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South Korea From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search Republic of Korea 대한민국 Daehan-minguk Flag Coat of arms Motto: 널리 인간을 이롭게 하라 (홍익인간) "Benefit all Mankind" Anthem: Aegukga (애국가) The Patriotic Song Capital (and largest city) Seoul 37°35′N 127°0′E / 37.583°N 127°E / 37.583; 127 Official languages Korean Demonym South Korean, Korean Government Semi-presidential republic - President Lee Myung-bak - Prime Minister Han Seung-soo Legislature National Assembly Establishment - Independence declared March 1, 1919 - Provisional Government April 13, 1919 - Liberation August 15, 1945 - Constitution July 17, 1948 - Government Proclaimed August 15, 1948 Area - Total 100,032 km2 (108th) 38,622 sq mi - Water (%) 0.3 Population - estimate 49,540,367 (24th) - Density 493/km2 (12th) 1,274/sq mi GDP (PPP) 2007 estimate - Total $1,201.9 billion (13th) - Per capita $24,803 (33rd) GDP (nominal) 2007 estimate - Total $969.871 billion (13th) - Per capita $20,015 (34th) Gini (2007) 31.3 (low) HDI (2008) ▲ 0.928 (high) (25th) Currency South Korean won (₩) (KRW) Time zone Korea Standard Time (UTC+9) - Summer (DST) not observed (UTC+9) Date formats yyyy년 mm월 dd일 yyyy/mm/dd (CE) Drives on the right Internet TLD .kr Calling code 82 1 Mobile phone system CDMA, WCDMA, HSDPA and WiBro 2 Domestic power supply 220V/60 Hz, CEE 7/7 sockets South Korea, officially the Republic of Korea (ROK) (Hangul: 대한민국, Hanja: 大韓民國, IPA: [tɛː.han.min.ɡuk̚]), listen (help·info)), often referred to as Korea and the "Land of the Morning Calm," is a semi-presidential republic in East Asia, located in the southern half of the Korean Peninsula. It borders North Korea to the north and closely neighbors China to the west and Japan to the east. Its capital is Seoul. Korea was first inhabited as early as the Lower Paleolithic. After the Gojoseon period, Three Korean Kingdoms period ran from 57 BC until Silla's triumph over Goguryeo in 668, which marked the beginning of the North and South States period of Unified Silla in the South and Balhae in the North. Following the unification of North and South States period under Goryeo 936 AD. Korea went through the Goryeo and Joseon Dynasty as one nation until the end of the Korean Empire in 1910. After liberation and division, South Korea was established in 1948 and has since become one of the two full democracies in Asia. Following the Korean War, the South Korean economy grew significantly, transforming the country into a major global economy. South Korea's economic growth is known as the Miracle on the Han River, and South Korea today is considered one of the Four Asian Tigers. South Korea has an international outlook with memberships in the United Nations, WTO, OECD and G-20 major economies. It is also a founding member of APEC and the East Asia Summit, being a major non-NATO ally of the United States. South Korea is a developed country. It has the fourth-largest economy in Asia and a High-income OECD member, classified as an Advanced economy by CIA and IMF. Today, it is among the world's fastest growing advanced economies and is leading the Next Eleven nations; its economic success serves as a role model for many developing countries. South Korea has a high-tech and futuristic infrastructure, and is a world leader in technologically advanced goods such as electronics, automobiles, ships, machinery, petrochemicals and robotics, headed by Samsung, POSCO, and Hyundai Heavy Industries. Since the 21st century, South Korea's modern culture has become popular in Asia and beyond in a phenomenon known as the Korean wave. Contents [hide] 1 Government 2 History 2.1 Before division 2.2 After division 3 Foreign relations 3.1 United States 3.2 China 3.3 Japan 3.4 North Korea 4 Armed forces 5 Administrative divisions 6 Geography and climate 6.1 Climate 6.2 Environment 7 Economy 7.1 High-tech industries 7.2 Transportation and energy 8 Science and technology 8.1 Aerospace research 8.2 Robotics 8.3 Biotechnology 9 Education 10 Demographics 10.1 Religion 10.2 Largest cities 11 Culture 11.1 Entertainment 11.2 Cuisine 11.3 Technology culture 12 Sports 13 Notes 14 References 15 External links  Government Main article: Government of South Korea The National Assembly of South KoreaThe government of South Korea is divided into three branches: executive, judicial, and legislative. The executive and legislative branches operate primarily at the national level, although various ministries in the executive branch also carry out local functions. Local governments are semi-autonomous, and contain executive and legislative bodies of their own. The judicial branch operates at both the national and local levels. South Korea is a constitutional democracy. The South Korean government's structure is determined by the Constitution of the Republic of Korea. This document has been revised several times since its first promulgation in 1948 (see History of South Korea). However, it has retained many broad characteristics; with the exception of the short-lived Second Republic of South Korea, the country has always had a presidential system with an independent chief executive. South Korea has developed a successful liberal democracy since the 1960s and the first direct election was held in 1987. The CIA World Factbook describes South Korea's democracy as a "fully functioning modern democracy".  History  Before division Main article: History of Korea Korea began with the founding of Joseon (The name Gojoseon is almost always used to prevent confusion with another Joseon dynasty founded in 14th century; the prefix Go- means 'old' or 'earlier') in 2333 BCE by Dangun. Gojoseon expanded until it controlled much of the northern Korean peninsula and parts of Manchuria. After numerous wars with the Chinese Han Dynasty, Gojoseon disintegrated, leading to the Proto-Three Kingdoms of Korea period. In the early centuries of the Common Era, Buyeo, Okjeo, Dongye, and the Samhan confederacy occupied the peninsula and southern Manchuria. Of the various small states, Goguryeo, Baekje, and Silla grew to control the peninsula as the Three Kingdoms. The unification of the Three Kingdoms by Silla in 676 led to the North-South States period, in which much of the Korean peninsula was controlled by Unified Silla, while Balhae succeeded the northern parts of Goguryeo. In Unified Silla, poetry and art was encouraged, and Buddhist culture flourished. Relationships between Korea and China remained relatively peaceful during this time. However, Unified Silla weakened under internal strife, and surrendered to Goryeo in 935. Balhae, Silla's neighbor to the north, was formed as a successor state to Goguryeo. During its height, Balhae controlled most of Manchuria and parts of Russia. It fell to the Khitan in 926. After the North-South Period, successor states fought for control during the Later Three Kingdoms period. The peninsula was soon united by Emperor Taejo of Goryeo. Like Silla, Goryeo was a highly cultural state and created the Jikji in 1377, using the world's oldest movable metal printing press. Gyeongbok Palace is the largest of the Five Grand Palaces built during the Joseon Dynasty.The Mongol invasions in the 13th century greatly weakened Goryeo. However, Goryeo continued to rule Korea as a tributary ally to the Mongols. After the fall of the Mongolian Empire, Goryeo continued its rule. After severe political strife and continued invasions, Goryeo was replaced by the Joseon Dynasty in 1388 following a rebellion by General Yi Seong-gye. General Yi declared the new name of Korea as Joseon in reference to Gojoseon, and moved the capital to Seoul. The first 200 years of the Joseon Dynasty was marked by relative peace and saw the creation of hangul by Sejong the Great in the 14th century and the rise and influence of Confucianism. In the latter of the 16th century, Joseon was invaded by a newly unified Japan. During the Japanese invasions of Korea (1592–1598), centuries of peace had left the dynasty unprepared, and the lack of technology and poor leadership from the Joseon government and generals led to the destruction of much of the Korean peninsula. In the first Japanese invasion (1592–1593), the army sent from China to assist Korea had a prescribed strength of 100,000, including 42,000 from five northern military districts and a contingent of 3,000 soldiers proficient in the use of firearms from South China. In the second Japanese invasion (1597–1598), Chinese army and navy involved were around 75,000 at the climax of the second campaign. In comparison, Japan's invasion army was depleted from 167,700 in the first invasion to 122,100 in the second invasion. Though outnumbered by the Japanese invasion force, however, continued Korean dominance at sea led by Admiral Yi, the rise of local militias, and the intervention of Ming China put Japan under great pressure to retreat in 1598. During the last years of the Joseon Dynasty, Korea's isolationist policy earned it the name the "Hermit Kingdom", primarily for protection against Western imperialism before it was forced to open trade beginning an era leading into Japanese colonial rule.  After division Main article: History of South Korea In the aftermath of World War II, Soviet Union and United States troops controlled the northern and southern halves of the country respectively. View of Seoul's Gangnam-gu district in the present dayDespite the initial plan of a unified Korea in the 1943 Cairo Declaration, escalating Cold War antagonism eventually led to the establishment of two separate governments to their own ideologies, leading to Korea's division into two political entities: North Korea and South Korea. In the North, a former anti-Japanese guerrilla and communist activist, Kim Il-sung and in the South, an exiled Korean political leader, Syngman Rhee, were installed as presidents. A sculpture at the Incheon Landing Operation Memorial HallOn June 25, 1950, North Korea invaded the South leading to the Korean War. The Soviet boycott of the United Nations at the time, and therefore, no veto, allowed the UN to intervene when it became
apparent that the superior communist forces would easily take over the entire country. The Soviet Union and China backed North Korea, with the later participation of millions of Chinese troops. After huge advances on both sides, the war eventually reached a stalemate. The 1953 armistice, never signed by South Korea, split the peninsula along the demilitarized zone near the original demarcation line. No peace treaty was ever signed, and the two countries are still technically at war. In 1960, a student uprising led to the resignation of the autocratic President Syngman Rhee. A period of political instability followed, broken by General Park Chung-hee's military coup (the "5.16 coup d'état") against the weak and ineffectual government the next year. Park took over as president until his assassination in 1979, overseeing rapid export-led economic growth as well as severe political repression. Park is heavily criticised as a ruthless military dictator, although the Korean economy developed significantly during his tenure. The years after Park's assassination were marked by, again, considerable political turmoil as the previously repressed opposition leaders all campaigned to run for president in the sudden political void. In 1980, there was a coup d'état, by General Chun Doo-hwan against the transitional government of Choi Gyu Ha, the interim president and a former prime minister under Park. Chun assumed the presidency. His seizure of power triggered nationwide protest demanding democracy, in particular the city of Gwangju, in Jeollanam-do where Chun sent in special forces to violently suppress the city, in what is now known as the Gwangju Massacre. Since 1991, the Korean Unification Flag has been used to represent all of Korea when North and South Korea participate together in sporting events. View of the Seoul World Cup Stadium used during the 2002 FIFA World Cup co-hosted by South Korea and JapanUntil 1987, Chun and his government held Korea under despotic rule when Park Jong Chul — a student attending Seoul National University — was tortured to death. The Catholic Priests' Association for Justice revealed that Park was tortured, igniting huge demonstrations around the country. The demonstrations snowballed when another student from Yonsei University, Lee Han Yeol, was killed by a police-fired tear gas bomb while he was demonstrating against the military government. The period of resistance is called the Resistance of June when all joined the national movement. Eventually, Chun's party, the Democratic Justice Party, and its leader, Roh Tae-woo announced the June 29th Declaration, which included the direct election of the president. In 1988, Seoul hosted the 1988 Summer Olympics, a cause of both national and international celebration in contrast to great turmoil of the past. In 1996, South Korea became a member of the OECD, a testament to further economic growth. As with many of its Asian neighbors, South Korea suffered the 1997 Asian Financial Crisis, but the country was able to re-emerge and continue its growth towards a major economic power after a swift recovery. In June 2000, as part of South Korean president Kim Dae-jung's Sunshine Policy of engagement, a North-South summit took place in Pyongyang, the capital city of North Korea. That year, Former President Kim received the Nobel Peace Prize "for his work for democracy and human rights in South Korea and in East Asia in general, and for peace and reconciliation with North Korea in particular." In 2002, South Korea and Japan jointly co-hosted the 2002 FIFA World Cup.  