim Calhoun DePaul - Jerry Wainwright Georgetown - John Thompson III Louisville - Rick Pitino Marquette - Buzz Williams Notre Dame - Mike Brey Pittsburgh - Jamie Dixon Providence - Keno Davis Rutgers - Fred Hill St. John's - Norm Roberts Seton Hall - Bobby Gonzalez South Florida - Stan Heath Syracuse - Jim Boeheim Villanova - Jay Wright West Virginia - Bobby Huggins 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Big East Conference
Big Sky Conference Eastern Washington - Kirk Earlywine Idaho State - Joe O'Brien Montana - Wayne Tinkle Montana State - Brad Huse Northern Arizona - Mike Adras Northern Colorado - Tad Boyle Portland State - Ken Bone Sacramento State - Brian Katz Weber State - Randy Rahe 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Big Sky Conference
Big South Conference Charleston Southern - Barclay Radebaugh Coastal Carolina - Cliff Ellis Gardner-Webb - Rick Scruggs High Point - Bart Lundy Liberty - Ritchie McKay Presbyterian - Gregg Nibert Radford - Brad Greenberg UNC-Asheville - Eddie Biedenbach VMI - Duggar Baucom Winthrop - Randy Peele 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Big South Conference
Big Ten Conference Illinois - Bruce Weber Indiana - Tom Crean Iowa - Todd Lickliter Michigan - John Beilein Michigan State - Tom Izzo Minnesota - Tubby Smith Northwestern - Bill Carmody Ohio State - Thad Matta Penn State - Ed DeChellis Purdue - Matt Painter Wisconsin - Bo Ryan 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Big Ten Conference
Big West Conference Cal Poly - Kevin Bromley Cal State Fullerton - Bob Burton Cal State Northridge - Bobby Braswell Long Beach State - Dan Monson Pacific - Bob Thomason UC Davis - Gary Stewart UC Irvine - Pat Douglass UC Riverside - Jim Wooldridge UC Santa Barbara - Bob Williams 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Big West Conference
Colonial Athletic Association Delaware - Monte Ross Drexel - Bruiser Flint George Mason - Jim Larranaga Georgia State - Rod Barnes Hofstra - Tom Pecora James Madison - Matt Brady Northeastern - Bill Coen Old Dominion - Blaine Taylor Towson - Pat Kennedy UNC-Wilmington - Benny Moss Virginia Commonwealth - Anthony Grant William & Mary - Tony Shaver 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Colonial Athletic Association
Conference USA East Carolina - Mack McCarthy Houston - Tom Penders Marshall - Donnie Jones Memphis - John Calipari Rice - Ben Braun Southern Methodist - Matt Doherty Southern Mississippi - Larry Eustachy Tulane - Dave Dickerson Tulsa - Doug Wojcik UAB - Mike Davis UCF - Kirk Speraw UTEP - Tony Barbee 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Conference USA
Horizon League - Butler - Brad Stevens Cleveland State - Gary Waters Detroit - Ray McCallum Loyola (Chicago) - Jim Whitesell UIC - Jimmy Collins UW-Green Bay - Tod Kowalczyk UW-Milwaukee - Rob Jeter Valparaiso - Homer Drew Wright State - Brad Brownell Youngstown State - Jerry Slocum 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Horizon League
Independents Bryant - Tim O'Shea Cal State Bakersfield - Keith Brown Chicago State - Benjy Taylor Houston Baptist - Ron Cottrell Longwood - Mike Gillian New Jersey Institute of Technology - Jim Engles North Carolina Central - Henry Dickerson Savannah State - Horace Broadnax SIU-Edwardsville - Lennox Forrester Texas-Pan American - Tom Schuberth Utah Valley - Dick Hunsaker 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! NCAA Division I independent schools (basketball)
Ivy League Brown - Jesse Agel Columbia - Joe Jones Cornell - Steve Donahue Dartmouth - Terry Dunn Harvard - Tommy Amaker Penn - Glen Miller Princeton - Sydney Johnson Yale - James Jones 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Ivy League
Metro Atlantic Athletic Conference Canisius - Tom Parrotta Fairfield - Ed Cooley Iona - Kevin Willard Loyola (Maryland) - Jimmy Patsos Manhattan - Barry Rohrssen Marist - Chuck Martin Niagara - Joe Mihalich Rider - Tommy Dempsey St. Peter's - John Dunne Siena - Fran McCaffery 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Mid-American Conference