Foreign relations Main article: Foreign relations of South Korea South Korea maintains diplomatic relations with approximately 170 countries. The country has also been a member of the United Nations since 1991, when it became a member state at the same time as North Korea. On January 1, 2007, South Korean Foreign Minister Ban Ki-moon assumed the post of UN Secretary-General. It has also developed links with Association of Southeast Asian Nations as both a member of ASEAN Plus three, a body of observers, and the East Asia Summit (EAS). Beginning in May 2007, South Korea and the European Union are negotiating a Free Trade Agreement to reduce trade barriers. South Korea is also negotiating a Free Trade Agreement with Canada,  and another with New Zealand.   United States Secretary-General of the United Nations Ban Ki-moon, with former U.S. President George W. BushThe United States engaged in the decolonization of Korea (mainly South, Soviet Union engaged North Korea) from Japan after World War II. After 3 years of military administration by the United States, the South Korean government was established. Upon the onset of the Korean War, the United States Military was sent to South Korea to defend against the invasion of North Korea and later China. Since then, the two nations have had strong economic, diplomatic and military ties, although they have at times disagreed with regards to policies towards North Korea. Currently, the U.S. Eighth Army, Seventh Air Force and U.S. Naval Forces Korea are stationed in South Korea.  China Historically, Korea has had relatively close relations with the Republic of China. Before the formation of South Korea, Korean independence fighters worked with Chinese soldiers during the Japanese occupation. However, after World War II, the People's Republic of China embraced Maoism while South Korea fell under the influence of the United States. The PRC assisted North Korea with manpower and supplies during the Korean War, and in its aftermath the diplomatic relationship between South Korea and the PRC almost completely ceased. Relations thawed gradually and South Korea and the PRC re-established formal diplomatic relations on August 24, 1992. The two countries sought to improve bilateral relations and lifted the forty-year old trade embargo, and South Korean-Chinese relations have improved steadily since 1992. Korea broke off official relations with the Republic of China upon gaining official relations with the People's Republic.  Japan Although there were no formal diplomatic ties between South Korea and Japan after the Korean War, South Korea and Japan signed the Treaty on Basic Relations between Japan and the Republic of Korea in 1965 to establish diplomatic ties. There is heavy anti-Japanese sentiment in South Korea due to a number of unsettled Japanese-Korean disputes, many of which stem from the period of Japanese occupation. During World War II, more than 100,000 Koreans were forced to serve in the Imperial Japanese Army.Longstanding issues such as Japanese war crimes against Korean civilians, the visits by Japanese politicians to the Yasukuni Shrine honoring Japanese soldiers killed at war, including class A war criminals like Hideki Tojo, the re-writing of Japanese textbooks to overlook Japanese aggression during World War II, and the territorial disputes over Liancourt Rocks continue to trouble Korean-Japanese relations. In response to then-Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi's repeated visits to the Yasukuni Shrine, former President Roh Moo-hyun suspended all summit talks between South Korea and Japan.  North Korea Both North and South Korea continue to officially claim sovereignty over the entire peninsula and any outlying islands. With longstanding animosity following the Korean War from 1950 to 1953, North Korea and South Korea signed an agreement to pursue peace. On October 4, 2007, Roh Moo-Hyun and North Korean leader Kim Jong-il signed an eight-point agreement on issues of permanent peace, high-level talks, economic cooperation, renewal of train services, highway and air travel, and a joint Olympic cheering squad. Despite the Sunshine Policy and efforts at reconciliation, the progress was complicated by North Korean missile tests in 1993, 1998, and again in 2006. Recently, North Korea agreed to temporarily suspend its pursuit of a nuclear weapons program for economic and diplomatic support, although some Korean and American officials criticised the North for not being fully cooperative in its temporary suspension of a nuclear weapons program. As of early 2009[update], relationships between North and South Korea are tense; North Korea has been reported to have deployed missiles, ended its former agreements with South Korea, and threatened South Korea and the United States not to interfere with a satellite launch it had planned. As of 2009, North and South Korea are still technically at war (having never signed an armistice after the Korean War) and share the world’s most heavily-fortified border.   Armed forces This section has multiple issues. Please help improve the article or discuss these issues on the talk page. It is missing citations or footnotes. Please help improve it by adding inline citations. Tagged since February 2009. Its quality may be compromised by peacock terms. Tagged since February 2009. Its neutrality is disputed. Tagged since February 2009. Main article: Military of South Korea South Korea's T-50 Golden Eagle, a supersonic trainer aircraftSouth Korea has the world's sixth largest number of active troops, the world's second largest number of reserve troops and the twelfth largest defence budget. The South Korean army has 2,300 tanks in operation, consisting of technologically advanced models such as the K1A1 and the new K2 Black Panther. The South Korean navy has the world's sixth largest fleet of destroyers and is one of the five navies in the world to operate an Aegis guided missile enabled destroyer, the King Sejong the Great class destroyer. It has also the world's largest fleet of frigates, the sixth largest of corvettes and the fourth largest of submarines in operation. The South Korean airforce operates the ninth largest airforce in the world, composed of advanced American fighters such as the F-15K, KF-16 and advanced indigenous models such as the T-50 Golden Eagle. The South Korean military consists of the Army (ROKA), the Navy (ROKN), the Air Force (ROKAF), and the Marine Corps (ROKMC), together with reserve forces. Many of these forces are concentrated near the Korean Demilitarized Zone. All South Korean males are constitutionally required to serve in the military, typically for a period of two years. However, there have been debates about shortening the length of the military services, and even dismissing the mandatory service itself. The government recently allowed some male students who were in the process of earning a university bachelor's degree and master's degree to dismiss the military requirements to allow them to further study and research their fields. A South Korean midshipman aboard ROKN DaecheongFrom time to time, South Korea has sent its troops overseas to assist American forces. It has participated in most major conflicts that the United States has been involved in the past 50 years. South Korea dispatched 320,000 troops to fight alongside American, Australian, Filipino, New Zealand and South Vietnamese soldiers in the Vietnam War, with a peak strength of 50,000. Most recently, South Korea sent 3,300 troops of the Zaytun Division to help re-building in northern Iraq, and was the 3rd largest contributor in the coalition forces after only the US and Britain. The United States has stationed a substantial contingent of troops in South Korea since the Korean War to defend South Korea in case of a North Korean attack. There are also approximately 29,000 U.S. Military personnel stationed in Korea, most of them serving one year of unaccompanied tours. The American Troops, which primarily are assigned to the Eighth United States Army are stationed in installations at Osan, Yongsan, Dongducheon, Sungbuk, and Daegu, of which are considered camps not for their lack of buildings or support structure, but to make a political and military statement representing a lack of permanence. A still functioning UN Command is technically the top of the chain of command of all forces in South Korea, including the US forces and the entire South Korean military.  Administrative divisions Main article: Administrative divisions of South Korea See also Special cities of Korea and Provinces of Korea Principal divisions of South Korea General map of South KoreaThe major administrative divisions in South Korea are provinces, metropolitan cities (self-governing cities that are not part of any province), and one special city. Namea hangul hanja Special cities (Teukbyeolsi)a 1 Seoul (National Capital) 서울특별시 서울特別市 Metropolitan cities (Gwangyeoksi)a 2 Busan 부산광역시 釜山廣域市 3 Daegu 대구광역시 大邱廣域市 4 Incheon 인천광역시 仁川廣域市 5 Gwangju 광주광역시 光州廣域市 6 Daejeon 대전광역시 大田廣域市 7 Ulsan 울산광역시 蔚山廣域市 Provinces 8 Gyeonggi-do 경기도 京畿道 9 Gangwon-do 강원도 江原道 10 Chungcheongbuk-do (Northern Chungcheong) 충청북도 忠淸北道 11 Chungcheongnam-do (Southern Chungcheong) 충청남도 忠淸南道 12 Jeollabuk-do (Northern Jeolla) 전라북도 全羅北道 13 Jeollanam-do (Southern Jeolla) 전라남도 全羅南道 14 Gyeongsangbuk-do (Northern Gyeongsang) 경상북도 慶尙北道 15 Gyeongsangnam-do (Southern Gyeongsang) 경상남도 慶尙南道 Special self-governing province (Teukbyeoljachi-do)a 16 Jeju-teukbyeoljachido 제주특별자치도 濟州特別自治道 a Revised Romanisation.  Geography and climate Main article: Geography of South Korea Topography of South KoreaSouth Korea occupies the southern portion of the Korean Peninsula, which extends some 680 miles (1,100 km) from the Asian mainland. This mountainous peninsula is flanked by the Yellow Sea to the west, and the Sea of Japan (East Sea) to the east. Its southern tip lies on the Korea Strait and the East China Sea. The country's total area is 38,622.57 square miles (100,032.00 km2). South Korea can be divided into four general regions: an eastern region of high mountain ranges and narrow coastal plains; a western region of broad coastal plains, river basins, and rolling hills; a southwestern region of mountains and valleys; and a southeastern region dominated by the broad basin of the Nakdong River. South Korea's terrain is mostly mountainous, most of which is not arable. Lowlands, located primarily in the west and southeast, constitute only 30% of the total land area. About three thousand islands, mostly small and uninhabited, lie off the western and southern coasts of South Korea. Jeju-do is located about 100 kilometers (about 60 mi) off the southern coast of South Korea. It is the country's largest island, with an area of 1,845 square kilometres (712 sq mi). Jeju is also the site of South Korea's highest point: Hallasan, an extinct volcano, reaches 1,950 meters (6,398 ft) above sea level. The most eastern islands of South Korea include Ulleungdo and Liancourt Rocks (Dokdo in Korean), while Marado and Socotra Rock are the southernmost islands of South Korea.  Climate Climate chart for Seoul J F M A M J J A S O N D 23 1-7 25 3-5 47 100 94 177 92 2313 134 2617 369 2922 294 3022 169 2617 50 2010 53 113 21 4-4 average temperatures in °C precipitation totals in mm source: climate-charts.com Imperial conversion[show] J F M A M J J A S O N D 0.9 3319 1 3723 1.9 5032 3.7 6345 3.6 7355 5.3 7963 15 8472 12 8672 6.7 7963 2 6850 2.1 5237 0.8 3925 average temperatures in °F precipitation totals in inches South Korea has humid continental climate and humid subtropical climate, and is affected by the East Asian monsoon, with precipitation heavier in summer during a short rainy season called jangma (장마), which begins end of June through the end of July. Winters can be bitterly cold, in Seoul, the average January temperature range is -7 °C to 1 °C (19 °F to 33 °F), and the average August temperature range is 22 °C to 30 °C (71 °F to 86 °F). Winter temperatures are higher along the southern coast and considerably lower in the mountainous interior. Rainfall is concentrated in the summer months of June through September. The southern coast is subject to late summer typhoons that bring strong winds and heavy rains. The average annual precipitation varies from 1,370 millimeters (54 inches) in Seoul to 1,470 millimeters (58 inches) in Busan. There are occasional typhoons that bring high winds and floods. The government is concerned of the impact of global warming on the natural disasters.  Environment Main article: Environment of South Korea Following the rapid industrialization, air pollution and water pollution, in particular in urban areas, rose rapidly. Government actions taken since the 1990s to improve the environment led to a rapid decrease of sulfur emissions, though the continuing growth of traffic has led to increase of other pollutants. Despite its small size, South Korea is the ninth largest consumer of ozone-depleting chlorofluorocarbons. There are major issues with air and water pollution due to South Korea's high population density. Recently, though, there has been several initiatives (such as the restoration of Cheonggyecheon in central Seoul.) to improve the environment in Korea. In mid-2008, the Ministry of Knowledge Economy said the country intends to spend 194.4 billion won ($193 million) on technologies and projects, including solar, wind and biofuels, in 2008. South Korea is a member of numerous international environmental organisations and treaties, including Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity Treaty, Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, and Whaling.  Economy Main article: Economy of South Korea This section has multiple issues. Please help improve the article or discuss these issues on the talk page. Its quality may be compromised by peacock terms. Tagged since February 2009. Its neutrality is disputed. Tagged since February 2009. It may contain inappropriate or misinterpreted citations which do not verify the text.Tagged since February 2009. World Trade Center Seoul South Korea's nominal GDP growth from 1960 to 2007, in billions of US dollars. South Korea's recent growth is often called the Miracle on the Han River.South Korea has been the world's second fastest growing economy for over four decades. For example, in 1957 South Korea's annual per capita GDP was comparable to that of Ghana, and by 2008 it was 17 times as high as Ghana's. Its remarkable transformation to a wealthy developed country in less than half a century is often called the Miracle on the Han River and earned the distinctive reputation of "Asian Tiger" in the international community. South Korea's economic success is now a role model for many developing countries. Today, South Korea has a highly developed trillion dollar economy and is a member of the OECD, classified as a High-income economy by the World Bank and an Advanced economy by the IMF and CIA in 2007, 2008. Its capital, Seoul, is consistently placed among the world's top ten financial and commercial cities. South Korea is regarded as one of the strongest economies in the world, despite lacking natural resources and having the smallest territory among the G-20 major economies. The South Korean economy is the fourth largest in Asia and 13th largest in the world. Like West Germany and Japan, rapid industrialization since the 1960s has made South Korea one of the world's top ten exporters. It is the seventh largest trading partner of the United States. South Korea has the second highest savings rate in the developed world and has the world's sixth biggest foreign exchange reserves. An extremely competitive education environment and motivated workforce are two key factors driving this knowledge economy. the country files the largest number of patents per GDP and R&D expenditure in the world. Many globally well-known South Korean conglomerates such as Samsung, Hyundai-Kia, Hyundai Heavy Industries, LG, SK, and POSCO have rapidly grown to become world leaders in their respective industries. Samsung Group is the world's largest conglomerate and a leading consumer electronics brand.  In 2006, Samsung Group alone would have been the world's 34th largest economy if ranked. The Hyundai Kia Automotive Group is the second largest car company in Asia and one of the top five automakers in the world. Hyundai Heavy Industries is the world's largest shipbuilder and POSCO is the world's second largest steel maker. South Korea is the world's largest shipbuilder,and one of the world's top five automobile manufacturing nations, and the sixth largest steel producer in the world. Korean Air cargo airline, shipping nearly 10 billion tons of goods worldwide in 2007.The new Lee Myung-bak administration is devoted to make South Korea's economic power and wealth to fully match the G7, concentrating all of the nation's resources to recreate the Miracle on the Han River under the ambitious 747 Project, which is targeting an annual GDP growth of 7%, a GDP per capita of $40,000 and making South Korea the world's seventh largest economy by 2013. President Lee describes himself as the CEO of "Korea Inc." and his macroeconomic policies are often called Mbnomics. His most notable projects include the building of the Grand Korean Waterway and completing Free Trade Agreements with the US (also known as KORUS FTA) and EU. Despite having achieved developed status, South Korea continues to be one of the world's fastest growing economies, recording one of the highest GDP, export and industrial production growth rates in the developed world. In October 2008, the IMF forecasted that the South Korean economy will overtake Canada in 2009 and Spain in 2011 and that its GDP per capita will surpass New Zealand in 2009, Italy in 2012, and Spain in 2013. In 2007, Goldman Sachs predicted that by 2050, South Korea's GDP will quadruple to over $4 trillion and have a GDP per capita in excess of $90,000, becoming the second richest major economy in the world. It is the only developed country to be listed among the Next Eleven economies.  High-tech industries Cell phones such as the transparent LG GD900 is a major industry in South Korea. Samsung Group, the world's largest conglomerate and a leading global consumer electronics brand South Korea supplies 45% of the world's memory chips.Frequently described as a technology superpower, South Korea has a high-tech infrastructure, and is a world leader in technology goods such as electronics, automobiles, ships, machinery, petrochemicals and robotics. It boasts the world's highest broadband internet access per capita and is the most wired country in the world. In 2007, the Economist Intelligence Unit ranked South Korea's IT Industry Competitiveness among the top three in the world. South Korea's e-readiness and e-Government readiness is also ranked above Japan and many European countries. South Korean electronics conglomerates currently dominate the world technology industry. South Korea is the world's largest OLED and Plasma display maker. Samsung and LG are the world's first and second largest LCD makers, together controlling nearly 50% of the global market. Samsung and LG are the world's second and third largest mobile phone makers. Samsung is the leading mobile phone vendor in the United States and Canada. South Korea is the world's leading memory chip producer and Samsung and Hynix are the world's second and sixth largest semiconductor companies in the world. For over a decade, Samsung has been the world's leading DRAM and SRAM manufacturer. Samsung is the world's largest laser printer maker and Samsung Techwin is the world's third largest digital camera maker. Today, there are many strong South Korean industries. South Korea's largest automaker, Hyundai Motor Company and its subsidiary Kia Motors are the fifth largest car groups in the world. The South Korean shipbuilding industry is one of the most highly developed in the world, headed by chaebols such as the Hyundai Heavy Industries, Samsung Heavy Industry and Daewoo Shipbuilding & Marine Engineering. South Korea is the world's largest shipbuilding nation, producing over half of the world's ships in 2008. South Korea also exports radioactive isotope production equipment for medical and industrial use to countries such as Russia, Japan, Turkey and others. Nationwide 100 Mbit/s High-Speed Internet Access, Interactive Full High-Definition TV Broadcasting, DMB, WiBro and 4G technology rolled out since 2000, which are a few of the nation's plans to set benchmarks in the global information technology industry. In addition to its highly advanced IT infrastructure, the government is now beginning to invest in the robotics industry. With the aim of becoming the "World's Number 1 Robotics Nation" by 2025, there are plans to put one robot in every household by 2020. There are other plans to expand or create other sectors of the economy, including the financial, biotechnology, aerospace and entertainment industries.  Transportation and energy Main articles: Transportation in South Korea and Nuclear power in South Korea Incheon International Airport, rated best airport worldwide in 2005 by Airports Council International A KTX bullet trainSouth Korea has a technologically advanced transportation network consisting of high-speed railways, highways, bus routes, ferry services, and air routes that criss-cross the country. Korea Expressway Corporation operates the toll highways and service amenities en route. Korail provides frequent train service to all major South Korean cities. Two rail lines, Gyeongui and Donghae Bukbu Line, to North Korea are now being reconnected. The Korean high-speed rail system, KTX, provides high-speed service along Gyeongbu and Honam Line. Major cities—including Seoul, Busan, Incheon, Daegu, Daejeon and Gwangju—have subway systems. Metropolitan Cities (gwangyeoksi, self-governing cities that are not incorporated into any province) have express bus terminals. South Korea's largest international airport is the Incheon International Airport, which has been named as the best airport in the world by the ACI for 3 consecutive years. It serves as the main hub for the country's largest air carriers, Korean Air and Asiana Airlines, and more recently, the Korean subsidiary of Tiger Airways. South Korea has eight international airports and seven domestic airports in total, with about 71 international passenger and cargo airlines operating frequent flight services between South Korea and all over the world. The largest ports are in Busan and Incheon. South Korea has currently more heliports than any other country in the world. South Korea is the world's sixth largest nuclear power producer and the second largest in Asia. Nuclear power in South Korea supplies 45% of electricity production and research is very active with investigation into a variety of advanced reactors, including a small modular reactor, a liquid-metal fast/transmutation reactor and a high-temperature hydrogen generation design. Fuel production and waste handling technologies have also been developed locally. It is also a member of the ITER project.  Science and technology Main article: Science and technology in Korea This section has multiple issues. Please help improve the article or discuss these issues on the talk page. Its quality may be compromised by peacock terms. Tagged since February 2009. Its neutrality is disputed. Tagged since February 2009. It may contain inappropriate or misinterpreted citations which do not verify the text.Tagged since February 2009.  Aerospace research Main article: Korea Aerospace Research Institute Yi So-yeon, South Korea's first astronautSouth Korea has launched two satellites, Arirang-1 in 1999 and Arirang-2 in 2006, as part of its space partnership with Russia. Naro Space Center, the first spaceport of South Korea, was completed in 2008 at Goheung, Jeollanam-do. The Korea Space Launch Vehicle is planned to be launched from Naro in the summer of 2009. In April 2008, Yi So-yeon became the first Korean to fly in space, aboard the Russian Soyuz TMA-12.  Robotics Albert HUBO, a humanoid robot EveR-3, an android capable of expressing some human emotionsSouth Korea is a world leader in the development and adoption of advanced robotics technology and has an ambitious plan to put a robot in every household by 2020. Several robot cities are about to be constructed in the country, with the first city being built in 2009 at a cost of 500 billion won, of which 50 billion is direct government investment. The new robot city will feature research and development centers for manufacturers and part suppliers, as well as exhibition halls and a stadium for robot competitions. The government is also investing another $1.3 billion to build two new robot theme parks in Incheon and Masan by 2013, which will be developed as centres for the country's robot industry, featuring a number of attractions that allow visitors to interact with robots and test new products. The country's new Robotics Ethics Charter will establish ground rules and laws for human interaction with robots in the future, setting standards for robotics users and manufacturers, as well as guidelines on ethical standards to be programmed into robots to prevent human abuse of robots and vice versa. Faced with a critically low birth rate and an aging population, the country is quickly turning to robots to replace disappearing workers and loss of military manpower. Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology developed the world's second walking humanoid robot, HUBO. In 2005, KAIST announced they had created the world's smartest robot, able to think and learn like a human. It is the first network based humanoid in the world taking advantage of South Korea's advanced communication network. In 2006, South Korean scientists from the Korea University of Science and Technology unveiled the world's second female android, Ever-1, capable of expressing human emotions. Its successors are expected to walk, sing and dance, to be used in department stores and museums, as well as reading stories to children. Engineers from Samsung Techwin revealed in 2006 the Intelligent Surveillance and Guard Robot, a machine-gunned sentry robot able to detect and repel intruders along the heavily armed border with North Korea.  Biotechnology Snuppy, the world's first cloned dogSince the 1980s, the Korean government has actively invested in the development of a domestic biotechnology industry, and the sector is expected to grow to $6.5 billion by 2010. . Medical sector accounts for a large part of the production, including production of hepatitis vaccines and antibiotics. Recently, research and development in genetics and cloning has received increasing attention, with the first successful cloning of a dog, Snuppy, and the cloning of two females of an endangered species of wolves by the Seoul National University in 2007. The rapid growth of the industry has resulted in significant voids in regulation and ethics , however, as was highlighted by the scientific misconduct case involving Hwang Woo-Suk.  