Mid-American Conference Akron – Keith Dambrot Ball State – Billy Taylor Bowling Green – Louis Orr Buffalo – Reggie Witherspoon Central Michigan – Ernie Ziegler Eastern Michigan – Charles Ramsey Kent State – Geno Ford Miami – Charlie Coles Northern Illinois – Ricardo Patton Ohio – John Groce Toledo – Gene Cross Western Michigan – Steve Hawkins 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Mid-American Conference
Mid-Eastern Athletic Conference Bethune-Cookman - Clifford Reed Coppin State - Ron Mitchell Delaware State - Greg Jackson Florida A&M - Mike Gillespie Hampton - Kevin Nickelberry Howard - Gil Jackson Maryland-Eastern Shore - Meredith Smith Morgan State - Todd Bozeman Norfolk State - Anthony Evans North Carolina A&T - Jerry Eaves South Carolina State - Tim Carter Winston-Salem State - Bobby Collins 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Mid-Eastern Athletic Conference
Missouri Valley Conference Bradley - Jim Les Creighton - Dana Altman Drake - Mark Phelps Evansville - Marty Simmons Illinois State - Tim Jankovich Indiana State - Kevin McKenna Missouri State - Cuonzo Martin Northern Iowa - Ben Jacobson Southern Illinois - Chris Lowery Wichita State - Gregg Marshall 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Missouri Valley Conference
Mountain West Conference Air Force - Jeff Reynolds Brigham Young - Dave Rose Colorado State - Tim Miles New Mexico - Steve Alford San Diego State - Steve Fisher Texas Christian - Neil Dougherty UNLV - Lon Kruger Utah - Jim Boylen Wyoming - Heath Schroyer 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Mountain West Conference
Northeast Conference Central Connecticut State - Howie Dickenman Fairleigh Dickinson - Tom Green LIU-Brooklyn - Jim Ferry Monmouth - Dave Calloway Mount St. Mary's - Milan Brown Quinnipiac - Tom Moore Robert Morris - Mike Rice Jr. Sacred Heart - Dave Bike St. Francis (PA) - Don Friday St. Francis (NY) - Brian Nash Wagner - Mike Deane 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Northeast Conference
Ohio Valley Conference Austin Peay - Dave Loos Eastern Illinois - Mike Miller Eastern Kentucky - Jeff Neubauer Jacksonville State - James Green Morehead State - Donnie Tyndall Murray State - Billy Kennedy Southeast Missouri - Zac Roman Tennessee-Martin - Bret Campbell Tennessee State - Cy Alexander Tennessee Tech - Mike Sutton 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Ohio Valley Conference
Pacific-10 Conference Arizona - Russ Pennell Arizona State - Herb Sendek California - Mike Montgomery Oregon - Ernie Kent Oregon State - Craig Robinson Stanford - Johnny Dawkins UCLA - Ben Howland USC - Tim Floyd Washington - Lorenzo Romar Washington State - Tony Bennett 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Pacific-10 Conference
Patriot League American - Jeff Jones Army - Jim Crews Bucknell - Dave Paulsen Colgate - Emmett Davis Holy Cross - Ralph Willard Lafayette - Fran O'Hanlon Lehigh - Brett Reed Navy - Billy Lange 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Patriot League
Southeastern Conference Alabama - Philip Pearson Arkansas - John Pelphrey Auburn - Jeff Lebo Florida - Billy Donovan Georgia - Pete Herrmann Kentucky - Billy Gillispie LSU - Trent Johnson Mississippi - Andy Kennedy Mississippi State - Rick Stansbury South Carolina - Darrin Horn Tennessee - Bruce Pearl Vanderbilt - Kevin Stallings 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Southeastern Conference
Southern Conference Appalachian State - Houston Fancher Chattanooga - John Shulman The Citadel - Ed Conroy College of Charleston - Bobby Cremins Davidson - Bob McKillop Elon - Ernie Nestor Furman - Jeff Jackson Georgia Southern - Jeff Price Samford - Jimmy Tillette UNC-Greensboro - Mike Dement Western Carolina - Larry Hunter Wofford - Mike Young 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Southern Conference