Education Main article: Education in South Korea A pavilion in Korea University, one of the oldest universities in South Korea Facilities in Sungkyunkwan UniversityEducation in South Korea is regarded as being crucial to one's success and competition is consequently very heated and fierce. In the most recent OECD Programme for International Student Assessment, South Korea came first in problem solving, first in reading, third in mathematics and eleventh in science. A centralised administration in South Korea oversees the process for the education of children from kindergarten to the third and final year of high school. South Korea has adopted a new educational program to increase the number of their foreign students through the year 2010. According to Ministry of Education, Science and Technology estimate, by that time, the number of scholarships for foreign students in South Korea will be doubled, and the number of foreign students will reach 100,000. The school year is divided into two semesters, the first of which begins in the beginning of March and ends in mid-July, the second of which begins in late August and ends in mid-February.The schedules are not uniformly standardized and vary from school to school.  Demographics Main articles: Demographics of South Korea and Koreans Most South Koreans live in urban areas, due to rapid migration from the countryside during the country's quick economic expansion in the 1970s, 1980s and 1990s. The capital city of Seoul is also the country's largest city and chief industrial center. It had 10.3 million inhabitants in 2006, making Seoul one of the most populated single cities in the world. Other major cities include Busan (3.65 million), Incheon (2.63 million), Daegu (2.53 million), Daejeon (1.46 million), Gwangju (1.41 million) and Ulsan (1.10 million).[dead link] The population has also been shaped by international migration. Following the division of the Korean peninsula after World War II, about four million people from North Korea crossed the border to South Korea. This trend of net entry reversed over the next forty years due to emigration, especially to the United States and Canada. However, South Korea's burgeoning economy and democracy in the early and mid-1990s slowed the high emigration rates typical of the previous decades. The South Korea’s total population in 1960 was 25 million. The current population of South Korea is roughly 49,540,000. South Korea is a homogeneous society with absolute majority of the population of Korean ethnicity. Although small, the percentage of non-Koreans has been increasing. Officially, as of the summer of 2007, there are just over 1 million foreigners living in Korea. That number includes foreign residents, students, tourists and illegal immigrants. Among them, 104,749 people were married to Koreans, 404,051 were working in Korea and 225,273 were illegal immigrants. South Korea's birthrate has fallen well below the level needed to replace the existing population, and there are currently between 9 and 10 births per 1000 people each year.  This is the second-lowest birthrate in the world, and South Korea's population is expected to shrink from 2019. Korean farmers have a hard time finding wives, as few women want to live in the countryside. Farmers are forced to look abroad to find wives, mostly from Southeast Asia. For the year 2006, 41% of the marriages amongst the farmers were to foreign nationals. There are 31,000 US military personnel.  Religion Main article: Religion in South Korea See also: Korean Shamanism, Korean Confucianism, Buddhism in Korea, and Christianity in Korea Religion in South Korea Christianity 29.3% Buddhism 22.8% Won Buddhism 0.3% Confucianism 0.2% Cheondoism 0.1% No religion 46.5% The Seokguram Grotto in Bulguksa temple, UNESCO World Heritage Site. Jangseungs A traditional Korean Ancestor worship altar The Yoido Full Gospel ChurchAs of 2005, approximately 46.5% of the South Korean population express no religious preference. Of the rest, most are Christian or Buddhist; according to the 2005 census, 29.2% of the population at that time was Christian (18.3% professed to being Protestants and 10.9% Catholics), and 22.8% were Buddhist. Approximately half of Koreans (49.3% in 1995) are unaffiliated with any religion, and the remaining portion (1.3% in 1995) affiliated with other religions, including Islam and various new religious movements such as Jeungism, Daesunism, Cheondoism and Wonbuddhism. Throughout history, numerous religions—including Mahayana Buddhism, Confucianism, Taoism and Korean Shamanism—have existed in Korea, and South Korea remains religiously diverse. The relationship between numerous religions in Korea today has been described as one of "peaceful coexistence", and government guarantees freedom of religion. Korean shamanism is the original religion in South Korea. It is however interesting to note that religion in South Korea and in particular, the dominant religious faiths of Buddhism and Christianity have imbibed much from Confucianism as practiced in South Korea. Korean Confucianism had been the state religion of the Joseon Dynasty which ruled for 500 long years. More than being a religion in South Korea, Confucianism and its inherent values have actually become a way of life for the South Korean people. There are approximately 13.7 million Christians (8.6 million Protestants and 5.1 million Catholics) in the country today. The largest Christian church in South Korea, Yoido Full Gospel Church, is located in Seoul and has approximately 780,000 members (2003 estimate). Including Yoido Full Gospel, 11 of the world's 12 largest churches are located in Seoul. Roman Catholicism has been the fastest growing religion in South Korea since the late 1980s. South Korea is also the second largest missionary-sending nation on earth, after the US. Buddhism was introduced to Korea from China in the year 372. According to the national census as of 2005, South Korea has over 10.7 million Buddhists. Today, about 90% of Korean Buddhists belong to Jogye Order. Most of the National Treasures of South Korea are Buddhist artifacts. Along with Neo-Confucianism, Buddhism was also a state religion during the periods from Three Kingdoms of Korea to Goryeo before suppression under the Joseon Dynasty. There are an estimated 45,000 Muslim Koreans, in addition to some 100,000 foreign workers from Muslim countries, particularly Bangladesh and Pakistan. A growing number of South Koreans adhere to new religious movements. Among these are Cheondoism (0.1%), Jeungism (0.07%) and Daesunjinrihoe. These religions have developed as a reaction to the influence of Christianity and Western culture in Korean society. The exact figures of the amount of followers of these new religions remain controversial.  Largest cities Main article: Cities of South Korea The figures below are the 2007 estimates for the ten largest cities populations within administrative city limits; the figures below only include long-term residents. Leading Urban Centers of the South Korea Seoul Busan Daejeon Rank Core City Division Pop. view • talk • edit Incheon Gwangju Suwon 1 Seoul Seoul Special City 11,153,200 2 Busan Busan Metropolitan City 4,085,300 3 Incheon Incheon Metropolitan City 3,053,800 4 Daegu Daegu Metropolitan City 2,743,800 5 Daejeon Daejeon Metropolitan City 1,442,856 6 Gwangju Gwangju Metropolitan City 1,682,953 7 Seongnam Gyeonggi Province 1,675,953 8 Ulsan Ulsan Metropoltan City 1,156,900 9 Bucheon Gyeonggi Province 1,136,904 10 Suwon Gyeonggi Province 1,086,904 2007 Census  Culture Main articles: Culture of Korea and South Korean culture This section has multiple issues. Please help improve the article or discuss these issues on the talk page. It needs additional references or sources for verification. Tagged since February 2009. Its quality may be compromised by peacock terms. Tagged since February 2009. Its neutrality is disputed. Tagged since February 2009. It may contain inappropriate or misinterpreted citations which do not verify the text.Tagged since February 2009. South Korea shares its traditional culture with North Korea, but the two Koreas have developed distinct contemporary forms of culture since the peninsula was divided in 1945. The South Korean Ministry of Culture and Tourism actively encourages the traditional arts, as well as modern forms, through funding and education programs. The industrialization and urbanization of South Korea have brought many changes to the way Korean people live. Changing economics and lifestyles have led to a concentration of population in major cities, especially the capital Seoul, with multi-generational households separating into nuclear family living arrangements.  Entertainment South Korean mainstream culture is highly popular throughout the Asian continent, and increasingly in South America and Eastern Europe in a phenomenon called the Korean wave (Hallyu). Many South Korean pop stars and groups are well known in East Asia and Southeast Asia. K-pop often emulates American popular music, and usually features young performers. The emergence of the group Seo Taiji and Boys in 1992 marked a turning point for Korean popular music, as the group incorporated elements of American popular musical genres of rap, rock, and techno into its music. Dance-oriented acts were dominant in the Korean popular music scene of the 1990s. Since the success of the Korean film Shiri in 1999, Korean film has become more popular, both in South Korea and abroad. Today South Korea is one of the few countries where Hollywood productions do not enjoy a dominant share of the domestic market. This fact, however, is partly due to the existence of screen quotas requiring cinemas to show Korean films at least 73 days a year. Korean television and especially the short form dramatic mini-series colloquially called "dramas" by Koreans have become extremely popular outside of Korea. Dramas were foremost among cultural exports driving the Korean Wave trend in Asia. The trend has driven Korean stars to fame and has done much to boost the image and prestige of Korean popular culture. Korean dramas are popular in China, Taiwan, Japan, South East Asian countries, Australia and even America (especially Asian-American communities). Dramas showcase a wide range of stories, but the most prominent among the export dramas have been romance ("Autumn Fairy Tale", "Winter Sonata", "All About Eve"), and historical/fantasy dramas ("Dae Jang Geum", "The Legend (TV series)" and "Goong").  Cuisine Main article: Korean cuisine Bibimbap Bulgogi, marinated grilled beefKorean cuisine (hanguk yori, 한국요리, 韓國料理 or hanshik, 한식, 韓食) as a national cuisine known today has evolved through centuries of social and political change. Its roots can be traced back to myths and legends of antiquity. Ingredients and dishes vary by province. There are many significant regional dishes that have become both national and regional. Many dishes that were once regional, however, have proliferated in different variations across the country in the present day. The Korean royal court cuisine once brought all of the unique regional specialties together for the royal family. Meals consumed both by the royal family and ordinary Korean citizens have been regulated by a culture of etiquette that is unique to Korea. Korean cuisine is largely based on rice, noodles, tofu, vegetables, and meats. Traditional Korean meals are noted for the number of side dishes (banchan) that accompany steam-cooked short-grain rice. Every meal is accompanied by numerous banchan. Kimchi, a fermented, spicy vegetable dish is usually served at every meal and is one of the best known Korean dishes. Korean cuisine usually involves heavy seasoning with sesame oil, doenjang (fermented soybean paste), soy sauce, salt, garlic, ginger, and gochujang (red chili paste). Soups are a common part of any Korean meal. Unlike other cultures, in Korean culture, soup is served as part of the main course rather than at the beginning or the end of the meal. Soups known as guk (국) are often made with meats, shellfish and vegetables, formal soups known as tang are prepared with meats offered at ancestral rites, and jjigae are a thicker, simple soup or stew.  Technology culture In recent years online games have become a significant part of Korean culture. Starcraft, the PC real-time strategy game is by far the most popular televised game in Korea. Game tournaments, recorded in places like the COEX Mall are often broadcast live on TV stations such as MBCGame and Ongamenet. Professional Starcraft players, such as Lim Yo-Hwan, can command considerable salaries in Korea. PC games are usually played in PC bangs which are basically internet cafes, dedicated to LAN games of popular titles like Kart Rider, Maple Story, World of Warcraft, Mabinogi and Lineage. South Korean corporations Samsung and LG are the second and third largest cell phone companies in the world, and South Korean consumers change their phones on average every 11 months. An estimated 90% of South Koreans own mobile phones and use them not only for calling and messaging but also for watching Digital Multimedia Broadcasting (DMB) or viewing websites. Over one million DMB phones have been sold and providers like KTF and SK Telecom provide coverage throughout many parts of major cities.  Sports Main article: Sport in South Korea A Taekwondo practitioner demonstrating dollyo chagui technique Kim Yu-Na is a world leading figure skater and one of the most recognized athletes in South Korea. Korean baseball player Hyun Soo Kim in the outfield during the 2009 World Baseball Classic.The martial art Taekwondo originated in Korea. In the 1950s and 60's, modern rules were standardised, and Taekwondo became an official Olympic sport in 2000. Taekwondo in the military is an integral part in the Korean land forces. Other Korean martial arts include taekkyeon, hapkido, tangsoodo, kuksoolwon, Kumdo and subak. The South Korean national football team is widely regarded as the most successful football team in Asia. It currently holds the best FIFA World Cup record among Asian teams and in the 2002 FIFA World Cup, jointly hosted by South Korea and Japan, South Korea became the first and only Asian team to reach the semi-finals, beating Spain, Italy and Portugal in the knock-out stages. The football team, also known as the "Taeguk Warriors", played in the 2006 FIFA World Cup in Germany for their sixth consecutive World Cup. In 1988, South Korea hosted the Summer Olympics in Seoul, coming fourth in the world with 12 gold medals, 10 silver medals and 11 bronze medals. South Korea regularly comes in the top ten countries in the Olympic Games, performing particularly strongly in archery, shooting, table tennis, badminton, short track speed skating, handball, hockey, freestyle wrestling,baseball, judo, taekwondo, and weightlifting. South Korea also hosted the Asian Games in 1986 and 2002 and will host again in 2014 and hosted the Winter Asian Games in 1999, the Summer Universiade in 2003 and the Winter Universiade in 1997.[dead link] Baseball was first introduced to Korea in 1905 and has since become the most popular spectator sport in South Korea. The first South Korean professional sports league was the Korea Baseball Organization, established in 1982. During the 2006 World Baseball Classic, South Korea finished third. In the 2008 Olympics held in Beijing, South Korea won the gold medal, beating Cuba 3-2 in the finals on a home run by Lee Seung Yub. In 2007, South Korea hosted a cycling competition called Tour de Korea. It was the first international cycling competition in South Korea in 10 years. In 2010 South Korea will host their first Formula One race to be staged at Korean International Circuit in Yeongam about 240 miles (390 km) south of Seoul.  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Retrieved on 2009-02-16. ^ Leea, Jinyong; LaPlacab, Peter; Rassekh, Farhad (2 September 2008). "Korean economic growth and marketing practice progress: A role model for economic growth of developing countries". Industrial Marketing Management (Elsevier B.V. (subscription required)). http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6V69-4TR37CX-3&_user=10&_rdoc=1&_fmt=&_orig=search&_sort=d&view=c&_acct=C000050221&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=10&md5=5614827be8562007c3b0d6865ef92d15. Retrieved on 2009-02-16. ^ "KOREA: Future is now for Korean info-tech". AsiaMedia (Regents of the University of California). 14 June 2005. http://www.asiamedia.ucla.edu/article.asp?parentid=25697. Retrieved on 2009-02-24. ^ "South Korea - Constitution". International Constitutional Law. http://www.servat.unibe.ch/icl/ks00000_.html. Retrieved on 2009-02-16. ^ "Korea, South". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. 10 February 2009. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ks.html. Retrieved on 2009-02-16. ^ "Korea's History". AsianInfo. http://www.asianinfo.org/asianinfo/korea/history.htm. Retrieved on 2009-02-17. ^ Digital Jikji ^ "Kim Il Sung". The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. Columbia University Press. http://www.bartleby.com/65/ki/KimIlSun.html. Retrieved on 2009-02-21. ^ "The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition". Columbia University Press. http://www.bartleby.com/65/rh/Rhee-Syn.html. Retrieved on 2009-02-21. ^ "South Korea". US Department of State. http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/2800.htm. Retrieved on 2006-09-16. ^ http://www.yolsa.org/sub_plus_1.html Yolsa.org Information on Anti-Yushin protests ^ http://www.encyber.com/search_w/ctdetail.php?gs=ws&gd=&cd=&q=&p=&masterno=211762&contentno=211762 Encyber Encyclopedia article on June 29th Declaration ^ "'1997-98 financial crisis' recovery efforts galvanized Korea". Korean Culture and Information Service. 21 November 2007. http://www.korea.net/news/news/newsView.asp?serial_no=20071108002∂=104&SearchDay=&page=1. Retrieved on 2009-02-17. ^ "The Nobel Peace Prize 2000". The Nobel Foundation. 2000. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/peace/laureates/2000/index.html. Retrieved on 2009-02-17. ^ "External Trade - Trade Issues - South Korea". European Commission. December 2008. http://ec.europa.eu/trade/issues/bilateral/countries/korea/index_en.htm. Retrieved on 2009-03-05. ^ "Canada-Korea - Free Trade Agreement Negotiations". Foreign Affairs and International Trade Canada. 5 January 2009. http://www.international.gc.ca/trade-agreements-accords-commerciaux/agr-acc/korea-coree/index.aspx?lang=en. Retrieved on 2009-03-05. ^ http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2009-03/03/content_10933684.htm ^ a b Asia Times - News and analysis from Korea; North and South ^ A Brief History of the US-Korea Relations Prior to 1945. "While less than 100 Koreans in America enlisted in the US military during World War II, more than 100,000 Koreans served in the Japanese army as officers and soldiers. There were two Korean Lt. Generals in the Japanese Army: a Chosun prince, whose rank was honorary and who commanded no troops; and Lt. Gen. Hong Sa-Ik, who was a professional military man from the old Chosun army." ^ "Truth Commission on Forced Mobilization under the japanese Imperialism Republic of Korea.". http://www.gangje.go.kr/admin_view0305.asp?idx=711&page=1. Retrieved on 18/03/9. ^ "President Roh Moo-hyun will not hold a summit with Japanese Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi until Koizumi stops visits to Japan's Yasukuni shrine". Voice of America. 17 March 2006. http://www.voanews.com/Korean/archive/2006-03/2006-03-17-voa12.cfm. Retrieved on 2009-02-15. ^ a b "FACTBOX - North, South Korea pledge peace, prosperity". Reuters. 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Center for Strategic and International Studies. http://www.csis.org/media/csis/pubs/060626_asia_balance_powers.pdf. Retrieved on 2009-02-14. ^ "South Korea launches first Aegis-equipped destroyer". 24 May 2007. http://www.iht.com/articles/ap/2007/05/25/asia/AS-GEN-SKorea-Aegis-Destroyer.php. Retrieved on 2009-02-15. ^ ROK Air Force Equipment ^ Jung, Sung-ki (10 November 2008). "US Pilots Test Fly T-50 Trainer". The Korea Times. http://www.koreatimes.co.kr/www/news/nation/2009/01/205_34171.html. Retrieved on 2009-02-15. ^ GlobalSecurity on Military of Republic of Korea http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/rok/index.html ^ "Zaytun Division official website". http://www.army.mil.kr:7081/zaytun2/english/index.jsp. Retrieved on 2009-02-17. [dead link] ^ "America's Unsinkable Fleet". Newsweek. 26 Feb 2007. http://www.newsweek.com/id/68465. Retrieved on 2009-02-17. ^ The estimated area rises steadily from year to year, possibly due to land reclamation. "행정구역(구시군)별 국토적". Korea Statistical Information Service. http://kosis.nso.go.kr/cgi-bin/sws_999.cgi?ID=DT_1A1&IDTYPE=3&A_LANG=1&FPUB=3&SELITEM=. Retrieved on 2006-03-27. ^ "Korean Air Pollution Problems" ^ Seoul Metropolitan Government - "A Clean, Attractive & Global City, Seoul!" ^ http://www.greentechmedia.com/articles/south-korea-to-boost-renewable-energy-investments-by-60-1191.html ^ This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the CIA World Factbook. ^ Pecotich, Anthony; Shultz, Clifford J.. Handbook of Markets and Economies. M.E. Sharpe. ISBN 978-0-7656-0972-4. http://books.google.com/books?id=zdqAakpAeloC&pg=PA328&lpg=PA328&dq=south+korea+fastest+growing+economy+20th+century&source=web&ots=UUvZrK4buo&sig=cvQaMFViBSklOtjirClbbGjgPKY&hl=en&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=10&ct=result. Retrieved on 2009-02-17. [page needed] ^ Ghana and South Korea: Lessons from world bank case studies. Herbert Werlin. University of Maryland. ^ Data refer to the year 2008. $26,341 GDP for Korea, $1513 for Ghana. World Economic Outlook Database-October 2008, International Monetary Fund. Accessed on February 14, 2009. ^ "South Korea Role Model for Kazakhstan". The Seoul Times. The Seoul Times Company. 27 March 2007. http://theseoultimes.com/ST/?url=/ST/db/read.php?idx=5047&PHPSESSID=984f157329630313846de3099546ebfc. Retrieved on 2009-02-17. ^ "Can Africa really learn from Korea?". afrol News. 24 November 2008. http://www.afrol.com/articles/22953. Retrieved on 2009-02-17. ^ "Korea role model for Latin America: envoy". Korean Culture and Information Service. 1 Mar 2008. http://www.korea.net/news/news/newsView.asp?serial_no=20080301004∂=103. Retrieved on 2009-02-17. ^ Leea, Jinyong; LaPlacab, Peter; Rassekh, Farhad (2 September 2008). "Korean economic growth and marketing practice progress: A role model for economic growth of developing countries". Industrial Marketing Management (Elsevier B.V. (subscription required)). http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6V69-4TR37CX-3&_user=10&_rdoc=1&_fmt=&_orig=search&_sort=d&view=c&_acct=C000050221&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=10&md5=5614827be8562007c3b0d6865ef92d15. ^ "Korea, Republic of". United States Department of State. 2 January 2009. http://travel.state.gov/travel/cis_pa_tw/cis/cis_1018.html. Retrieved on 2009-02-17. ^ Korea-Gross domestic product based on purchasing-power-parity (PPP) valuation of country GDP ^ OECD's country websites ^ IMF Advanced Economies List. World Economic Outlook, Database—WEO Groups and Aggregates Information, October 2008. ^ CIA (2008). "Appendix B. International Organizations and Groups. World Factbook.". https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/appendix/appendix-b.html. Retrieved on 2008-04-10. ^ "London remains number one but the future belongs to Asia". City Mayors. 10 June 2008. http://www.citymayors.com/economics/financial-cities.html. Retrieved on 2009-02-16. ^ "OECD Regional Accounts". Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. 2006. http://webnet.oecd.org/wbos/Index.aspx?DataSetCode=REG_ACC_TL2. Retrieved on 2009-02-16. ^ Cromwell, Thomas (17 October 2008). "Korea Lacks in Strong Identity in Brand Positioning". The Korea Times. http://www.koreatimes.co.kr/www/news/special/2008/10/260_32859.html. Retrieved on 2009-02-17. ^ "Gross domestic product 2007, PPP". World Development Indicators database, World Bank. 17 October 2008. http://siteresources.worldbank.org/DATASTATISTICS/Resources/GDP_PPP.pdf. Retrieved on 2009-02-17. ^ "Top Trading Partners - Total Trade, Exports, Imports". United States Census Bureau. 14 February 2008. http://www.census.gov/foreign-trade/statistics/highlights/top/top0712.html. Retrieved on 2009-02-17. ^ "Economy Statistics: Adjusted net savings, excluding particulate emission damage: % of GNI (most recent) by country". NationMaster. http://www.nationmaster.com/graph/eco_adj_net_sav_exc_par_emi_dam_of_gni-excluding-particulate-emission-damage-gni. Retrieved on 2009-02-17. ^ See List of countries by foreign exchange reserves ^ "Web-based tutorials take off in South Korea". Cable News Network. 2007. http://edition.cnn.com/2007/BUSINESS/05/14/ft.korea.megastudy/index.html. Retrieved on 2009-02-21. ^ Cho, Dong-Sung (11 May 1999). "Korean Economic Crisis: Causes and Cures". Seoul National University. http://www.cic.sfu.ca/forum/DongSungChoOct211999.html. Retrieved on 2009-02-21. "Until 1980 the highly educated and motivated workforce was the main driving force behind Korea's economic growth. However, growth-oriented policies encouraged a very rapid growth in real wages in excess of the productivity growth rate." ^ "WIPO Patent Report: Statistics on Worldwide Patent Activities". World Intellectual Property Organization. 2007. http://www.wipo.int/export/sites/www/freepublications/en/patents/931/wipo_pub_931.pdf. Retrieved on 2009-02-21. ^ See List of companies by revenue. ^ http://images.businessweek.com/ss/06/07/top_brands/source/20.htm ^ [초 국가기업 <上> 삼성 매출>싱가포르 GDP… 국가를 가르친다 - 조선닷컴] ^ See Automotive industry. ^ "Bloomberg.com". http://www.bloomberg.com/apps/news?pid=newsarchive&sid=aau_Zeq74Z9k. Retrieved on 2009-01-19. ^ "HHI Constructs World’s Best Ship for 26 Years Straight". http://news.mk.co.kr/outside/view.php?year=2008&no=703877. Retrieved on 2008-11-18. ^ "Bloomberg.com". http://www.bloomberg.com/apps/news?pid=newsarchive&sid=ae5qz21hHvhM. Retrieved on 2009-01-15. ^ "South Korea dominates shipbuilding industry". StraightStocks. 9 September 2008. http://www.straightstocks.com/investing-in-asia-stocks/south-korea-dominates-shipbuilding-industry/. Retrieved on 2009-02-21. ^ See List of countries by automobile production ^ See Steel production by country ^ http://www.iata.org/ps/publications/wats-freight-km.htm ^ Robert Koehler (Mar. 2008). Korea's CEO President Lee Myung-bak, Seoul Selection. ^ "Biography: Yoon Jeung-Hyun". Ministry of Strategy and Finance. 2007. http://english.mosf.go.kr/about/dpm/dpm2.php. Retrieved on 2009-02-21. ^ Kim, Se-jeong (7 June 2008). "S. Korea, EU Seek to Conclude FTA This Year". The Korea Times. http://www.koreatimes.co.kr/www/news/special/2008/11/176_27098.html. Retrieved on 2009-02-21. ^ See List of countries by future GDP (PPP) estimates. ^ See List of countries by future GDP (PPP) per capita estimates. ^ The N-11: More Than an Acronym. Goldman Sachs Economic Research Group. 28 March 2007. http://www.chicagogsb.edu/alumni/clubs/pakistan/docs/next11dream-march%20%2707-goldmansachs.pdf. Retrieved on 2009-02-21. ^ "(paid subscription only)". http://www.digitimes.com/news/a20090120PD205.html. ^ See List of companies by revenue ^ "The 100 Top Brands: Samsung". BusinessWeek. McGraw-Hill Companies. http://images.businessweek.com/ss/08/09/0918_best_brands/22.htm. ^ "Memory chip output value to hit $6.96 billion". Global Sources. 