Southland Conference Central Arkansas - Rand Chappell Lamar - Steve Roccaforte McNeese State - Dave Simmons Nicholls State - J. P. Piper Northwestern State - Mike McConathy Sam Houston State - Bob Marlin Southeastern Louisiana - Jim Yarbrough Stephen F. Austin - Danny Kaspar Texas A&M-Corpus Christi - Perry Clark Texas-Arlington - Scott Cross Texas-San Antonio - Brooks Thompson Texas State - Doug Davalos 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Southland Conference
Southwestern Athletic Conference Alabama A&M - L. Vann Pettaway Alabama State - Lewis Jackson Alcorn State - Samuel West Arkansas-Pine Bluff - George Ivory Grambling State - Larry Wright Jackson State - Tevester Anderson Mississippi Valley State - Sean Woods Prairie View A&M - Byron Rimm II Southern - Rob Spivery Texas Southern - Tony Harvey 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Southwestern Athletic Conference
The Summit League Centenary - Greg Gary IPFW - Dane Fife IUPUI - Ron Hunter North Dakota State - Saul Phillips Oakland - Greg Kampe Oral Roberts - Scott Sutton South Dakota State - Scott Nagy Southern Utah - Roger Reid UMKC - Matt Brown Western Illinois - Derek Thomas 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! The Summit League
Sun Belt Conference Arkansas-Little Rock - Steve Shields Arkansas State - Dickey Nutt Denver - Joe Scott Florida Atlantic - Mike Jarvis Florida International - Sergio Rouco Louisiana-Lafayette - Robert Lee Louisiana-Monroe - Orlando Early Middle Tennessee - Kermit Davis New Orleans - Joe Pasternack North Texas - Johnny Jones South Alabama - Ronnie Arrow Troy - Don Maestri Western Kentucky - Ken McDonald 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Sun Belt Conference
West Coast Conference Gonzaga - Mark Few Loyola Marymount - Rodney Tention Pepperdine - Vance Walberg Portland - Eric Reveno Saint Mary's - Randy Bennett San Diego - Bill Grier San Francisco - Rex Walters Santa Clara - Kerry Keating 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! West Coast Conference
Western Athletic Conference Boise State - Greg Graham Fresno State - Steve Cleveland Hawai?i - Bob Nash Idaho - Don Verlin Louisiana Tech - Kerry Rupp Nevada - Mark Fox New Mexico State - Marvin Menzies San Jose State - George Nessman Utah State - Stew Morrill 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Western Athletic Conference
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Annie Lennox B'z Britney Spears Carlos Santana Dalida Earth, Wind & Fire Eddy Arnold Eminem Eurythmics Gloria Estefan Hibari Misora Journey Scorpions Van Halen Ace of Base Alan Jackson Country Alice Cooper Hard rock Andrea Bocelli Opera The Andrews Sisters Swing Ayumi Hamasaki Pop Black Sabbath Heavy metal Barbra Streisand Pop / Adult contemporary Beach Boys Rock Pop Bob Dylan Folk / Rock Bob Seger Rock Boston Arena rock Boyz II Men R&B Bruce Springsteen Rock Bryan Adams Def Leppard Destiny's Child R&B / Pop Dreams Come True Pop / Jazz Duran Duran Enya Ireland Four Tops George Strait Glay Iron Maiden Jay-Z Hip hop Jean Michel Jarre Jethro Tull Johnny Cash Kazuhiro Moriuchi Kiss Hard rock Kenny G Kylie Minogue Luis Miguel Linkin Park Meat Loaf Michael Bolton Mills Brothers Mötley Crüe Mr.Children Nat King Cole New Kids on the Block Nirvana 'N Sync Oasis Orhan Gencebay Pearl Jam Petula Clark Red Hot Chili Peppers The Police Ray Conniff Reba McEntire R.E.M. Richard Clayderman Ricky Martin Robbie Williams Roxette Sweden Shakira Colombia
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Jamaal Al-Din, a native of Grand Rapids, Michigan and former leading scorer of Olympic Basketball and LSU great, Ed Palubinskas brings to you Michigan State University's and the NBA's Earvin "Magic" Johnson at 227's YouTube "MAGIC!" provided by Jamaal Al-Din's Hoops 227-the everything basketball website, featuring YouTube Videos and Wikipedia information on the legendary Earvin "Magic" Johnson, The Magic Johnson Foundation, Magic Johnson Enterprises, and everything including the magical phrase..."MAGIC!" 227's YouTube "MAGIC!"