31 July 2007. http://www.globalsources.com/gsol/I/Memory-chip/a/9000000089299.htm. Retrieved on 2009-02-21. ^ "Science and Technology: Innovative Solutions". International Student Conferences. 12 August 2008. http://iscdc.org/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=67&Itemid=88. Retrieved on 2009-02-21. "“The most wired nation in the world,” “The world leader in cloning research,” “A pioneer in semiconducting technology”—all these monikers are very familiar to Koreans. In recent years however, all of these national titles have been challenged: Korea is no longer #1 in broadband saturation, cloning scandals have stalled biotechnology research, and Hynix Semiconductor has suspended all operations at its U.S. plant. What can be done to rejuvenate Korea’s technology industry? (And how important is this industry?) How can the technology superpowers of the U.S. and Korea collaborate and coordinate their own research and development? This roundtable will consider these controversies and other emerging issues in the field, seeking to apply participants’ pooled knowledge to generate real policy recommendations for Korea and for Korea-U.S. cooperation." ^ "KOREA: Future is now for Korean info-tech". Regents of the University of California. 14 June 2005. http://www.asiamedia.ucla.edu/article.asp?parentid=25697. Retrieved on 2009-02-21. ^ "South Korea dominates shipbuilding industry". StraightStocks. 9 September 2008. http://www.straightstocks.com/investing-in-asia-stocks/south-korea-dominates-shipbuilding-industry/. Retrieved on 2009-02-21. ^ "Internet Statistics: Broadband access (per capita) (most recent) by country". NationMaster. (undated). http://www.nationmaster.com/graph/int_bro_acc_percap-internet-broadband-access-per-capita. Retrieved on 2009-02-21. ^ Fackler, Martin (18 November 2007). "In Korea, a Boot Camp Cure for Web Obsession". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2007/11/18/technology/18rehab.html?_r=3&ref=business. Retrieved on 2009-02-21. ^ "Chart: World's most competitive IT industries". CBS Interactive. 12 July 2007. http://news.cnet.com/2300-1022_3-6196218-1.html. Retrieved on 2009-02-21. ^ See E-readiness ^ "United Nations e-Government Survey 2008" (PDF). United Nations. 2008. http://unpan1.un.org/intradoc/groups/public/documents/UN/UNPAN028607.pdf. Retrieved on 2009-02-21. "The designations of country groups in the text and the tables are intended solely for statistical or analytical convenience and do not necessarily express a judgement about the stage reached by a particular country or area in the development process." ^ "한국 또 '세계 디스플레이 4관왕'". 8 February 2009. http://news.chosun.com/site/data/html_dir/2009/02/08/2009020800069.html?Dep0=chosunmain&Dep1=news&Dep2=headline7&Dep3=h3_07. Retrieved on 08-02-09. ^ Kim, Yoo-chul (21 July 2008). "Outlook Dims for LCD Manufacturers". The Korea Times. http://www.koreatimes.co.kr/www/news/tech/2008/11/133_27908.html. Retrieved on 2009-02-17. ^ Gardner, W. David (7 November 2008). "Samsung Overtakes U.S. Market Share Lead From Motorola". United Business Media. http://www.informationweek.com/news/mobility/business/showArticle.jhtml?articleID=212001304. Retrieved on 2009-02-17. ^ Morrison, Dianne See (21 July 2008). "Earnings: Premium Handsets Boost LG Electronics Profits". ContentNext Media. http://www.moconews.net/entry/419-earnings-mobile-phone-sales-boost-lg-electronics-profits/. Retrieved on 2009-02-17. ^ Ziegler, Chris (7 November 2008). "Samsung No. 1 in US Cell Phone Market, Dethrones Motorola". Weblogs. http://www.switched.com/2008/11/07/samsung-no-1-in-us-cell-phone-market-dethrones-motorola/. Retrieved on 2009-02-17. ^ Reyes, Allan David (3 December 2008). "Samsung no. 1 in Canada for Q3 2008". WCS Cellphones. http://www.cellphones.ca/news/post004644/. Retrieved on 2009-02-17. ^ See Semiconductor sales leaders by year. ^ "Samsung Semiconductor performance". Samsung. 2007. http://www.samsung.com/global/business/semiconductor/aboutus/AboutUs_Performance.html. Retrieved on 2009-02-21. ^ http://www.samsung.com/hk_en/news/newsRead.do?news_seq=10721 ^ "Unleash Your Creativity with Three New Samsung Digital Cameras". Samsung. 17 November 2006. http://www.samsung.com/he/presscenter/pressrelease/pressrelease_20061117_0000301398.asp. Retrieved on 2009-02-21. "Samsung increased market share to top 3 with new digital camera series. “According to GFK August reports about digital camera market in HK, Samsung has been enlisted in top 5 providers in Hong Kong’s digital camera market in August, as the company’s market share has been doubled because of the release of the NV series. Samsung has sold more than 100,000 digital cameras from January 2006 to November 2006." ^ "Hyundai-Kia Pass Nissan to Become Worlds Sixth Largest Automaker". Auto News. (undated). http://car-reviews.automobile.com/news/hyundai-kia-pass-nissan-to-become-worlds-sixth-largest-automaker/1916/. ^ http://www.straightstocks.com/investing-in-asia-stocks/south-korea-dominates-shipbuilding-industry/ ^ "Korea to export isotope production equipment to Russia, Turkey, Algeria". Korean Culture and Information Service. 5 June 2007. http://korea.net/news/news/newsView.asp?serial_no=20070605015∂=107&SearchDay=&page=5. Retrieved on 2009-02-21. ^ a b "In a Wired South Korea, Robots Will Feel Right at Home". The New York Times. 2006-04-02. http://www.nytimes.com/2006/04/02/world/asia/02robot.html?ex=1301634000&en=7d5fcaf014309078&ei=5088&partner=rssnyt&emc=rss. Retrieved on 2007-06-24. ^ a b "A Robot in Every Home by 2020, South Korea Says". National Geographic News. 6 September 2006. http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2006/09/060906-robots.html. Retrieved on 2007-06-24. ^ "Airport Service Excellence Awards for 2005". ACI website. 2006-03-07. Archived from the original on 13 March 2006. http://web.archive.org/web/20060313234011/http://www.airports.org/cda/aci/display/main/aci_content.jsp?zn=aci&cp=1-7-46^6702_9_2__. Retrieved on 2006-08-25. ^ "Transportation Statistics > Heliports (most recent) by country". NationMaster. 2008. http://www.nationmaster.com/graph/tra_hel-transportation-heliports. Retrieved on 2009-02-21. ^ See Nuclear power by country ^ "Korea, Russia enter full-fledged space partnership". Korean Culture and Information Service. 3 July 2007. http://korea.net/news/news/newsView.asp?serial_no=20070703031∂=107. Retrieved on 2009-03-01. ^ Atkins, William (5 September 2007). "First South Korean astronaut selected". ITWire. http://www.itwire.com/content/view/14338/1066/. Retrieved on 2009-03-01. ^ South Korea set to build "Robot Land" - Engadget ^ Robot love: South Korea to build robot theme parks NetworkWorld.com Community ^ Robot Code of Ethics to Prevent Android Abuse, Protect Humans ^ South Korea claims world's smartest robot ^ http://abcnews.go.com/Technology/story?id=2504508 ^ Bio International Convention Korea Country Profile ^ Discovery Channel :: News - Animals :: Endangered Wolf Cloned in South Korea ^ Biotechnology:A Changing Global Landscape ^ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/PISA ^ South Korea Now Open For Foreign Students ^ "South Korea". CIA Country Studies. http://countrystudies.us/south-korea/33.htm. Retrieved on 2006-04-22. ^ "World City Populations". http://worldatlas.com/citypops.htm. Retrieved on 2006-04-04. ^ Populations for all cities as of 2005, "By city and province". NSO Database. http://kosis.nso.go.kr/cgi-bin/sws_888.cgi?ID=DT_1B040A2&IDTYPE=3&A_LANG=2&FPUB=4&SELITEM=0. Retrieved on 2006-04-22. ^ World Population Prospects: The 2006 Revision. Source: Population Division of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat. ^ "2008년 12월 31일 기준 주민등록인구 및 세대". Korea National Statistical Office. http://ups.kosis.kr/upload/Magazine/NEW/AC/AC10_2008.xls. Retrieved on 2009-04-08. ^ South Korea. CIA - The World Factbook. ^ INSIDE JoongAng Daily ^ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_countries_by_birth_rate ^ INSIDE JoongAng Daily ^ US military figures as of 2005, from  (Excel file) Tim Kane Global US Troop Deployment, 1950-2003 ^ a b According to figures compiled by the South Korean National Statistical Office. "인구,가구/시도별 종교인구/시도별 종교인구 (2005년 인구총조사)". NSO online KOSIS database. http://kosis.nso.go.kr:7001/ups/chapterRetrieve.jsp?pubcode=MA&seq=292&pub=3. Retrieved on 2006-08-23. This should not be confused with other figures which report only the percentage of the religious population that are Buddhist, Christian, Cheondoist, etc... ^ a b c d "Korea.net: The official website of the Republic of Korea - Religion". http://www.korea.net/korea/kor_loca.asp?code=U05. ^ "International Religious Freedom Report 2008 - Korea, Republic of". Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor. 22 January 2009. http://2001-2009.state.gov/g/drl/rls/irf/2008/108411.htm. Retrieved on 31 January 2009. ^ a b "Korea, South". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. 22 January 2009. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ks.html#People. Retrieved on 2009-01-31. ^ Every Culture - South Koreans ^ Every Culture - Culture of SOUTH KOREA ^ Staff. "Religion Continues to Haunt the Lee Administration". The Chosun Ilbo. http://english.chosun.com/w21data/html/news/200808/200808110023.html. Retrieved on 31 January 2009. ^ a b c Agence France-Presse (31 January 2009). "S. Korea president faces protests from Buddhists". The Straits Times. http://www.straitstimes.com/Breaking%2BNews/World/Story/STIStory_267202.html. Retrieved on 31 January 2009. ^ Religion In South Korea ^ Kim, Andrew Eungi (2000). "Christianity, Shamanism, and Modernization in South Korea". CBS Interactive. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m2096/is_2000_Spring-Summer/ai_63300897. Retrieved on 2009-02-13. ^ Moll, Rob (1 March 2006). "Missions Incredible". Christianity Today. Christianity Today International. http://www.christianitytoday.com/ct/2006/003/16.28.html. Retrieved on 2009-02-17. ^ "Buddhism in Korea". Korean Buddhism Magazine, Seoul. 1997. http://www.buddhismtoday.com/english/world/country/027-korea.htm. Retrieved on 2009-02-17. ^ "International Religious Freedom Report 2008 - Korea, Republic of". United States Department of State. 19 September 2008. http://2001-2009.state.gov/g/drl/rls/irf/2008/108411.htm. Retrieved on 2009-02-17. ^ BBC - Korean Zen Buddhism ^ Islam takes root and blooms ^ "Korea’s Muslims Mark Ramadan". The Chosun Ilbo. September 11, 2008. http://english.chosun.com/w21data/html/news/200809/200809110016.html. Retrieved on 2008-10-09. ^ "Associated Organisations". MCT Website. http://www.mct.go.kr/english/section/bureau/cultural_1.jsp. Retrieved on 2006-04-11. See also "Mission and Goal". Korea Cultural Administration website. http://www.kcaf.or.kr/ehome3/mission.htm. Retrieved on 2006-04-11. ^ Fritscher, Lisa "Korean Food Basics". ^ Pettid, 56. ^ INTERNATIONAL OLYMPIC COMMITTEE - SPORTS ^ "Korean derby takes centre stage". Fifa.com. 2008-01-20. http://www.fifa.com/worldcup/preliminaries/asia/standings/group=250439/analysis.html. Retrieved on 2008-02-07. ^ see 2002 FIFA World Cup ^ see 1988 Summer Olympics medal table ^ "The Games". Olympic Council of Asia. http://www.ocasia.org/games.asp. Retrieved on 2009-03-03. ^ "Fourth Asian Winter Games". Olympic Council of Asia. 2001. http://www.ocasia.org/4WAG.asp. Retrieved on 2009-03-03. ^ "Summer Universiade Daegu 2003". http://www.universiadedaegu.org/. Retrieved on 2009-03-03. ^ 1997 Winter Universiade Mascot ^ KOIS (2003), p.632. ^ "South Korea beats Cuba, finishes Olympic tourney unbeaten". ESPN. 23 August 2008. http://sports.espn.go.com/oly/summer08/baseball/recap?gameId=836. Retrieved on 2009-03-03. ^ a b www.cyclingnews.com - the world centre of cycling  References Cumings, Bruce (1997). Korea's place in the sun. New York: W.W. Norton. ISBN 0-393-31681-5. KOIS (Korea Overseas Information Service) (2003). Handbook of Korea, 11th ed.. Seoul: Hollym. ISBN 1-56591-212-8. Nahm, Andrew C. (1996). Korea: A history of the Korean people (2nd ed.). Seoul: Hollym. ISBN 1-56591-070-2. Yang, Sung Chul (1999). The North and South Korean political systems: A comparative analysis (rev. ed.). Seoul: Hollym. ISBN 1-56591-105-9. Yonhap News Agency (2004). Korea Annual 2004. Seoul: Author. ISBN 89-7433-070-9. Dennis Hart (2003). From Tradition to Consumption: Constructing a Capitalist Culture in South Korea. Seoul: Author. ISBN 89-88095-44-8. Michael Breen (2004). The Koreans: Who They Are, What They Want, Where Their Future Lies. St. Martin's Griffin. ISBN 0312326092.  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Beyonce * Maxwell * Mario ft. Gucci Mane & sean Garrett * Drake ft. Lil Wayne * Ginuwine * Fabolous Featuring The-Dream * Keyshia Cole Duet With Monica * Jay-Z, Rihanna & Kanye West * Gucci Mane Featuring Plies * Mary Mary Featuring Kierra "KiKi" Sheard * Ice Cream Paint Job * Pleasure P * Mariah Carey * Trey Songz * Trey Songz Featuring Gucci Mane & Soulja Boy Tell'em * R. Kelly Featuring Keri Hilson * K'Jon * Young Money * Twista Featuring Erika Shevon * Yo Gotti * New Boyz * Jeremih * Keri Hilson Featuring Kanye West & Ne-Yo * Musiq Soulchild * Whitney Houston * Anthony Hamilton * Charlie Wilson * Chrisette Michele * Jamie Foxx Featuring T-Pain * Plies * LeToya Featuring Ludacris * Mary J. Blige Featuring Drake * Mullage * Charlie Wilson * Jamie Foxx Featuring Drake, Kanye West + The-Dream * Jamie Foxx Featuring Drake, Kanye West + The-Dream * Jeremih * Mishon * Jennifer Hudson * Clipse Featuring Pharrell Williams * Kid Cudi Featuring Kanye West & Common * Raphael Saadiq Featuring Stevie Wonder & CJ * Anthony Hamilton Featuring David Banner * Jazmine Sullivan * Trey Songz Featuring Drake * F.L.Y. (Fast Life Yungstaz) * Laura Izibor
Jamaal Al-Din's Hoops 227 (227's YouTube Chili")!
Beyonce * Shakira * Jordin Sparks * Mariah Carey * New Boyz * Jason DeRulo * Mario ft. Gucci Mane & Sean Garrett * Katy Perry * The Black Eyed Peas * Colby Caillat * Fabolous ft. The Dream * Jason Aldean * Daughtry * Lady Gaga * Michael Franti & Spearhead Featuring Cherine Anderson * Boys Like Girls * Flo Rida Featuring Ne-Yo * Dorrough * Green Day * Linkin Park * Pink * Justin Bieber * Rob Thomas * Maxwell * Jason Mraz * Young Money * The Fray * Rascal Flatts * Zac Brown Band * Shinedown * Disney's Friends For Change * Toby Keith * Darius Rucker * Cascada * Billy Currington * Justin Moore * Kid Cudi Featuring Kanye West & Common * Keith Urban * Randy Houser * Drake Featuring Lil Wayne * Jeremih * Pearl Jam * Kelly Clarkson * George Strait * LMFAO * Twista Featuring Erika Shevon * Uncle Kracker * Eric Church * Jack Ingram * Love And Theft * Parachute * Chris Young * Theory Of A Deadman * Tim McGraw * Sean Paul * Gloriana * Creed * Ginuwine * Keyshia Cole Duet With Monica * Blake Shelton * Iyaz
2009 NCAA Basketball Tournament! List of NCAA Division 1 Teams & Coaches at 227!
America East Conference Albany - Will Brown Binghamton - Kevin Broadus Boston University - Dennis Wolff Hartford - Dan Leibovitz Maine - Ted Woodward New Hampshire - Bill Herrion Stony Brook - Steve Pikiell UMBC - Randy Monroe Vermont - Mike Lonergan 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! America East Conference
Atlantic 10 Conference Charlotte - Bobby Lutz Dayton - Brian Gregory Duquesne - Ron Everhart Fordham - Dereck Whittenburg George Washington - Karl Hobbs La Salle - John Giannini Rhode Island - Jim Baron Richmond - Chris Mooney St. Bonaventure - Mark Schmidt Saint Joseph's - Phil Martelli Saint Louis - Rick Majerus Temple - Fran Dunphy UMass - Derek Kellogg Xavier - Sean Miller 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Atlantic 10 Conference
Atlantic Coast Conference Boston College - Al Skinner Clemson - Oliver Purnell Duke - Mike Krzyzewski Florida State - Leonard Hamilton Georgia Tech - Paul Hewitt Maryland - Gary Williams Miami (Florida) - Frank Haith North Carolina - Roy Williams North Carolina State - Sidney Lowe Virginia - Dave Leitao Virginia Tech - Seth Greenberg Wake Forest - Dino Gaudio 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Atlantic Coast Conference
Atlantic Sun Conference Belmont - Rick Byrd Campbell - Robbie Laing East Tennessee State - Murry Bartow Florida Gulf Coast - Dave Balza Jacksonville - Cliff Warren Kennesaw State - Tony Ingle Lipscomb - Scott Sanderson Mercer - Bob Hoffman North Florida - Matt Kilcullen Stetson - Derek Waugh USC Upstate - Eddie Payne 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Atlantic Sun Conference
Big 12 Conference Baylor - Scott Drew Colorado - Jeff Bzdelik Iowa State - Greg McDermott Kansas - Bill Self Kansas State - Frank Martin Missouri - Mike Anderson Nebraska - Doc Sadler Oklahoma - Jeff Capel III Oklahoma State - Travis Ford Texas - Rick Barnes Texas A&M - Mark Turgeon Texas Tech - Pat Knight 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Big 12 Conference
Big East Conference Cincinnati - Mick Cronin Connecticut - Jim Calhoun DePaul - Jerry Wainwright Georgetown - John Thompson III Louisville - Rick Pitino Marquette - Buzz Williams Notre Dame - Mike Brey Pittsburgh - Jamie Dixon Providence - Keno Davis Rutgers - Fred Hill St. John's - Norm Roberts Seton Hall - Bobby Gonzalez South Florida - Stan Heath Syracuse - Jim Boeheim Villanova - Jay Wright West Virginia - Bobby Huggins 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Big East Conference
Big Sky Conference Eastern Washington - Kirk Earlywine Idaho State - Joe O'Brien Montana - Wayne Tinkle Montana State - Brad Huse Northern Arizona - Mike Adras Northern Colorado - Tad Boyle Portland State - Ken Bone Sacramento State - Brian Katz Weber State - Randy Rahe 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Big Sky Conference
Big South Conference Charleston Southern - Barclay Radebaugh Coastal Carolina - Cliff Ellis Gardner-Webb - Rick Scruggs High Point - Bart Lundy Liberty - Ritchie McKay Presbyterian - Gregg Nibert Radford - Brad Greenberg UNC-Asheville - Eddie Biedenbach VMI - Duggar Baucom Winthrop - Randy Peele 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Big South Conference
Big Ten Conference Illinois - Bruce Weber Indiana - Tom Crean Iowa - Todd Lickliter Michigan - John Beilein Michigan State - Tom Izzo Minnesota - Tubby Smith Northwestern - Bill Carmody Ohio State - Thad Matta Penn State - Ed DeChellis Purdue - Matt Painter Wisconsin - Bo Ryan 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Big Ten Conference
Big West Conference Cal Poly - Kevin Bromley Cal State Fullerton - Bob Burton Cal State Northridge - Bobby Braswell Long Beach State - Dan Monson Pacific - Bob Thomason UC Davis - Gary Stewart UC Irvine - Pat Douglass UC Riverside - Jim Wooldridge UC Santa Barbara - Bob Williams 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Big West Conference
Colonial Athletic Association Delaware - Monte Ross Drexel - Bruiser Flint George Mason - Jim Larranaga Georgia State - Rod Barnes Hofstra - Tom Pecora James Madison - Matt Brady Northeastern - Bill Coen Old Dominion - Blaine Taylor Towson - Pat Kennedy UNC-Wilmington - Benny Moss Virginia Commonwealth - Anthony Grant William & Mary - Tony Shaver 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Colonial Athletic Association
Conference USA East Carolina - Mack McCarthy Houston - Tom Penders Marshall - Donnie Jones Memphis - John Calipari Rice - Ben Braun Southern Methodist - Matt Doherty Southern Mississippi - Larry Eustachy Tulane - Dave Dickerson Tulsa - Doug Wojcik UAB - Mike Davis UCF - Kirk Speraw UTEP - Tony Barbee 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Conference USA
Horizon League - Butler - Brad Stevens Cleveland State - Gary Waters Detroit - Ray McCallum Loyola (Chicago) - Jim Whitesell UIC - Jimmy Collins UW-Green Bay - Tod Kowalczyk UW-Milwaukee - Rob Jeter Valparaiso - Homer Drew Wright State - Brad Brownell Youngstown State - Jerry Slocum 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Horizon League
Independents Bryant - Tim O'Shea Cal State Bakersfield - Keith Brown Chicago State - Benjy Taylor Houston Baptist - Ron Cottrell Longwood - Mike Gillian New Jersey Institute of Technology - Jim Engles North Carolina Central - Henry Dickerson Savannah State - Horace Broadnax SIU-Edwardsville - Lennox Forrester Texas-Pan American - Tom Schuberth Utah Valley - Dick Hunsaker 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! NCAA Division I independent schools (basketball)
Ivy League Brown - Jesse Agel Columbia - Joe Jones Cornell - Steve Donahue Dartmouth - Terry Dunn Harvard - Tommy Amaker Penn - Glen Miller Princeton - Sydney Johnson Yale - James Jones 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Ivy League
Metro Atlantic Athletic Conference Canisius - Tom Parrotta Fairfield - Ed Cooley Iona - Kevin Willard Loyola (Maryland) - Jimmy Patsos Manhattan - Barry Rohrssen Marist - Chuck Martin Niagara - Joe Mihalich Rider - Tommy Dempsey St. Peter's - John Dunne Siena - Fran McCaffery 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Mid-American Conference
Mid-American Conference Akron – Keith Dambrot Ball State – Billy Taylor Bowling Green – Louis Orr Buffalo – Reggie Witherspoon Central Michigan – Ernie Ziegler Eastern Michigan – Charles Ramsey Kent State – Geno Ford Miami – Charlie Coles Northern Illinois – Ricardo Patton Ohio – John Groce Toledo – Gene Cross Western Michigan – Steve Hawkins 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Mid-American Conference
Mid-Eastern Athletic Conference Bethune-Cookman - Clifford Reed Coppin State - Ron Mitchell Delaware State - Greg Jackson Florida A&M - Mike Gillespie Hampton - Kevin Nickelberry Howard - Gil Jackson Maryland-Eastern Shore - Meredith Smith Morgan State - Todd Bozeman Norfolk State - Anthony Evans North Carolina A&T - Jerry Eaves South Carolina State - Tim Carter Winston-Salem State - Bobby Collins 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Mid-Eastern Athletic Conference
Missouri Valley Conference Bradley - Jim Les Creighton - Dana Altman Drake - Mark Phelps Evansville - Marty Simmons Illinois State - Tim Jankovich Indiana State - Kevin McKenna Missouri State - Cuonzo Martin Northern Iowa - Ben Jacobson Southern Illinois - Chris Lowery Wichita State - Gregg Marshall 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Missouri Valley Conference
Mountain West Conference Air Force - Jeff Reynolds Brigham Young - Dave Rose Colorado State - Tim Miles New Mexico - Steve Alford San Diego State - Steve Fisher Texas Christian - Neil Dougherty UNLV - Lon Kruger Utah - Jim Boylen Wyoming - Heath Schroyer 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Mountain West Conference
Northeast Conference Central Connecticut State - Howie Dickenman Fairleigh Dickinson - Tom Green LIU-Brooklyn - Jim Ferry Monmouth - Dave Calloway Mount St. Mary's - Milan Brown Quinnipiac - Tom Moore Robert Morris - Mike Rice Jr. Sacred Heart - Dave Bike St. Francis (PA) - Don Friday St. Francis (NY) - Brian Nash Wagner - Mike Deane 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Northeast Conference
Ohio Valley Conference Austin Peay - Dave Loos Eastern Illinois - Mike Miller Eastern Kentucky - Jeff Neubauer Jacksonville State - James Green Morehead State - Donnie Tyndall Murray State - Billy Kennedy Southeast Missouri - Zac Roman Tennessee-Martin - Bret Campbell Tennessee State - Cy Alexander Tennessee Tech - Mike Sutton 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Ohio Valley Conference
Pacific-10 Conference Arizona - Russ Pennell Arizona State - Herb Sendek California - Mike Montgomery Oregon - Ernie Kent Oregon State - Craig Robinson Stanford - Johnny Dawkins UCLA - Ben Howland USC - Tim Floyd Washington - Lorenzo Romar Washington State - Tony Bennett 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Pacific-10 Conference
Patriot League American - Jeff Jones Army - Jim Crews Bucknell - Dave Paulsen Colgate - Emmett Davis Holy Cross - Ralph Willard Lafayette - Fran O'Hanlon Lehigh - Brett Reed Navy - Billy Lange 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Patriot League