As we look to expand basketball marketing, camps and clinics nationally, our basketball affiliate programs are scheduled to begin in March of 2008. Our affiliates, exciting, take a look at this list: ebay, StubHub.com, Yahoo Affiliate Program!, TickCo Premium Seating, RazorGator Affiliate Program, SightSell, VistaPrint.com, Pokeorder and WeHaveSeats.com. Jamaal Al-Din's Hoops 227 welcomes our affiliate partners for 2008. Among the items offered our NCAA & NBA basketball tickets both premium and discounted rates. Basketball shoes and apparel for kids, fans, players and coaches ranging from Air Jordans, LeBron James, NIKE, Adidas, AND1, hats, collectibles and memoralbilia! Jamaal Al-Din's Hoops 227- The everything basketball website!
?227's YouTube "Chili" features these exciting YouTube music and entertainment celebrities...click onto to these 227 YouTube "Chili" links, channels and articles for the most watched YouTube hip-hop music videos in the world!
Sean Kingston, Justin Timberlake, M.I.A'"Paper Planes!" , Timbaland, 50 Cent, P-Diddy, Kanye West. Rihanna, Chris Brown, T.I.-"Big Things Poppin!" , Rihanna- Hate That I Love You (over 29 million views on YouTube)!, Leona Lewis, Soulja Boy, Britney Spears, Alicia Keys, Avril Lavigne, Alicia Keys- No One, Akon, NE-YO, LL Cool J, Dr. Dre, Snoop Dogg, Dmx, Jay-z, The Notorious B.I.G, 2PAC, Will Smith, Jonas Brothers, Pink "So What!" , Jordin Sparks feta. Chris Brown- "No Air" Official Music Video-over 33 million views on YouTube!), Lil Jon- get low music movie, Ludacris, Ice Cube, Flo Rida feat. T.Pain Music from the Movie Step Up 2 "Low," Chris Brown*Chris Brown feat. T.Pain- Kiss Kiss (over 51 million views on YouTube)!, Chris Brown-"With You," Chris Brown feat. Lil' Wayne (over 56 million views on YouTube!, Chris Brown "YO," Chris Brown-Run It, Chris Brown- Forever, Wu Tang Clan, The Fugees, Jordin Sparks-Tattoo, Rhianna- Cry, Rihanna- unfaithful, Rhianna- Umbrella (over 43 million views on YouTube/You Tube)!, Ashanti, Fergie Fergalicious, Fergie- Clumsy!, Rhianna- Dont' Stop The Music (over 62 million views on YouTube), Avril Lavign- Girlfriend (over 92 million views on YouTube)!, Clay Aiken, Akon, Christina Aguilera-Hurt, Clay Aiken-On My Way Here, All-American Rejects, All-American Rejects-Move Along, All-American Rejects-It Ends Tonight, Ashley Parker Angel, Michael Jackson ("Thriller"), Backstreet Boys, Augustana, Natasha Bedingfeild, Michael Jackson, Natasha Bedingfield feat. Sean Kingston-Love Like This, Natasha Bedingfield-Pocketful of Sunshine and lots more at 227's YouTube Chili!!! Your source for the world's most watched YouTube Music Videos at Jamaal Al-Din's Hoops 227- the everything basketball website!
Also: Jesse McCartney, Ray J,Usher,Elliott Yamin,Jonas Brothers,Fergie,Taylor Swift, Nelly Furtado, Jennifer Lopez, Flyleaf,Maroon 5,Kanye West,Keyshia Cole, The Pussycat Dolls,Colby O'Donis,Ashanti,R. Kelly,Girlicious, Colbi Calliat, Boy George,Mario,Three Days Grace,Beyonce', Gorillaz,Carrie Underwood,3 Doors Down,Finger Eleven, Ginuwine,Baby Bash,Kid Rock,Joe, Gwen Steffani, Billy Ray Cyrus, Danity Kane, Janel Parrish, Ciara, NLT, Fall Out Boy, Josh Turner, Fantasia and more!