Southeastern Conference Alabama - Philip Pearson Arkansas - John Pelphrey Auburn - Jeff Lebo Florida - Billy Donovan Georgia - Pete Herrmann Kentucky - Billy Gillispie LSU - Trent Johnson Mississippi - Andy Kennedy Mississippi State - Rick Stansbury South Carolina - Darrin Horn Tennessee - Bruce Pearl Vanderbilt - Kevin Stallings 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Southeastern Conference
Southern Conference Appalachian State - Houston Fancher Chattanooga - John Shulman The Citadel - Ed Conroy College of Charleston - Bobby Cremins Davidson - Bob McKillop Elon - Ernie Nestor Furman - Jeff Jackson Georgia Southern - Jeff Price Samford - Jimmy Tillette UNC-Greensboro - Mike Dement Western Carolina - Larry Hunter Wofford - Mike Young 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Southern Conference
Southland Conference Central Arkansas - Rand Chappell Lamar - Steve Roccaforte McNeese State - Dave Simmons Nicholls State - J. P. Piper Northwestern State - Mike McConathy Sam Houston State - Bob Marlin Southeastern Louisiana - Jim Yarbrough Stephen F. Austin - Danny Kaspar Texas A&M-Corpus Christi - Perry Clark Texas-Arlington - Scott Cross Texas-San Antonio - Brooks Thompson Texas State - Doug Davalos 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Southland Conference
Southwestern Athletic Conference Alabama A&M - L. Vann Pettaway Alabama State - Lewis Jackson Alcorn State - Samuel West Arkansas-Pine Bluff - George Ivory Grambling State - Larry Wright Jackson State - Tevester Anderson Mississippi Valley State - Sean Woods Prairie View A&M - Byron Rimm II Southern - Rob Spivery Texas Southern - Tony Harvey 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Southwestern Athletic Conference
The Summit League Centenary - Greg Gary IPFW - Dane Fife IUPUI - Ron Hunter North Dakota State - Saul Phillips Oakland - Greg Kampe Oral Roberts - Scott Sutton South Dakota State - Scott Nagy Southern Utah - Roger Reid UMKC - Matt Brown Western Illinois - Derek Thomas 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! The Summit League
Sun Belt Conference Arkansas-Little Rock - Steve Shields Arkansas State - Dickey Nutt Denver - Joe Scott Florida Atlantic - Mike Jarvis Florida International - Sergio Rouco Louisiana-Lafayette - Robert Lee Louisiana-Monroe - Orlando Early Middle Tennessee - Kermit Davis New Orleans - Joe Pasternack North Texas - Johnny Jones South Alabama - Ronnie Arrow Troy - Don Maestri Western Kentucky - Ken McDonald 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Sun Belt Conference
West Coast Conference Gonzaga - Mark Few Loyola Marymount - Rodney Tention Pepperdine - Vance Walberg Portland - Eric Reveno Saint Mary's - Randy Bennett San Diego - Bill Grier San Francisco - Rex Walters Santa Clara - Kerry Keating 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! West Coast Conference
Western Athletic Conference Boise State - Greg Graham Fresno State - Steve Cleveland Hawai?i - Bob Nash Idaho - Don Verlin Louisiana Tech - Kerry Rupp Nevada - Mark Fox New Mexico State - Marvin Menzies San Jose State - George Nessman Utah State - Stew Morrill 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Western Athletic Conference
2Pac 50 Cent A Adam Tensta Akon Aaliyah Ashanti Andre 3000 B Bow Wow Bobby Valentino Beyonce Bone Thugs n Harmony Birdman (rapper) Busta Rhymes Bobby Fischer C Chris Brown Cherish Cassidy Chingy Chamillionaire Christina Milian Chrisette Michele Cashis Ciara Cypress Hill Calzone Mafia Cuban Link D Destiny's Child DJ Clue Demetri Montaque Danity Kane Day 26 Donnie D12 DJ Khaled Dr. Dre E E-40 Eminem Eazy-E F Fabolous Flo Rida Fat Joe Frankie J G G-Unit The Game H Hurricane Chris I Ice Cube J Jay-Z J.R. Rotem J Holiday Jordan Sparks K Kanye West Kelly Rowland keri hilson The Kreators L Lil' Kim Lil' Mo Lil Jon Lil Mama Lloyd Banks Lil Wayne Ludacris Lloyd Lil Mama Lil Eazy-E Leona lewis M MC Hammer Mike Shorey MF Doom Mariah Carey Mario Mary J. Blige N Ne-Yo Nate Dogg Niia N.W.A. Notorious B.I.G. Nas Nick Cannon Nelly Necro O Olivia Omarion Obie Trice Old Dirty Bastard P Public Enemy Plies P Diddy pink Pharcyde Q R Red Cafe Run DMC Ray J R Kelly Rihanna Rick Ross (rapper) S Sean Combs Sean Kingston Snoop Dogg Stargate Sean Garrett Suge Knight Soulja Boy Tell 'Em Stat Quo shakira T The Notorious B.I.G. Tupac Shakur Trina Tyrese T-Pain Three 6 Mafia T.I. Too Phat U Usher V V.I.C. W Warren G Wyclef Jean Wu Tang Clan will.i.am X Xzibit Y Young Jeezy Yung Berg Z
Michael Jackson Bing Crosby U.S. The Beatles AC/DC ABBA Alla Bee Gees Bob Marley Celine Dion Cliff Richard The Drifters Elton John Herbert von Karajan Julio Iglesias Led Zeppelin Madonna Mariah Carey Elvis Presley Nana Mouskouri Pink Floyd The Rolling Stones Tino Rossi Wei Wei
Adriano Celentano Aerosmith Backstreet Boys Barry White Billy Joel Bon Jovi Boney M. The Carpenters Charles Aznavour Cher Chicago Dave Clark Five David Bowie Deep Purple Depeche Mode Dire Straits Dolly Parton The Eagles Electric Engelbert Humperdinck Fats Domino Fleetwood Mac The Four Seasons Frank Sinatra Garth Brooks Genesis George Michael Guns N' Roses James Last The Jackson 5 Janet Jackson Johnny Hallyday Kenny Rogers Lionel Richie Luciano Pavarotti Metallica Michiya Mihashi Mireille Mathieu Modern Talking Neil Diamond Olivia Newton-John Patti Page Paul McCartney Perry Como Pet Shop Boys Phil Collins Prince Queen Ricky Nelson Roberto Carlos Rod Stewart Salvatore Adamo Status Quo Stevie Wonder Teresa Teng Tina Turner Tom Jones U2 Valeriya The Ventures Whitney Houston The Who
Annie Lennox B'z Britney Spears Carlos Santana Dalida Earth, Wind & Fire Eddy Arnold Eminem Eurythmics Gloria Estefan Hibari Misora Journey Scorpions Van Halen Ace of Base Alan Jackson Country Alice Cooper Hard rock Andrea Bocelli Opera The Andrews Sisters Swing Ayumi Hamasaki Pop Black Sabbath Heavy metal Barbra Streisand Pop / Adult contemporary Beach Boys Rock Pop Bob Dylan Folk / Rock Bob Seger Rock Boston Arena rock Boyz II Men R&B Bruce Springsteen Rock Bryan Adams Def Leppard Destiny's Child R&B / Pop Dreams Come True Pop / Jazz Duran Duran Enya Ireland Four Tops George Strait Glay Iron Maiden Jay-Z Hip hop Jean Michel Jarre Jethro Tull Johnny Cash Kazuhiro Moriuchi Kiss Hard rock Kenny G Kylie Minogue Luis Miguel Linkin Park Meat Loaf Michael Bolton Mills Brothers Mötley Crüe Mr.Children Nat King Cole New Kids on the Block Nirvana 'N Sync Oasis Orhan Gencebay Pearl Jam Petula Clark Red Hot Chili Peppers The Police Ray Conniff Reba McEntire R.E.M. Richard Clayderman Ricky Martin Robbie Williams Roxette Sweden Shakira Colombia
The Seekers Australia Spice Girls Tom Petty & The Heartbreakers Tony Bennett T.Rex UB40 Vicente Fernandez Village People Willie Nelson
Jamaal Al-Din, a native of Grand Rapids, Michigan and former leading scorer of Olympic Basketball and LSU great, Ed Palubinskas brings to you Michigan State University's and the NBA's Earvin "Magic" Johnson at 227's YouTube "MAGIC!" provided by Jamaal Al-Din's Hoops 227-the everything basketball website, featuring YouTube Videos and Wikipedia information on the legendary Earvin "Magic" Johnson, The Magic Johnson Foundation, Magic Johnson Enterprises, and everything including the magical phrase..."MAGIC!" 227's YouTube "MAGIC!"
As we look to expand basketball marketing, camps and clinics nationally, our basketball affiliate programs are scheduled to begin in March of 2008. Our affiliates, exciting, take a look at this list: ebay, StubHub.com, Yahoo Affiliate Program!, TickCo Premium Seating, RazorGator Affiliate Program, SightSell, VistaPrint.com, Pokeorder and WeHaveSeats.com. Jamaal Al-Din's Hoops 227 welcomes our affiliate partners for 2008. Among the items offered our NCAA & NBA basketball tickets both premium and discounted rates. Basketball shoes and apparel for kids, fans, players and coaches ranging from Air Jordans, LeBron James, NIKE, Adidas, AND1, hats, collectibles and memoralbilia! Jamaal Al-Din's Hoops 227- The everything basketball website!
?227's YouTube "Chili" features these exciting YouTube music and entertainment celebrities...click onto to these 227 YouTube "Chili" links, channels and articles for the most watched YouTube hip-hop music videos in the world!
Sean Kingston, Justin Timberlake, M.I.A'"Paper Planes!" , Timbaland, 50 Cent, P-Diddy, Kanye West. Rihanna, Chris Brown, T.I.-"Big Things Poppin!" , Rihanna- Hate That I Love You (over 29 million views on YouTube)!, Leona Lewis, Soulja Boy, Britney Spears, Alicia Keys, Avril Lavigne, Alicia Keys- No One, Akon, NE-YO, LL Cool J, Dr. Dre, Snoop Dogg, Dmx, Jay-z, The Notorious B.I.G, 2PAC, Will Smith, Jonas Brothers, Pink "So What!" , Jordin Sparks feta. Chris Brown- "No Air" Official Music Video-over 33 million views on YouTube!), Lil Jon- get low music movie, Ludacris, Ice Cube, Flo Rida feat. T.Pain Music from the Movie Step Up 2 "Low," Chris Brown*Chris Brown feat. T.Pain- Kiss Kiss (over 51 million views on YouTube)!, Chris Brown-"With You," Chris Brown feat. Lil' Wayne (over 56 million views on YouTube!, Chris Brown "YO," Chris Brown-Run It, Chris Brown- Forever, Wu Tang Clan, The Fugees, Jordin Sparks-Tattoo, Rhianna- Cry, Rihanna- unfaithful, Rhianna- Umbrella (over 43 million views on YouTube/You Tube)!, Ashanti, Fergie Fergalicious, Fergie- Clumsy!, Rhianna- Dont' Stop The Music (over 62 million views on YouTube), Avril Lavign- Girlfriend (over 92 million views on YouTube)!, Clay Aiken, Akon, Christina Aguilera-Hurt, Clay Aiken-On My Way Here, All-American Rejects, All-American Rejects-Move Along, All-American Rejects-It Ends Tonight, Ashley Parker Angel, Michael Jackson ("Thriller"), Backstreet Boys, Augustana, Natasha Bedingfeild, Michael Jackson, Natasha Bedingfield feat. Sean Kingston-Love Like This, Natasha Bedingfield-Pocketful of Sunshine and lots more at 227's YouTube Chili!!! Your source for the world's most watched YouTube Music Videos at Jamaal Al-Din's Hoops 227- the everything basketball website!
Also: Jesse McCartney, Ray J,Usher,Elliott Yamin,Jonas Brothers,Fergie,Taylor Swift, Nelly Furtado, Jennifer Lopez, Flyleaf,Maroon 5,Kanye West,Keyshia Cole, The Pussycat Dolls,Colby O'Donis,Ashanti,R. Kelly,Girlicious, Colbi Calliat, Boy George,Mario,Three Days Grace,Beyonce', Gorillaz,Carrie Underwood,3 Doors Down,Finger Eleven, Ginuwine,Baby Bash,Kid Rock,Joe, Gwen Steffani, Billy Ray Cyrus, Danity Kane, Janel Parrish, Ciara, NLT, Fall Out Boy, Josh Turner, Fantasia and more!